Robert Merry's museum, Volumes III-IV (1842)

By Various

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Title: Robert Merry's museum, Volumes III-IV  (1842)


Author: Various

Editor: Louisa May Alcott
        S. T. Allen
        Samuel G. Goodrich

Release date: February 26, 2024 [eBook #73026]

Language: English

Original publication: Boston: Bradbury & Soden, 1842

Credits: Carol Brown, Linda Cantoni, Jude Eylander, Katherine Ward and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at https://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)


*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ROBERT MERRY'S MUSEUM, VOLUMES III-IV  (1842) ***


[Illustration: THE LOST FOUND.... See January No. 1843.]


                             ROBERT MERRY’S
                                MUSEUM:

                            VOLUMES III. IV.

                             [Illustration]

                                BOSTON:
                   PUBLISHED BY BRADBURY, SODEN & CO.
          10, SCHOOL STREET, AND 127, NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK.

                                 1843.

  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1842, by S. G.
     Goodrich, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of
                             Massachusetts.




                             ROBERT MERRY’S
                                MUSEUM.

                               EDITED BY
                            S. G. GOODRICH,
                    AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY’S TALES.

                              VOLUME III.

                                BOSTON:
                        BRADBURY, SODEN, & CO.,
         NO. 10 SCHOOL STREET, AND 127 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK.
                                 1842.




                        CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.

                         JANUARY TO JUNE, 1842.


          The New Year,                                  1

          Wonders of Geology,                            3

          The Siberian Sable-Hunter,            7, 65, 122

          Merry’s Adventures,         12, 36, 79, 150, 177

          Repentance,                                   16

          Indians of America,     17, 41, 74, 97, 131, 165

          Story of Philip Brusque,              21, 60, 87

          Solon, the Grecian Lawgiver,                  25

          How to settle a Dispute without Pistols,      26

          The Painter and his Master,                   27

          The Turkey and Rattlesnake,--a Fable,         28

          Flowers,                                      28

          Christmas,                                    29

          Puzzles,                   31, 95, 126, 159, 190

          Varieties,                               31, 188

          Hymn for the New Year,--_Music_,              32

          Anecdote of a Traveller,                      33

          Dr. Cotton and the Sheep,                     34

          The Robin,                                    34

          Echo,--A Dialogue,                            35

          The Lion and the Ass,                         35

          National Characteristics,                     35

          The Two Seekers,                              38

          Resistance to Pain,                           40

          The Voyages, Travels and Experiences
            of Thomas Trotter,       45, 84, 102, 139, 182

          Cheerful Cherry,                              48

          The War in Florida,                           56

          Composition,                                  58

          Natural Curiosities of New Holland,           59

          Beds,                                         61

          The Great Bustard,                            62

          The Tartar,                                   63

          Answers to Puzzles,                           63

          The Snow-Storm,--_Music_,                     64

          Bees,                                         69

          The several varieties of Dogs,                72

          Anecdote of the Indians,                      73

          The Wisdom of God,                            77

          The Canary Bird,                              78

          The Paper Nautilus,                           79

          The Zodiac,                                   83

          The Tanrec,                                   89
        
          Letter from a Correspondent,                  89

          Different kinds of Type,                      91

          The Three Sisters,                            92

          The Zephyr,                                   95

          To Correspondents,             95, 127, 158, 189

          March,--_A Song_,                             96

          Butterflies,                                 101

          Herschel the Astronomer,                     107

          Truth and Falsehood,--An Allegory,           108

          The Chimpansé,                               110

          The Sugar-Cane,                              111

          Dialogue on Politeness,                      112

          The Date Tree,                               114

          Dress,                                       115

          Eagles, and other matters,                   117

          April,                                       120

          The Prophet Jeremiah,                        121

          Letter from a Subscriber,                    124

          Toad-Stools and Mushrooms,                   125

          Return of Spring,                            126

          Smelling,                                    129

          Isaac and Rebekah,                           135

          Mr. Catlin and his Horse Charley,            136

          The Kitchen,                                 138

          Knights Templars,                            145

          The Garden of Peace,                         146

          The Banana,                                  148

          Comparative Size of Animals,                 149

          Misitra and the Ancient Sparta,              155

          Absence of Mind,                             155

          The Star Fish,                               156

          Where is thy Home?                           157

          Sea-Weed,                                    157

          Inquisitive Jack and his Aunt Piper,         158

          “Far Away,”--the Bluebird’s Song,            160

          The Sense of Hearing,                        161

          “Fresh Flowers,”                             162

          June,                                        164

          House-Building,                              173

          Edwin the Rabbit-fancier,                    175

          Who planted the Oaks?                        181

          The Deluge,                                  186

          Page for Little Readers,                     187

    Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1842, by S. G.
        GOODRICH, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of
                             Massachusetts.




[Illustration: THE IGUANADON.]


                            MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME III.--No. 1.




[Illustration: _Tom Stedfast._]


                             The New Year.


There are few days in all the year that are pleasanter than the first
of January--_New Year’s Day_. It is a day when we all salute each other
with a cheerful greeting;--when children say to their parents, as they
meet in the morning, “I wish you a happy new year!” and the parents
reply, “A happy new year, my dear children!”

The first of January is, then, a day of kind wishes; of happy hopes; of
bright anticipations: it is a day in which we feel at peace with all
the world, and, if we have done our duty well during the departed year,
we feel peaceful within.

Methinks I hear my young readers say, “Would that all our days might
be thus cheerful and agreeable!” Alas! this may not be. It is not our
lot to be thus cheerful and happy all the days of our lives. A part of
our time must be devoted to study, to labor, to duty. We cannot always
be enjoying holidays. And, indeed, it is not best we should. As people
do not wish always to be eating cake and sugar-plums, so they do not
always desire to be sporting and playing. As the cake and sugar-plums
would, by and by, become sickening to the palate, so the play would at
last grow tedious. As we should soon desire some good solid meat, so we
should also desire some useful and instructive occupation.

But as it is now new year’s day, let us make the best of it. I wish you
a happy new year, my black-eyed or blue-eyed reader! Nay, I wish you
many a happy new year! and, what is more, I promise to do all in my
power to make you happy, not only for this ensuing year, but for many
seasons to come. And how do you think I propose to do it? That is what
I propose to tell you!

In the first place, I am going to tell you, month by month, a lot of
stories both useful and amusing. I wish to have a part of your time
to myself, and, like my young friend Tom Stedfast, whose portrait I
give you at the head of this article, I wish you not only to read my
Magazine, but, if you have any little friends who cannot afford to buy
it, I wish you to lend it to them, so that they may peruse it.

Tom is a rare fellow! No sooner does he get the Magazine than he sits
down by the fire, just as you see him in the picture, and reads it from
one end to the other. If there is anything he don’t understand, he goes
to his father and he explains it. If there are any pretty verses, he
learns them by heart; if there is any good advice, he lays it up in
his memory; if there is any useful information, he is sure to remember
it. Tom resembles a squirrel in the autumn, who is always laying up
nuts for the winter season; for the creature knows that he will have
need of them, then. So it is with Tom; when he meets with any valuable
knowledge--it is like nuts to him--and he lays it up, for he is sure
that he will have use for it at some future day. And there is another
point in which Tom resembles the squirrel; the latter is as lively and
cheerful in gathering his stores for future use, as he is in the spring
time, when he has only to frisk and frolic amid the branches of the
trees--and Tom is just as cheerful and pleasant about his books and his
studies, as he is when playing blind-man’s-buff.

Now I should like to have my young readers as much like Tom Stedfast as
possible; as studious, as fond of knowledge, and yet as lively and as
good humored. And there is another thing in which I should wish all my
young friends to resemble Tom; he thinks everything of me! No sooner
does he see me stumping and stilting along, than he runs up to me,
calling out, “How do you do, Mr. Merry? I’m glad to see you; I hope you
are well! How’s your wooden leg?”

Beside all this, Tom thinks my Museum is first-rate--and I assure you
it is a great comfort to my old heart, when I find anybody pleased
with my little Magazine. I do not pretend to write such big books as
some people; nor do I talk so learnedly as those who go to college and
learn the black arts. But what I do know, I love to communicate; and
I am never so happy as when I feel that I am gratifying and improving
young people. This may seem a simple business, to some people, for an
old man; but if it gives me pleasure, surely no one has a right to
grumble about it.

There is another thing in Tom Stedfast which I like. If he meets with
anything in my Magazine which he does not think right, he sits down
and writes me a letter about it. He does not exactly scold me, but he
gives me a piece of his mind, and that leads to explanations and a
good understanding. So we are the best friends in the world. And now
what I intend to do is, to make my little readers as much like Tom
Stedfast as possible. In this way I hope I may benefit them not only
for the passing year, but for years to come. I wish not only to assist
my friends in finding the right path, but I wish to accustom their feet
to it, so that they may adopt good habits and continue to pursue it.
With these intentions I enter upon the new year, and I hope that the
friendship already begun between me and my readers, will increase as we
proceed in our journey together.




                          Wonders of Geology.


There are few things more curious, strange, and wonderful than the
facts revealed by geology. This science is occupied with the structure
of the surface of the earth; it tells us of the rocks, gravel, clay,
and soil of which it is composed, and how they are arranged.

In investigating these materials, the geologists have discovered the
bones of strange animals, imbedded either in the rocks or the soil, and
the remains of vegetables such as do not now exist. These are called
fossil remains; the word _fossil_ meaning _dug up_. This subject has
occupied the attention of many very learned men, and they have at last
come to the most astonishing results. A gigantic skeleton has been
found in the earth near Buenos Ayres, in South America; it is nearly
as large as the elephant, its body being nine feet long and seven feet
high. Its feet were enormous, being a yard in length, and more than
twelve inches wide. They were terminated by gigantic claws; while its
huge tail, which probably served as a means of defence, was larger than
that of any other beast, living or extinct.

This animal has been called the _Megatherium_: _mega_, great,
_therion_, wild beast. It was of the sloth species, and seems to have
had a very thick skin, like that of the armadillo, set on in plates
resembling a coat of armor. There are no such animals in existence now;
they belong to a former state of this earth,--to a time before the
creation of man.

Discoveries have been made of the remains of many other fossil
animals belonging to the ancient earth. One of them is called the
_Ichthyosaurus_, or fish lizard. It had the teeth of a crocodile, the
head of a lizard, and the fins or paddles of a whale. These fins, or
paddles were very curious, and consisted of above a hundred small
bones, closely united together. This animal used to live principally
at the bottoms of rivers, and devour amazing quantities of fish,
and other water animals, and sometimes its own species; for an
ichthyosaurus has been dug out of the cliffs at Lyme Regis, England,
with part of a small one in his stomach. This creature was sometimes
thirty or forty feet long.

[Illustration: _The jaws of the Ichthyosaurus._]

Another of these fossil animals is called the _Plesiosaurus_, a word
which means, _like a lizard_. It appears to have formed an intermediate
link between the crocodile and the ichthyosaurus. It is remarkable for
the great length of its neck, which must have been longer than that of
any living animal. In the engraving at the beginning of this number,
you will see one of these animals swimming in the water. The following
is a view of his skeleton; the creature was about fifteen feet long.

[Illustration: _Skeleton of the Plesiosaurus._]

But we have not yet mentioned the greatest wonder of fossil animals;
this is the _Iguanodon_, whose bones have been found in England. It was
a sort of lizard, and its thigh bones were eight inches in diameter.
This creature must have been from seventy to a hundred feet long, and
one of its thighs must have been as large as the body of an ox. I have
given a portrait of this monster, drawn by Mr. Billings, an excellent
young artist, whom you will find at No. 10, Court st., Boston. I cannot
say that the picture is a very exact likeness; for as the fellow has
been dead some thousands of years, we can only be expected to give a
family resemblance. We have good reason to believe, however, that it
is a tolerably faithful representation, for it is partly copied from a
design by the celebrated John Martin, in London, and to be found in a
famous book on the wonders of geology, by Mr. Mantel.

There was another curious animal, called the _Pterodactyle_, with
gigantic wings. The skull of this animal must have been very large
in proportion to the size of the skeleton, the jaws themselves being
almost as large as its body.

[Illustration: _Skeleton of the Pterodactyle._]

They were furnished with sharp, hooked teeth. The orbits of the eyes
were very large; hence it is probable that it was a nocturnal animal,
like the bat, which, at first sight, it very much resembles in the
wings, and other particulars.

The word pterodactyle signifies wing-fingered; and, if you observe, you
will find that it had a hand of three fingers at the bend of each of
its wings, by which, probably, it hung to the branches of trees. Its
food seems to have been large dragon-flies, beetles and other insects,
the remains of some of which have been found close to the skeleton of
the animal. The largest of the pterodactyles were of the size of a
raven. One of them is pictured in the cut with the Iguanodon.

Another very curious animal which has been discovered is the
_Dinotherium_, being of the enormous length of eighteen feet. It was an
herbiferous animal, and inhabited fresh water lakes and rivers, feeding
on weeds, aquatic roots, and vegetables. Its lower jaws measured
four feet in length, and are terminated by two large tusks, _curving
downwards_, like those of the upper jaw of the walrus; by which it
appears to have hooked itself to the banks of rivers as it slept in the
water. It resembled the tapirs of South America. There appear to have
been several kinds of the dinotherium, some not larger than a dog. One
of these small ones is represented in the picture with the Iguanodon.

The bones of the creatures we have been describing, were all found
in England, France, and Germany, except those of the megatherium,
which was found in South America. In the United States, the bones
of an animal twice as big as an elephant, called the _Mastodon_, or
_Mammoth_, have been dug up in various places, and a nearly perfect
skeleton is to be seen at Peale’s Museum, in Philadelphia.

Now it must be remembered that the bones we have been speaking of, are
found deeply imbedded in the earth, and that no animals of the kind
now exist in any part of the world. Beside those we have mentioned,
there were many others, as tortoises, elephants, tigers, bears, and
rhinoceroses, but of different kinds from those which now exist.

It appears that there were elephants of many sizes, and some of them
had woolly hair. The skeleton of one of the larger kinds, was found in
Siberia, some years since, partly imbedded in ice, as I have told you
in a former number.

The subject of which we are treating increases in interest as we
pursue it. Not only does it appear, that, long before man was created,
and before the present order of things existed on the earth, strange
animals, now unknown, inhabited it, but that they were exceedingly
numerous. In certain caves in England, immense quantities of the bones
of hyenas, bears, and foxes are found; and the same is the fact in
relation to certain caves in Germany.

Along the northern shores of Asia, the traces of elephants and
rhinoceroses are so abundant as to show that these regions, now so cold
and desolate, were once inhabited by thousands of quadrupeds of the
largest kinds. In certain parts of Europe, the hills and valleys appear
to be almost composed of the bones of extinct animals; and in all parts
of the world, ridges, hills and mountains, are made up of the shells of
marine animals, of which no living specimen now dwells on the earth!

Nor is this the only marvel that is revealed by the discoveries of
modern geology. Whole tribes of birds and insects, whole races of trees
and plants, have existed, and nothing is left of their story save the
traces to be found in the soil, or the images depicted in the layers
of slate. They all existed before man was created, and thousands of
years have rolled over the secret, no one suspecting the wonderful
truth. Nor does the train of curiosities end here. It appears that the
climates of the earth must have been different in those ancient and
mysterious days from what they are at present: for in England, ferns,
now small plants, grew to the size of trees, and vegetables flourished
there of races similar to those which now grow only in the hot regions
of the tropics.

As before stated, the northern shores of Siberia, in Asia, at present
as cold and desolate as Lapland, and affording sustenance only to the
reindeer that feeds on lichens, was once inhabited by thousands and
tens of thousands of elephants, and other creatures, which now only
dwell in the regions of perpetual summer.

The inferences drawn from all these facts, which are now placed beyond
dispute, are not only interesting, but they come upon us like a new
revelation. They seem to assure us that this world in which we dwell
has existed for millions of years; that at a period, ages upon ages
since, there was a state of things totally distinct from the present.
Europe was then, probably, a collection of islands. Where England now
is, the iguanodon then dwelt, and was, probably, one of the lords of
the soil.

This creature was from seventy to a hundred feet long. He dwelt along
the rivers and lakes, and had for his companions other animals of
strange and uncouth forms. Along the borders of the rivers the ferns
grew to the height of trees, and the land was shaded with trees,
shrubs, and plants, resembling the gorgeous vegetation of Central
America and Central Africa.

This was one age of the world--one of the days in which the process of
creation was going on. How long this earth remained in this condition,
we cannot say, but probably many thousands of years. After a time, a
change came over it. The country of the iguanodon sunk beneath the
waters, and after a period, the land arose again, and another age
began. Now new races of animals and vegetables appeared.

The waters teemed with nautili, and many species of shell and other
fishes, at present extinct; the tropical forests had disappeared, and
others took their places. Instead of the iguanodon, and the hideous
reptiles that occupied the water and the land before, new races were
seen. Along the rivers and marshes were now the hippopotamus, tapir,
and rhinoceros; upon the land were browsing herds of deer of enormous
size, and groups of elephants and mastodons, of colossal magnitude.

This era also passed away; these mighty animals became entombed in the
earth; the vegetable world was changed; swine, horses and oxen were
now seen upon the land, and man, the head of creation, spread over the
earth, and assumed dominion over the animal tribes.

Such are the mighty results to which the researches of modern geology
seem to lead us. They teach us that the six days, spoken of in the
book of Genesis, during which the world was created, were probably not
six days of twenty-four hours, but six periods of time, each of them
containing thousands of years. They teach us also that God works by
certain laws, and that even in the mighty process of creation, there is
a plan, by which he advances in his work from one step to another, and
always by a progress of improvement.

So far, indeed, is geology from furnishing evidence against the truth
of the Bible, that it offers the most wonderful confirmation of it. No
traces of the bones of man are found among these remains of former
ages, and thus we have the most satisfactory and unexpected evidence
that the account given of his creation in the book of Genesis is true.
It appears, also, that the present races of animals must have been
created at the same time he was, for their bones do not appear among
the ancient relics of which we have been speaking.




[Illustration: _Linsk and the Aurora Borealis._]


                       The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                              CHAPTER VI.

       _The respectability of bears.--A hunter’s story.--Yakootsk
                               in sight._


While the travellers proceeded on their journey, Linsk, now thoroughly
excited by the adventure with the wolves, seemed to have his
imagination filled with the scenes of former days. In the course of
his observations, he remarked that though he had a great respect for a
wolf, he had a positive reverence for a bear.

“Indeed!” said Alexis, “how is it possible to have such a feeling as
reverence for a wild beast, and one so savage as a bear? I never heard
any good of the creature.”

“That may be,” said Linsk; “and yet what I say is all right and proper.
If you never heard any good of a bear, then I can give you some
information. Now there is a country far off to the east of Siberia,
called Kamtschatka. It’s a terrible cold country, and the snow falls so
deep there in winter, as to cover up the houses. The people are then
obliged to dig holes under the snow from one house to another, and thus
they live, like burrowing animals, till the warm weather comes and
melts away their covering.

“Now what would the people do in such a country, if it were not for
the bears? Of the warm skins of these creatures they make their beds,
coverlets, caps, gloves, mittens, and jackets. Of them they also make
collars for their dogs that draw their sledges, and the soles of their
shoes when they want to go upon the ice to spear seals; for the hair
prevents slipping. The creature’s fat is used instead of butter; and
when melted it is burnt instead of oil.

“The flesh of the bear is reckoned by these people as too good to be
enjoyed alone; so, when any person has caught a bear, he always makes a
feast and invites his neighbors. Whew! what jolly times these fellows
do have at a bear supper! They say the meat has the flavor of a pig,
the juiciness of whale-blubber, the tenderness of the grouse, and the
richness of a seal or a walrus. So they consider it as embracing the
several perfections of fish, flesh and fowl!

“And this is not all. Of the intestines of the bear, the Kamtschatdales
make masks to shield the ladies’ faces from the effects of the sun;
and as they are rendered quite transparent, they are also used for
window-panes, instead of glass. Of the shoulder-blades of this
creature, the people make sickles for cutting their grass; and of the
skins they make muffs to keep the ladies’ fingers warm.

“Beside all this, they send the skins to market, and they bring high
prices at St. Petersburgh, for the use of the ladies, and for many
other purposes. Such is the value of this creature when dead; when
alive he is also of some account. He has a rope put around his neck,
and is taught a great many curious tricks. I suppose he might learn to
read and go to college, as well as half the fellows that do go there;
but of this I cannot speak with certainty, for I never went myself. All
I can say is, that a well-taught bear is about the drollest creature
that ever I saw. He looks so solemn, and yet is so droll! I can’t
but think, sometimes, that there’s a sort of human nature about the
beast, for there’s often a keen twinkle in his eye, which seems to say,
‘I know as much as the best of you: and if I don’t speak, it’s only
because I scorn to imitate such a set of creatures as you men are!’

“It is on account of the amusement that bears thus afford, that these
Kamtschatdales catch a good many living ones, and send them by ships
to market. They also send live bears to St. Petersburgh, London, and
Paris, for the perfumers. These people shut them up, and make them very
fat, and then kill them for their grease. This is used by the fops and
dandies to make their locks grow. I suppose they think that the fat
will operate on them as it does on the bear, and give them abundance
of hair. I’m told that in the great cities, now-a-days, a young man
is esteemed in proportion as he resembles a bear in this respect.
Accordingly bears’ grease is the making of a modern dandy, and so
there’s a great demand for the creature that affords such a treasure.

“Now, master ’Lexis, I hope you are satisfied that in saying you never
heard any good of a bear, you only betrayed ignorance--a thing that is
no reproach to one so young as yourself. But, after all I’ve said, I
havn’t half done. You must remember that this creature is not like a
sheep, or a reindeer, or a cow, or a goat--always depending upon man
for breakfast, dinner and supper. Not he, indeed! He is too independent
for that; so he supports himself, instead of taxing these poor
Kamtschatdales for his living. Why, they have to work half the year to
provide food for their domestic animals the other half; whereas the
bear feeds and clothes himself, and when they want his skin, his flesh,
or his carcass--why, he is all ready for them!”

“I am satisfied,” said Alexis “that the bear is a most valuable
creature to those people who live in cold, northern countries; for he
seems to furnish them with food, dress, and money; but, after all, they
have the trouble of hunting him!”

“Trouble!” said Linsk; “why, lad, that’s the best of it all!”

“But isn’t it dangerous?” said Alexis.

“Of course it is,” replied the old hunter; “but danger is necessary
to sport. It is to hunting, like mustard to your meat, or pepper and
vinegar to your cabbage. Danger is the spice of all adventure; without
this, hunting would be as insipid as ploughing. There _is_ danger
in hunting the bear; for though he’s a peaceable fellow enough when
you let him alone, he’s fierce and furious if you interfere with his
business, or come in his way when he’s pinched with hunger.

“I’ve had some adventures with bears myself, and I think I know the
ways of the beast as well as anybody. Sometimes he’ll trot by, only
giving you a surly look or a saucy growl. But if you chance to fall
upon a she bear, with a parcel of cubs about her, why then look out.”

“Did you ever see a bear with cubs, father?” said Nicholas, the elder
of Linsk’s sons.

“To be sure I have,” was the answer.

“Well, what I want to know, father,” said the boy, “is, whether they
are such creatures as people say. I’ve been told that young cubs are as
rough as a bramble bush, and that they don’t look like anything at all
till the old bear has licked them into shape. Is that true?”

“No, no--it’s all gammon, Nick. Young cubs are the prettiest little
things you ever saw. They are as soft and playful as young puppies;
and they seem by nature to have a true Christian spirit. It’s as the
creature grows old that he grows wicked and savage--and I believe it’s
the same with men as with bears.

“I remember that once, when I was a young fellow, I was out with a
hunting party in search of sables. Somehow or other I got separated
from my companions, and I wandered about for a long time, trying in
vain to find them. At last night came on, and there I was, alone!
This happened far to the north, in the country of the Samoides. It
was mid-winter, and though the weather was clear, it was bitter cold.
I walked along upon the snow-crust, and, coming to an open space, I
called aloud and discharged my gun. I could hear the echoes repeating
my words, and the cracking of my piece, but there was no answer from
my friends. It was all around as still as death, and even the bitter
blast that made my whole frame tingle, glided by without a whisper or a
sigh. There were no people in all the country round about: and, I must
confess that such a sense of desertion and desolation came over me, as
almost made my heart sink within me.

“I remember it was one of those nights when the ‘_northern lights_’
shone with great brilliancy--a thing that often occurs in those cold
countries. At first there was an arch of light in the north, of a pure
and dazzling white. By and by, this began to shoot upward, and stream
across the heavens, and soon the rays were tinged with other hues. At
one time I saw a vast streak, seemingly like a sword of flame, piercing
the sky; suddenly this vanished, and a mighty range of castles and
towns, some white, some red, and some purple, seemed set along the
horizon. In a few seconds these were changed, and now I saw a thing
like a ship, with sails of many colors. This, too, disappeared, and
then I saw images like giants dancing in the sky. By and by their
sport was changed for battle, and it seemed as if they were fighting
with swords of flame and javelins of light!

“I watched this wonderful display for some time, and at first I thought
it boded some dreadful harm to me. But after a little reflection, I
concluded that such vast wonders of nature, could not be got up on
account of a poor young sable-hunter, and so I went on my way. Leaving
the open country, I plunged into the forest, and among the thick fir
trees began to seek some cave or hollow log, where I might screen
myself from the bitter blast.

“While I was poking about, I saw four little black fellows playing like
kittens, on the snow-crust, at a short distance. I gazed at them for a
moment, and soon discovered that they were young bears. They were each
of the size of a cat, and never did I see anything more playful than
they were. I stood for some time watching them, and they seemed very
much like so many shaggy puppies, all in a frolic.

“Well, I began to think what it was best to do; whether to make an
attack, or drive them to their den, and take a night’s lodging with
them. I was in some doubt how they would receive a stranger, while
their mamma was not at home; but I concluded, on the whole, to throw
myself upon their hospitality--for I was shivering with cold, and the
idea of getting into a warm bed with these clever fellows, was rather
inviting just then. So I walked forward and approached the party. They
all rose up on their hind legs and uttered a gruff growl, in token of
astonishment. Never did I behold such amazement as these creatures
displayed. I suppose they had never seen a man before, and they
appeared mightily puzzled to make out what sort of a creature I was.

“Having looked at me for some time, the whole pack scampered away, and
at a short distance entered a cave. I followed close upon them, and,
coming to their retreat, was rejoiced to find that it was a hollow in a
rock, the entrance of which was just large enough for me to creep in.
In I went, though it was dark as a pocket. I knew that the old bear
must be abroad, and as for the young ones, I was willing to trust them;
for, as I said before, all young creatures seem to be civil till they
have cut their eye teeth and learnt the wicked ways of the world.

“When I got into the cave, I felt round and found that it was about
five feet square, with a bed of leaves at the bottom. The young bears
had slunk away into the crevices of the rock, but they seemed to offer
no resistance. I found the place quite comfortable, and was beginning
to think myself very well off, when the idea occurred to me, that
madame bear would be coming home before long, and was very likely to
consider me an intruder, and to treat me accordingly. These thoughts
disturbed me a good deal, but at last I crept out of the cave, and
gathered a number of large sticks; I then went in again and stopped
up the entrance by wedging the sticks into it as forcibly as could.
Having done this, and laying my gun at my side, I felt about for my
young friends. I pretty soon got hold of one of them, and, caressing
him a little, pulled him toward me. He soon snugged down at my side,
and began to lick my hands. Pretty soon another crept out of his
lurking-place, and came to me, and in a short time they were all with
me in bed.

“I was soon very warm and comfortable, and after a short space the
whole of us were in a sound snooze. How long we slept I cannot tell;
but I was awakened by a terrible growl at the mouth of the cave, and a
violent twitching and jerking of the sticks that I had jammed into the
entrance. I was not long in guessing at the true state of the case. The
old bear had come back, and her sharp scent had apprized her that an
interloper had crept into her bed-room. St. Nicholas! how she did roar,
and how the sticks did fly! One after another was pulled away, and in a
very short space of time, every stick was pulled out but one. This was
the size of my leg, and lay across the door of the cave. I got hold of
it and determined that it should keep its place. But the raging beast
seized it with her teeth, and jerked it out of my hands in a twinkling.
The entrance was now clear, and, dark as it was, I immediately saw the
glaring eyeballs of the bear, as she began to squeeze herself into the
cave. She paused a moment, and, fixing her gaze on me, uttered the
most fearful growl I ever heard in my life. I don’t think I shall ever
forget it, though it happened when I was a stripling--and that is some
thirty years ago.

“Well, it was lucky for me that the hole was very small for such a
portly creature; and, mad as she was, she had to scratch and squirm
to get into the cave. All this time I was on my knees, gun in hand,
and ready to let drive when the time should come. Poking the muzzle of
my piece right in between the two balls of fire, whang it went! I was
stunned with the sound, and kicked over beside. But I got up directly,
and stood ready for what might come next. All was still as death; even
the cubs, that were now lurking in the fissures of the rocks, seemed
hushed in awful affright.

“As soon as my senses had fully returned, I observed that the fiery
eyeballs were not visible, and, feeling about with my gun, I soon
discovered that the bear seemed to be lifeless, and wedged into the
entrance of the cave. I waited a while to see if life had wholly
departed, for I was not disposed to risk my fingers in the mouth even
of a dying bear; but, finding that the creature was really dead, I
took hold of her ears, and tried to pull her out of the hole. But this
was a task beyond my strength. She was of enormous size and weight,
and, beside, was so jammed into the rocks as to defy all my efforts to
remove the lifeless body.

“‘Well,’ thought I, ‘this is a pretty kettle of fish! Here I am in a
cave, as snug as a fly in a bottle, with a bear for a cork! Who ever
heard of such a thing before!’ What would have been the upshot I cannot
say, had not unexpected deliverance been afforded me. While I was
tugging and sweating to remove the old bear, I heard something without,
as if there were persons near the cave. By and by the creature began
to twitch, and at last out she went, at a single jerk. I now crept out
myself--and behold, my companions were there!

“I need not tell you that it was a happy meeting. We made a feast of
the old bear, and spent some days at the cave, keeping up a pleasant
acquaintance with the young cubs. When we departed we took them with
us, and they seemed by no means unwilling to go. We had only to carry
one, and the rest followed. But look here, my boys! this is the river
Lena, and yonder is Yakootsk. Soon we shall be there!”

                        (_To be continued._)




A SHOP-KEEPER in New York, the other day, stuck upon his door the
following laconic advertisement: “_A boy wanted._” On going to his
shop, the next morning, he beheld a smiling urchin in a basket, with
the following pithy label: “_Here it is._”




                          Merry’s Adventures.


                              CHAPTER XV.

  _Emigration to Utica.--An expedition.--The salamander hat.--A
     terrible threat.--A Dutchman’s hunt for the embargo on the
     ships.--Utica long ago.--Interesting story of the Seneca
     chief._


I have now reached a point when the events of my life became more
adventurous. From this time forward, at least for the space of several
years, my history is crowded with incidents; and some of them are not
only interesting to myself, but I trust their narration may prove so to
my readers.

When I was about eighteen years of age, I left Salem for the first time
since my arrival in the village. At that period there were a good many
people removing from the place where I lived, and the vicinity, to seek
a settlement at Utica. That place is now a large city, but at the time
I speak of, about five and thirty years ago, it was a small settlement,
and surrounded with forests. The soil in that quarter was, however,
reputed to be very rich, and crowds of people were flocking to the land
of promise.

Among others who had made up their minds to follow the fashion of that
day, was a family by the name of Stebbins, consisting of seven persons.
In order to convey these, with their furniture, it was necessary to
have two wagons, one of which was to be driven by Mat Olmsted, and, at
my earnest solicitation, my uncle consented that I should conduct the
other.

After a preparation of a week, and having bade farewell to all my
friends, Raymond, Bill Keeler, and my kind old uncle, and all the rest,
we departed. Those who are ignorant of the state of things at that day,
and regard only the present means of travelling, can hardly conceive
how great the enterprise was esteemed, in which I was now engaged. It
must be remembered that no man had then even dreamed of a rail-road or
a steamboat. The great canal, which now connects Albany with Buffalo,
was not commenced. The common roads were rough and devious, and instead
of leading through numerous towns and villages, as at the present day,
many of them were only ill-worked passages through swamps and forests.
The distance was about two hundred miles--and though it may now be
travelled in twenty hours, it was esteemed, for our loaded wagons, a
journey of two weeks. Such is the mighty change which has taken place,
in our country, in the brief period of thirty-five years.

I have already said that Mat Olmsted was somewhat of a wag; he was,
also, a cheerful, shrewd, industrious fellow, and well suited to
such an expedition. He encountered every difficulty with energy, and
enlivened the way by his jokes and his pleasant observations.

It was in the autumn when we began our journey, and I remember one
evening, as we had stopped at a tavern, and were sitting by a blazing
fire, a young fellow came in with a new hat on. It was very glossy,
and the youth seemed not a little proud of it. He appeared also to
be in excellent humor with himself, and had, withal, a presuming and
conceited air. Approaching where Mat was sitting, warming himself by
the fire, the young man shoved him a little aside, saying, “Come, old
codger, can’t you make room for your betters?”

“To be sure I can for such a handsome gentleman as yourself,” said Mat,
good naturedly; he then added, “That’s a beautiful hat you’ve got on,
mister; it looks like a real salamander!”

“Well,” said the youth, “it’s a pretty good hat, I believe; but whether
it’s a salamander, or not, I can’t say.”

“Let me see it,” said Olmsted; and, taking it in his hand, he felt of
it with his thumb and finger, smelt of it, and smoothed down the fur
with his sleeve. “Yes,” said he, at length, “I’ll bet that’s a real
salamander hat; and if it is you may put it under that forestick, and
it won’t burn any more than a witch’s broomstick.”

“Did you say you would bet that it’s a salamander hat?” said the young
man.

“To be sure I will,” said Mat; “I’ll bet you a mug of flip of it; for
if there ever was a salamander hat, that’s one. Now I’ll lay that if
you put it under the forestick, it won’t singe a hair of it.”

“Done!” said the youth, and the two having shaken hands in token of
mutual agreement, the youth gave his hat to Olmsted, who thrust it
under the forestick. The fire was of the olden fashion, and consisted
of almost a cartload of hickory logs, and they were now in full blast.
The people in the bar-room, attracted by the singular wager, had
gathered round the fire, to see the result of the experiment. In an
instant the hat was enveloped by the flames, and in the course of a few
seconds it began to bend and writhe, and then curled into a scorched
and blackened cinder.

“Hulloo!” said Mat Olmsted, seizing the tongs and poking out the
crumpled relic from the bed of coals, at the same time adding, with
well-feigned astonishment, “Who ever did see the like of that! it
wasn’t a salamander, arter all! Well, mister, you’ve won the bet.
Hulloo, landlord, give us a mug of flip.”

The force of the joke soon fell upon the conceited young man. He had
indeed won the wager--but he had lost his hat! At first he was angry,
and seemed disposed to make a personal attack upon the cause of his
mortification; but Matthew soon cooled him down. “Don’t mind it, my
lad,” said he; “it will do you good in the long run. You are like a
young cockerel, that is tickled with his tall red comb, and having had
it pecked off, is ever after a wiser fowl. Take my advice, and if you
have a better hat than your neighbors, don’t think that it renders you
better than they. It’s not the hat, but the head under it, that makes
the man. At all events, don’t be proud of your hat till you get a real
salamander!”

This speech produced a laugh at the expense of the coxcomb, and he soon
left the room. He had suffered a severe rebuke, and I could hardly
think that my companion had done altogether right; and when I spoke to
him afterward, he seemed to think so himself. He, however, excused what
he had done, by saying that the fellow was insolent, and he hoped the
lesson would be useful to him.

We plodded along upon our journey, meeting with no serious accident,
and in the course of five or six days we were approaching Albany.
Within the distance of a few miles, Matthew encountered a surly fellow,
in a wagon. The path was rather narrow, and the man refused to turn out
and give half the road. High words ensued, and, finally, my friend,
brandishing his whip, called out aloud, “Turn out, mister; if you
don’t, I’ll sarve you as I did the man back!”

The wagoner was alarmed at this threat, and turning out, gave half the
road. As he was passing by, he had some curiosity to know what the
threat portended; so he said, “Well, sir, how did you serve the man
back?” “Why,” said Matthew, smiling, “I turned out myself!” This was
answered by a hearty laugh, and after a few pleasant words between the
belligerent parties, they separated, and we pursued our journey.

Albany is now a large and handsome city; but at the time I speak of,
it contained but about three thousand people, a very large part of whom
were Dutch, and who could not speak much English. None of the fine
streets and splendid public buildings, which you see there now, were
in existence then. The streets were narrow and dirty, and most of the
houses were low and irregular, with steep roofs, and of a dingy color.
Some were built of tiles, some of rough stones, some of wood, and some
of brick. But it was, altogether, one of the most disagreeable looking
places I ever saw.

We remained there but a few hours. Proceeding on our journey, we soon
reached Schenectady, which we found to be a poor, ill-built, Dutch
village, though it is a handsome town now. We stopped here for the
night; and, a little while after we arrived, a man with a wagon, his
wife and three children, arrived also at the tavern. He was a Dutchman,
and seemed to be in very ill-humor. I could hardly understand what he
said, but by a little help from Matthew, I was able to make out his
story.

You must know that Congress had passed a law forbidding any ships to
go to sea; and this was called an embargo. The reason of it was, that
England had treated this country very ill; and so, to punish her, this
embargo was laid on the ships, to prevent people from carrying flour
and other things to her, which she wanted very much; for many of her
people were then engaged in war, and they could not raise as much grain
as they needed.

Well, the old Dutchman had heard a great deal about the embargo on the
ships; for the two parties, the _democrats_ and _federalists_, were
divided in opinion about it, and accordingly it was the subject of
constant discussion. I remember that wherever we went, all the people
seemed to be talking about the embargo. The democrats praised it as
the salvation of the country, and the federalists denounced it as the
country’s ruin. Among these divided opinions, the Dutchman was unable
to make up his mind about it, accordingly, he hit upon an admirable
method to ascertain the truth, and satisfy his doubts. He tackled
his best horses to the family wagon, and, taking his wife and three
children, travelled to Albany _to see the embargo on the ships_!

Well, he drove down to the water’s edge, and there were the vessels,
sure enough; but where was the embargo? He inquired first of one man,
and then of another, “Vare is de embargo? I vish to see de embargo
vat is on de ships!” What he expected to see I cannot tell; but he
had heard so much said about it, and it was esteemed, by one party at
least, the cause of such multiplied evils, that he, no doubt, supposed
the embargo must be something that could be seen and felt. But all his
inquiries were vain. One person laughed at him, another snubbed him as
an old fool, and others treated him as a maniac. At last he set out to
return, and when he arrived at the tavern in Schenectady, he was not
only bewildered in his mind, but he was sorely vexed in spirit. His
conclusion was, that the embargo was a political bugbear, and that no
such creature actually existed!

We set out early the next morning, and by dint of plodding steadily on
through mud and mire, we at last reached the town of Utica, having been
fourteen days in performing the journey from Salem. We found the place
to contain about a thousand people, all the houses being of wood, and
most of them built of logs, in the fashion of the log cabin. The town,
however, had a bustling and thriving appearance, notwithstanding that
the stumps of the forest were still standing in the streets.

I noticed a great many Indians about the town, and soon learned that
they consisted of the famous tribes called the Six Nations. Some of
these are still left in the state of New York, but they have dwindled
down to a very small number. But at the time I speak of, they consisted
of several thousands, and were still a formidable race. They were at
peace with the White people, and seemed to see their hunting grounds
turned into meadows and wheat fields, with a kind of sullen and
despairing submission.

One of the first settlers in this vicinity was Judge W., who
established himself at Whitestown--about four miles from Utica. This
took place nearly a dozen years before my visit. He brought his family
with him, among whom was a widowed daughter with an only child--a fine
boy of four years old. You will recollect that the country around was
an unbroken forest, and that this was the domain of the savage tribes.

Judge W. saw the necessity of keeping on good terms with the Indians,
for as he was nearly alone, he was completely at their mercy.
Accordingly he took every opportunity to assure them of his kindly
feelings, and to secure good-will in return. Several of the chiefs
came to see him, and all appeared pacific. But there was one thing
that troubled him; an aged chief of the Seneca tribe, and one of great
influence, who resided at the distance of half a dozen miles, had not
yet been to see him; nor could he, by any means, ascertain the views
and feelings of the sachem, in respect to his settlement in that
region. At last he sent him a message, and the answer was, that the
chief would visit him on the morrow.

True to his appointment the sachem came. Judge W. received him with
marks of respect, and introduced his wife, his daughter, and the little
boy. The interview that followed was deeply interesting. Upon its
result, the judge conceived that his security might depend, and he was,
therefore, exceedingly anxious to make a favorable impression upon
the distinguished chief. He expressed to him his desire to settle in
the country; to live on terms of amity and good fellowship with the
Indians; and to be useful to them by introducing among them the arts of
civilization.

The chief heard him out, and then said, “Brother, you ask much, and you
promise much. What pledge can you give me of your good faith?”

“The honor of a man that never knew deception,” was the reply.

“The white man’s word may be good to the white man, yet it is but wind
when spoken to the Indian,” said the sachem.

“I have put my life into your hands,” said the judge; “is not this an
evidence of my good intentions? I have placed confidence in the Indian,
and I will not believe that he will abuse or betray the trust that is
thus reposed.”

“So much is well,” replied the chief; “the Indian will repay confidence
with confidence; if you will trust him he will trust you. But I must
have a pledge. Let this boy go with me to my wigwam; I will bring him
back in three days with my answer!”

If an arrow had pierced the bosom of the mother, she could not have
felt a keener pang than went to her heart, as the Indian made this
proposal. She sprung from her seat, and rushing to the boy, who stood
at the side of the sachem, looking into his face with pleased wonder
and admiration; she encircled him in her arms, and pressing him close
to her bosom, was about to fly from the room. A gloomy and ominous
frown came over the sachem’s brow, but he did not speak.

But not so with Judge W. He knew that the success of their enterprise,
the very lives of his family, depended upon the decision of the moment.
“Stay, stay, my daughter!” said he. “Bring back the boy, I beseech you.
He is not more dear to you than to me. I would not risk the hair of his
head. But, my child, he must go with the chief. God will watch over
him! He will be as safe in the sachem’s wigwam as beneath our roof and
in your arms.”

The agonized mother hesitated for a moment; she then slowly returned,
placed the boy on the knee of the chief, and, kneeling at his feet,
burst into a flood of tears. The gloom passed from the sachem’s brow,
but he said not a word. He arose, took the boy in his arms and departed.

I shall not attempt to describe the agony of the mother for the three
ensuing days. She was agitated by contending hopes and fears. In the
night she awoke from sleep, seeming to hear the screams of her child
calling upon its mother for help! But the time wore away--and the third
day came. How slowly did the hours pass! The morning waned away; noon
arrived; and the afternoon was now far advanced; yet the sachem came
not. There was gloom over the whole household. The mother was pale and
silent, as if despair was settling coldly around her heart. Judge W.
walked to and fro, going every few minutes to the door, and looking
through the opening in the forest toward the sachem’s abode.

At last, as the rays of the setting sun were thrown upon the tops
of the forest around, the eagle feathers of the chieftain were seen
dancing above the bushes in the distance. He advanced rapidly, and the
little boy was at his side. He was gaily attired as a young chief--his
feet being dressed in moccasins; a fine beaver skin was over his
shoulders, and eagles’ feathers were stuck into his hair. He was in
excellent spirits, and so proud was he of his honors, that he seemed
two inches taller than before. He was soon in his mother’s arms, and
in that brief minute, she seemed to pass from death to life. It was a
happy meeting--too happy for me to describe.

“The white man has conquered!” said the sachem; “hereafter let us be
friends. You have trusted the Indian; he will repay you with confidence
and friendship.” He was as good as his word; and Judge W. lived for
many years in peace with the Indian tribes, and succeeded in laying the
foundation of a flourishing and prosperous community.




                              Repentance:


                           A GERMAN PARABLE.


A certain farmer reared with his own hands a row of noble fruit trees.
To his great joy they produced their first fruit, and he was anxious to
know what kind it was.

And the son of his neighbor, a bad boy, came into the garden, and
enticed the young son of the farmer, and they went and robbed all the
trees of their fruit before it was fully ripe.

When the owner of the garden came and saw the bare trees, he was very
much grieved, and cried, Alas! why has this been done? Some wicked boys
have destroyed my joy!

This language touched the heart of the farmer’s son, and he went to
his companion, and said, Ah! my father is grieved at the deed we have
committed. I have no longer any peace in my mind. My father will love
me no more, but chastise me in his anger, as I deserve.

But the other answered, You fool, your father knows nothing about it,
and will never hear of it. You must carefully conceal it from him, and
be on your guard.

And when Henry, for this was the name of the boy, came home, and saw
the smiling countenance of his father, he could not return his smile;
for he thought, how can I appear cheerful in the presence of him whom
I have deceived? I cannot look at myself. It seems as if there were a
dark shade in my heart.

Now the father approached his children, and handed every one some of
the fruit of autumn, Henry as well as the others. And the children
jumped about delighted, and ate. But Henry concealed his face, and wept
bitterly.

Then the father began, saying, My son, why do you weep?

And Henry answered, Oh! I am not worthy to be called your son. I can no
longer bear to appear to you otherwise than what I am, and know myself
to be. Dear father, manifest no more kindness to me in future, but
chastise me, that I may dare approach you again, and cease to be my own
tormentor. Let me severely atone for my offence, for behold, I robbed
the young trees!

Then the father extended his hand, pressed him to his heart, and said,
I forgive you, my child! God grant that this may be the last, as well
as the first time, that you will have any action to conceal. Then I
will not be sorry for the trees.




[Illustration: _Santaro leading the Araucanians to battle._]


   Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c., of the Indians of America.


                              CHAPTER XII.

  _Chili continued.--The Araucanians attack the Spaniards.--
     Valdivia, the Spanish general, enters the territory of the
     Republic.--Founds cities.--Is defeated and slain.--The
     Spaniards are driven from the country.--Santaro slain._


In the preceding chapter, I have given an account of the customs
and manners of that nation in Chili called Araucanians. The country
inhabited by this brave nation is one of the finest in South America.
It lies on the seacoast, and is calculated to be 186 miles in length,
and its breadth from the sea to the Andes is over 300 miles.

But it is not the size of territory, or its fertility, or beautiful
climate which excites our interest; it is the character and the deeds
of a free and noble-spirited people, fighting for their homes and
country. I shall briefly recount their wars with the Spaniards, from
the time of the first battle in 1550, till the time when the Spaniards
were completely driven from the Araucanian territory, in 1692.

The first battle was fought in the country of the Pemones, a nation
occupying the north bank of the Biobio, a river which separates the
Araucanian territory from the other nations of Chili. The Araucanians,
finding the Spaniards had conquered all that part of Chili which had
been subjected to Peru, and were advancing towards their province, did
not wait to be invaded, but boldly marched to seek the white men.

Valdivia commanded the Spanish forces; he had been in many battles in
Europe as well as America, but he declared that he had never before
been in such imminent danger. The Araucanians rushed on, without
heeding the musketry, and fell at once upon the front and flanks of the
Spanish army.

The victory was long doubtful; and though the Araucanians lost their
chief, and finally withdrew from the field, the Spaniards were in no
condition to follow them.

Not in the least discouraged, the brave Indians collected another army,
and chose a new toqui, named Lincoyan. This commander was a great man
in size, and had the show of being brave, but he was not so; and during
the time he held the office of toqui, no battle of consequence was
fought with the Spaniards.

Valdivia soon improved these advantages. He advanced into the
Araucanian country, and founded a city on the shores of the Canten, a
river that divides the republic into two nearly equal parts. It was
a beautiful place, and abounded with every convenience of life. The
Spaniards felt highly gratified with their success. Valdivia called the
name of their new city Imperial, and he prepared to divide the country
among his followers, as Pizarro had divided Peru. Valdivia gave to
Villagran, his lieutenant-general, the province of _Maquegua_, called
by the Araucanians the key of their country, with thirty thousand
inhabitants. The other officers had also large shares.

Valdivia received reinforcements from Peru, and he continued to
advance, and, in a short time, founded a second city, which he named
from himself, Valdivia; and then a third, which he called the City of
the Frontiers. He also built a number of fortresses, and so skilfully
disposed his forces that he thought the people were completely subdued.
He did not gain all these advantages without great exertions. He was
often engaged in battles with the Indians, but the toqui was a timid
and inefficient commander, and the spirit of the brave Araucanians
seemed to have forsaken them.

However, men who have been accustomed to freedom, are not easily
reduced to that despair which makes them peaceable slaves. The
Araucanians at length roused themselves, and appointed a new toqui.
There was an old man, named Colocolo, who had long lived in retirement,
but his country’s wrongs and danger impelled him to action. He
traversed the provinces, and exhorted the people to choose a new toqui.
They assembled, and, after a stormy debate, they requested Colocolo to
name the toqui. He appointed _Caupolicon_, ulmen of Tucupel.

He was a man of lofty stature, uncommon bodily strength, and the
majesty of his countenance, though he had lost one eye, was surpassing.
The qualities of his mind were as superior as his personal appearance.
He was a serious, patient, sagacious, and valiant man, and the nation
applauded the choice of Colocolo.

Having assumed the axe, the badge of his authority, Caupolicon
appointed his officers, and soon marched with a large army to drive
the Spaniards from the country. He took and destroyed the fortress
of Arauco, and invested that of Tucupel. Valdivia, hearing of this,
assembled his troops and marched against the Indians. He had about two
hundred Spaniards and five thousand Indian auxiliaries, Promancians and
Peruvians, under his command. Caupolicon had about ten thousand troops.

The two armies met on the third of December, 1553. The fight was
desperate and bloody. The Spaniards had cannon and musketry--but the
brave Araucanians were on their own soil, and they resolved to conquer
or die. As fast as one line was destroyed, fresh troops poured in to
supply the places of the slain. Three times they retired beyond the
reach of the musketry, and then, with renewed vigor, returned to the
attack.

At length, after the loss of a great number of their men, they were
thrown into disorder, and began to give way. At this momentous crisis,
a young Araucanian, named Santaro, of sixteen years of age, grasping a
lance, rushed forward, crying out, “Follow me, my countrymen! victory
courts our arms!” The Araucanians, ashamed at being surpassed by a boy,
turned with such fury upon their enemies, that at the first shock they
put them to rout, cutting in pieces the Spaniards and their Indian
allies, so that of the whole army only two of the latter escaped.
Valdivia was taken prisoner. Both Caupolicon and Santaro intended to
spare his life, and treat him kindly, but while they were deliberating
on the matter, an old ulmen, of great authority in the country, who
was enraged at the perfidy and cruelty the Spaniards had practised on
the Indians, seized a club, and, at one blow, killed the unfortunate
prisoner. He justified the deed by saying that the _Christian_, if he
should escape, would mock at them, and laugh at his oaths and promises
of quitting Chili.

The Araucanians held a feast and made great rejoicings, as well they
might, on account of their victory. After these were over, Caupolicon
took the young Santaro by the hand, presented him to the national
assembly, and, after praising him for his bravery and patriotism in the
highest terms, he appointed the youth lieutenant-general extraordinary,
with the privilege of commanding in chief another army, which was to be
raised to protect the frontiers from the Spaniards. This was a great
trust to be committed to a youth of sixteen.

The Spaniards were overwhelmed with their misfortunes, and, dreading
the approach of the Indians, they abandoned all the places and
fortified posts, except the cities of Imperial and Valdivia, which had
been established in the Araucanian country. Caupolicon immediately
besieged these two places, committing to Santaro the duty of defending
the frontier.

In the meantime the two soldiers who escaped from the battle, fled to
the Spanish cities established in the Promancian territory, and roused
them to attempt another expedition. Francis Villegran was appointed
commander, to succeed Valdivia, and an army of Spaniards and their
Indian allies soon began their march for Arauco.

Villegran crossed the Biobio without opposition, but immediately on
entering the passes of the mountains he was attacked by the Indian
army under Santaro. Villegran had six pieces of cannon, and a strong
body of horse, and he thought, by the aid of them, he could force the
passage. He directed an incessant fire of cannon and musketry to be
kept up; the mountain was covered with smoke, and resounded with the
thunder of the artillery and the whistling of bullets. Santaro, in the
midst of this confusion, firmly maintained his post; but finding that
the cannon was sweeping down his ranks, he directed one of his bravest
captains to go with his company, and seize the guns. “Execute my
order,” said, the young Santaro, “or never again come into my presence!”

The brave Indian and his followers rushed with such violence upon the
corps of artillery, that the Spanish soldiers were all either killed
or captured, and the cannon brought off in triumph to Santaro. In
fine, the Araucanians gained a complete victory. Of the Europeans and
their Indian allies, three thousand were left dead upon the field, and
Villegran himself narrowly escaped being taken prisoner. The city of
Conception fell into the hands of Santaro, who, after securing all the
booty, burned the houses and razed the citadel to its foundation.

These successes stimulated the young chief, Santaro, to carry the
war into the enemy’s country. Collecting an army of six hundred men,
he marched to the attack of Santiago, a city which the Spaniards had
founded in the Promancian territory, more than three hundred miles
from the Araucanians. Santaro reached Santiago, and in several battles
against the Spaniards was victorious; but, at length, betrayed by a
spy, he was slain in a skirmish with the troops of Villegran; and
his men, refusing to surrender to those who had slain their beloved
general, fought, like the Spartans,  till every Araucanian perished!
The Spaniards were so elated with their victory, that they held public
rejoicings for three days at Santiago.

But the memory of Santaro did not perish with his life. He was long
deeply lamented by his countrymen, and his name is still celebrated in
the heroic songs of his country, and his actions proposed as the most
glorious model for the imitation of their youth. Nor did the Spaniards
withhold their tribute of praise to the brave young patriot. They
called him the Chilian Hannibal.

“It is not just,” said a celebrated Spanish writer, “to depreciate the
merit of the American Santaro, that wonderful young warrior, whom, had
he been ours, we should have elevated to the rank of a hero.”

But the history of battles and sieges, all having the same object,--on
the part of the Spaniards that of conquest, on the part of the
Araucanians the preservation of their liberties and independence,--will
not be profitable to detail. Suffice it to say, that from the fall
of Santaro in 1556, till peace was finally established between the
Spaniards and Araucanians in 1773, a series of battles, stratagems,
and sieges, are recorded, which, on the part of the Araucanians, were
sustained with a perseverance and power, such as no other of the Indian
nations in America have ever displayed. Nor were their victories
stained with cruelty or revenge.

The Spaniards obtained many triumphs over the haughty _freemen_; and I
regret to say that they did not use their advantages in the merciful
spirit of Christianity. Probably, if they had done so, they might have
maintained their authority. But the Spaniards went to America to gain
riches; they indulged their avaricious propensities till every kind and
generous feeling of humanity seems to have been extinguished in their
hearts. An excessive desire to be rich, if cherished and acted upon
as the chief purpose of life, is the most degrading passion indulged
by civilized man; it hardens the heart, and deadens or destroys every
generous emotion, till the cold, cruel, selfish individual would hardly
regret to see his species annihilated, if by that means he might be
profited. The cannibal, who feeds on human flesh, is hardly more to be
abhorred, than the civilized man who, on human woes, feeds his appetite
for riches!

But the Spaniards gained nothing from the Araucanians. After a contest
of nearly one hundred and fifty years, and at the cost of more blood
and treasure than all their other possessions in South America had
demanded, the Spaniards were glad to relinquish all claim to the
territory of these _freemen_, only stipulating that the Indians should
not make incursions into that part of Chili which lies between the
southern confines of Peru and the river Biobio. The Spanish government
was even obliged to allow the Araucanians to keep a minister, or public
representative, in the city of St. Jago.

The spirit and character of this brave Indian people made a deep
impression upon their invaders. Don Ercilla, a young Spaniard of
illustrious family, who accompanied Don Garcia in his Chilian
expedition, wrote an epic poem on the events of the war,--the
“Araucana,”--which is esteemed one of the best poems in the Spanish
language. Ercilla was an eye-witness of many of the scenes he
describes, and the following lines show his abhorrence of the mercenary
spirit which governed his own countrymen.

   “O, thirst of gold! disease without a cure!
    What toils thy persevering slaves endure!
    Thou subtle vice, whose long, tenacious spell
    The noblest energies of mind can quell!

    Thy deadly charms the human soul unbind
    From heaven, and let her drive before the wind.”

The Araucanian are still a free and independent people; and Christians,
whose charitable plans embrace the whole heathen world as their
mission-ground, may probably find in this nation the best opportunity
of planting the Protestant faith which South America now offers.




                        Story of Philip Brusque.


                              CHAPTER IX.

     _Rejoicings.--Remorse and contrition.--A pirate’s story.--François
        restored to his parents._


We left our colonists of Fredonia at the moment that the struggle
was over which resulted in the death of Rogere. The scenes which
immediately followed are full of interest, but we can only give them a
passing notice.

The defeated party sullenly retired to their quarters at the outcast’s
cave; and those at the tents were left to rejoice over their
deliverance. Their present joy was equal to the anxiety and despair
which had brooded over them before. The mothers clasped their children
again and again to their bosoms, in the fulness of their hearts;
and the little creatures, catching the sympathy of the occasion,
returned the caresses with laughter and exultation. The men shook
hands in congratulation, and the women mingled tears and smiles and
thanksgivings, in the outburst of their rejoicing.

During these displays of feeling, Brusque and Emilie had withdrawn from
the bustle, and, walking a part, held discourse together. “Forgive me,
Emilie,” said Brusque, “I pray you forgive me for my foolish jealousy
respecting the man you were wont to meet by moonlight, at the foot of
the rocks. I now know that it was your brother, and I also know that
we all owe our deliverance and present safety to you and him. I can
easily guess his story. When the ship was blown up, he had departed,
and thus saved his life.”

“Yes,” said Emilie; “but do you know that this weighs upon his spirit
like a millstone? He says, that he had voluntarily joined the pirates,
and for him to be the instrument of blowing up their ship, and sending
them into eternity, while he provided for his own safety, was at once
treacherous and dastardly.”

“But we must look at the motive,” said Brusque. “He found that his
father, his mother, his sister, were in the hands of those desperate
men: it was to save them from insult and death that he took the fearful
step. It was by this means alone that he could provide escape for those
to whom he was bound by the closest of human ties.”

“I have suggested these thoughts to him,” replied Emilie; “and thus far
he might be reconciled to himself; but that he saved his own life is
what haunts him; he thinks it mean and cowardly. He is so far affected
by this consideration, that he has resolved never to indulge in the
pleasures of society, but to dwell apart in the cave, where you know I
have been accustomed to meet him. Even now he has departed; and I fear
that nothing can persuade him to leave his dreary abode, and attach
himself to our community.”

“This is sheer madness,” said Brusque. “Let us go to your father, and
get his commands for François to come to the tents. He will not refuse
to obey his parent; and when we get him here, we can, perhaps, reason,
him out of his determination.”

Brusque and Emilie went to the tent of M. Bonfils, and, opening the
folds of the canvass, were about to enter, when, seeing the aged man
and his wife an their knees, they paused and listened. They were side
by side. The wife was bent over a chest, upon which her face rested,
clasped in her hands; the husband,--with his hands uplifted, his white
and dishevelled hair lying upon his shoulders, his countenance turned
to heaven,--was pouring out a fervent thanksgiving for the deliverance
of themselves and their friends from the awful peril that had
threatened them. It was a thanksgiving, not for themselves alone, but
for their children, their friends and companions. The voice of the old
man trembled, yet its tones were clear, peaceful, confiding. He spoke
as if in the very ear of his God, who yet was his benefactor and his
friend. As he alluded to François, his voice faltered, the tears gushed
down his cheeks, and the sobs of the mother were audible.

The suppliant paused for a moment for his voice seemed choked; but soon
recovering, he went on. Although François was a man, the aged father
seemed to think of him as yet a boy--his wayward, erring boy--his only
son. He pleaded for him as a parent only could plead for a child.
Emilie and Brusque were melted into tears; and sighs, which they
could not suppress, broke from their bosoms. At length the prayer was
finished, and the young couple, presenting themselves to M. Bonfils,
told him their errand. “Go, my children,” said he, “go and tell
François to come to me. Tell him that I have much to say to him.” The
mother joined her wishes to this request, and the lovers departed for
the cave where François had before made his abode.

As they approached the place, they saw the object of their search,
sitting upon a projecting rock that hung over the sea. He did not
perceive them at first, and they paused a moment to look at him. He
was gazing over the water, which was lighted by the full moon, and he
seemed to catch something of the holy tranquillity which marked the
scene. Not a wave, not a ripple, was visible upon the placid face of
the deep. There was a slight undulation, and the tide seemed to play
with the image of the moon, yet so smooth and mirror-like was its
surface as to leave that image unbroken.

After a little time, the two companions approached their moody friend,
who instantly rose and began to descend the rocks toward his retreat;
but Brusque called to him, and, climbing up the cliff, he soon joined
them. They then stated their errand, and begged François to return with
them. “Come,” said Brusque, “your father wishes, nay, commands you to
return!”

“His wish is more than his command,” said François. “I know not how it
is, but it seems to me that my nature is changed: I fear not, I regard
not power--nay, I have a feeling within which spurns it; but my heart
is like a woman’s if a wish is uttered. I will go with you, though it
may be to hear my father’s curse. I have briefly told him my story.
I have told him that I have been a pirate, and that I have basely
betrayed my companions: but I will go with you, as my father wishes it.”

“Nay, dear François!” said Emilie, throwing her arms around his neck,
“do not feel thus. Could you have heard what we have just heard, you
would not speak or feel as you do.”

“And what have you heard?” was the reply. Emilie then told him of the
scene they had witnessed in the tent, and the fervent prayer which
had been uttered in his behalf. “Dear, dear sister!” said François,
throwing his powerful arm around her waist, and clasping her light form
to his rugged bosom,--“you are indeed an angel of light! Did my father
pray for me? Will he forgive me? Will he forgive such a wretch as I
am? Will my mother forgive me? Shalt I, can I, be once more the object
of their regard, their affection, their confidence?”

“Oh, my brother!” said Emilie, “doubt it not--doubt it not. They will
forgive you indeed; and Heaven will forgive you. We shall all be happy
in your restoration to us; and however much you may have erred, we
shall feel that your present repentance, and the good deeds you have
done this night, in saving this little community, your father, your
mother, your sister, from insult and butchery, is at once atonement and
compensation.”

“Oh, speak not, Emilie, of compensation--speak not of what I have done
as atonement. I cannot think of myself but as an object of reproach; I
have no account of good deeds to offer as an offset to my crimes. One
thing only can I plead as excuse or apology, and that is, that I was
misled by evil company, and enlisted in the expedition of that horrid
ship while I was in a state of intoxication. This, I know, is a poor
plea--to offer one crime as an excuse for another; yet it is all I can
give in extenuation of my guilt.”

“How was it, brother? Tell us the story,” said Emilie.

“Well,” said François. “You know that I sailed from Havre, for the West
Indies. Our vessel lay for some time at St. Domingo, and I was often
ashore. Here I fell in with the captain of the pirate vessel. He was a
man of talents, and of various accomplishments. We used often to meet
at a tavern, and he took particular pains to insinuate himself into my
confidence. We at last became friends, and then he hinted to me his
design of fitting out a vessel to cruise for plunder upon the high
seas. I rejected the proposal with indignation. My companion sneered
at my scruples, and attempted to reason me into his views. ‘Look at
the state of the world,’ said he, ‘and you will remark that all are
doing what I propose to do. At Paris they are cutting each other’s
throats, just to see which shall have the largest share of the spoils
of society--wealth, pleasure, and power. England is sending her ships
forth on every ocean: and what are they better than pirates? They have,
indeed, the commission of the king--but still it is a commission to
burn, slay, and plunder all who do not bow to the mistress of the seas.
And why shall not we play our part in the great game of life, as well
as these potentates and powers? Why should we not be men--instead of
women?

“‘Look at the state of this island--St. Domingo. Already is it heaving
and swelling with the tempest of coming revolution. I know secrets
worth knowing. Ere a month has rolled away, this place will be deluged
in blood. The vast wealth of Port au Prince is now secretly being
carried on board the ships, to take flight, with its owners, for places
of safety from the coming storm. Let us be on the sea, with a light
craft, and we will cut and carve, among them, as we please!’

“Such were the inducements held out to me by the arch-pirate: but it
was all in vain, while my mind was clear. I shrunk from the proposal
with horror. But now a new scheme was played off. I was led, on one
occasion, to drink more deeply than my wont; and being already nearly
intoxicated, I was plied with more liquor. My reason was soon lost--but
my passions were inflamed. It is the nature of drunkenness to kill all
that is good in a man, and leave in full force all that is evil. Under
this seduction, I yielded my assent, and was hastened on board the
pirate ship, which lay at a little distance from the harbor. Care was
taken that my intoxication should be continued; and when I was again
sober, our canvass was spread, and our vessel dancing over the waves.
There was no retreat; and, finding myself in the gulf, I sought to
support my relenting and revolting bosom by drink. At last I partially
drowned my remorse; and but for meeting with Brusque on the island, I
had been a pirate still.”

By the time this story was done, the party had reached the hut. They
entered, and being kindly received by the aged parents, they sat down.
After sitting in silence for a few moments, François arose, went to his
father, and kneeling before him, asked for his forgiveness. He was yet
a young man--but his stature was almost gigantic. His hair was black
as jet, and hung in long-neglected ringlets over his shoulders. His
countenance was pale as death; but still his thick, black eyebrows,
his bushy beard, and his manly features, gave him an aspect at once
commanding and striking. When erect and animated, he was an object to
arrest the attention and fix the gaze of every beholder. In general,
his aspect was stern, but now it was so marked with humiliation and
contrition, as to be exceedingly touching. The aged parent laid his
hand upon his head, and looking to heaven, said, in a tone of deep
pathos, “Father, forgive him!” He could say no more--his heart was too
full.

We need not dwell upon the scene. It is sufficient to say, that from
that day, François lived with his parents. His character was thoroughly
changed: the haughty and passionate bearing, which had characterized
him before, had given place to humility and gentleness; and the
features that once befitted the pirate, might now have been chosen to
set forth the image of a saint. Such is the influence of the soul, in
giving character and expression to the features.

                          (_To be continued._)




[Illustration: _Solon writing laws for Athens._]


                      Solon, the Grecian Lawgiver.


Of all the nations of antiquity, the Greeks were, in some respects, the
most interesting. Though they inhabited one country, they were divided
into different states, somewhat as the United States are. Among the
principal states, were Athens and Sparta. The people, government, and
laws of these were very different. The Athenians cultivated literature,
such as poetry and history; but the Spartans despised these things.
The Athenians were devoted to science and philosophy; the Spartans
had no relish for them. The Athenians encouraged the arts--as music,
sculpture, painting, and architecture; the Spartans held such things
in contempt. The Athenians were gay, fickle, and fond of pleasure; the
Spartans were severe, determined, and devoted to war.

It is not easy to account for such differences of character in the
people of two states, living but a few miles apart. Probably it was
owing in part to original differences in the people who settled the two
countries, and in part to the difference of the laws.

Sparta had a famous lawgiver, named Lycurgus. He drew up a system, or
code of laws, and then called the people together. He told them he was
going away, and asked them if they would keep his laws till he should
return. This they solemnly promised to do: so Lycurgus went away, and
starved himself to death. His object was to make the Spartans keep his
laws forever. His body was burned, by his direction, and his ashes
thrown into the sea, so that the Spartans could not bring his body
back, and thus have an excuse for setting aside his laws. He died about
2700 years ago.

Solon was the greatest lawgiver of Athens. Many of his laws were
wise and good, and some of them have even descended to our day, and
are incorporated in our own codes. But the people of Athens were
changeable; and, soon after Solon’s death, the supreme power was
usurped by an ambitious citizen, named Pisistratus, and the government
thus became, for a time, a sort of despotism. Solon died about 2400
years ago.




                    How to settle a Dispute without
                                Pistols.


“_The first thing_,” says the philosophic wag, in his recipe for
cooking a turbot, “_is to catch a turbot_.” Before you enter upon a
discussion, settle it clearly in your mind, what it is you propose to
discuss. How many vain disputes, how many angry controversies would be
prevented, if the parties would start with a definition,--if, before
beginning to cook a turbot, they would catch a turbot.

Some few years since, an American gentleman, who did not understand the
French language, being in Paris, wished to go to Bourdeaux. Accordingly
he went down to the diligence office, and making such inquiries as he
was able, paid his fare, entered the diligence, and set off, as he
supposed, for Bourdeaux. Four days and four nights he travelled very
patiently, not dreaming that he was in the wrong coach.

At last he reached the termination of his journey, and having taken a
long night’s repose, he dressed himself carefully, selected his letters
of introduction, and, calling the waiter, showed him the inscriptions
of these letters, and intimated that he wished to go to the persons to
whom they were addressed. The man stared in the traveller’s face, and
uttered a good deal of incomprehensible French. The American talked
English, but all to no purpose. At last the waiter left the traveller
in despair, and called his master. _He_ was as much puzzled as the
servant, and finally, as the only resort, sent out for an Englishman
living in the town, to come and see an American gentleman, who was out
of his head.

The Englishman came, and the American stated his grievance. “Here,”
said he, showing his letters, “are some letters of introduction to
several gentlemen in this city, and I want these stupid people to take
me to them: but they only gaze in my face, shrug their shoulders, and
cry ‘sacre-r-r-r,’ like a watchman’s rattle.”

The Englishman stared at the American, as if he, too, thought him out
of his head. At last he said to him, “Sir, these letters are addressed
to a gentleman in Bourdeaux: where do you suppose you are?”

“In Bourdeaux, to be sure,” said the American.

“Not so,” said the Englishman: “you are in the city of Lyons, 700 miles
from Bourdeaux.” The simple explanation of the whole scene was, that
the traveller had entered the wrong coach, and instead of proceeding
to Bourdeaux, had gone 400 miles in the opposite direction. This story
shows the importance of looking well to the outset of a journey--or, if
you please, to the commencement of, a discourse, or a dispute. In the
one case, be sure to enter the right coach--in the other, start with a
definition.

If, unluckily, you should by any chance get into a dispute, the best
way is to stop short, and ask your antagonist to enter into a
consideration of what the point of debate is. This is apt to have a
cooling effect upon both parties, and to result in a clear
understanding of the real question.

A few years since, I happened to be travelling in a stage coach,
where, among half a dozen passengers, there were a Frenchman and an
Englishman. There seemed to be a sort of cat-and-dog feeling between
them; for if one opened his lips to speak, the other was sure to
fly at the observation with the teeth and claws of dispute. As we
were driving along, the Englishman spoke of a sheep he had seen in
some foreign land, with a tail so long as to drag upon the ground.
Thereupon, the Frenchman shrugged his shoulders, curled up his lip,
lifted his eyebrows, and took a pinch of snuff.

“What do you mean by that?” said the Englishman, not a little nettled
at the contemptuous air of his rival.

“Vat do I mean?” said the latter; “I means dat a sheap has not got von
tail at all.”

“A sheep hasn’t got a tail, ha?” said the Englishman.

“No, not von bit,” said the Frenchman.

“Well, this comes of eating frogs,” said the John Bull. “What can you
expect of a man who eats frogs? You say a sheep hasn’t got a tail. I
tell you, mounseer, a sheep _has_ got a tail.”

“Pardon, monsieur,” said the other, with a polite bow, yet with a very
sneering expression; “you say de sheap has von tail: I say de sheap has
no tail, not von bit.”

By this time the parties were greatly excited, and I cannot say what
might have happened, had not one of the passengers asked the Frenchman
what he meant by a “_sheap_?”

“Vat I mean by _sheap_? vy I means von big larsh ting, with sails and
ruddair, that go upon de sea.”

“Oh ho!” said the Englishman, “you mean a _ship_.”

“Oui, monsieur,” was the reply; “I mean von _sheap_, that has de
captain and de sailors, and goes on de vater.”

“Very well,” said the Englishman: “I meant a _sheep_, a creature with
four legs, and covered with wool.”

“Ah, you mean von _sheap_ vit de vool!” said the other. “Oh, oui,
monsieur; de sheap vit de vool has de tail. Oui, oui.”

This incident taught me a lesson, and I give it gratis to my
readers;--_if they ever get into a controversy, let them consider
whether one of the parties does not mean a ship, and the other a sheep_.




                      The Painter and his Master.


A young painter had just finished an excellent picture, the best that
he had made. His master himself found no fault with it. But the young
artist was so charmed, that he looked at this specimen of his art
incessantly, and neglected his studies; for he now thought himself
perfect.

One morning, as he went to rejoice anew over his picture, he discovered
that his master had completely defaced it. Angry and weeping, he ran to
him and inquired the reason of this cruel act.

The master answered, “It is the work of serious deliberation. The
picture was good, as a proof of your advancement, but it was at the
same time your ruin.”

“How so?” inquired the young artist.

“Beloved,” answered the master, “you loved no longer the art in your
painting, but merely yourself. Believe me, it was not a finished
production, even if it appeared so to us; it was only a first effort.
Take the pencil then, and see what you can do again. Let not the
sacrifice grieve you. The great must be in you, before you can bring it
on canvass.”

Courageously, and full of confidence in himself and his master, he
seized the pencil and finished his magnificent work, the _offering of
Iphigenia_!--for the name of the artist was _Timanthes_.




“WHERE are you driving the pig, Paddy?” “To Limerick, your honor.”
“Limerick! this is the Cork road.” “Hush, speak low, I’m only
pretending; if it knew I was wanting it to go to Cork, it would take
the Limerick road.”




                      The Turkey and Rattlesnake:


                                A FABLE.


On a fine day in summer, a wild turkey was walking along over one of
the prairies of the far West. As the sun shone upon his glossy neck, he
cast his eye downward, and seemed lost in admiration of his own beauty.

While engaged in this way, he heard something hissing in the grass;
and soon a rattlesnake issued from the spot, and, coiling himself up,
placed himself before the turkey. The latter grew very red in the face,
spread his tail and wings to their utmost extent, and, having strutted
back and forth several times, approached the snake, and spoke as
follows:

“You impudent serpent! Was it you that I heard laughing at me in the
bushes? How dare you laugh at me, the handsomest cock-turkey of the
whole prairie? Have I not the reddest wattles, and the largest comb,
the blackest wing, and the glossiest neck of any bird that is seen on
the plain? Did not my grandfather swallow an alligator alive, and could
I not take down such a little, insignificant thing as you, without
winking?”

“Don’t put yourself in a passion,” said the serpent in reply, at the
same time swelling up, his flesh writhing, and the colors of his skin
growing very bright. “Don’t put yourself in a passion; I know you’re
a coward, like the whole of your race, and you are as vain as you are
timid.”

Upon this, the turkey seemed bursting with rage; his throat was so
choked, that he could not speak distinctly, but he gobbled the louder.
He also strutted round in a circle, grating the ends of his wings upon
the ground. At length he came bristling up toward the serpent, who,
being mortally offended, coiled himself into a ball, and springing
toward the turkey, struck him in the neck with his fangs, and inflicted
a fatal wound. The latter in return gave the serpent a deep scratch in
his side, and both fell dead upon the ground.

A wise ant, that dwelt in a little hillock near by, and saw the whole
affray, crawled to the spot, and made the following sage observations:
“It would seem that this vast prairie were wide enough for the
creatures that dwell upon it to live together in peace; but, alas!
their angry passions lead to strife, and strife ends in death. Nor is
this all. As the poison of the serpent taints these carcasses, so an
evil name always follows those who ‘die as the fool dieth.’”




                                Flowers.


   “Sweet flowers, sweet flowers, baptized with dew,
      By the rosy-hand of morn;
    Daisies red and violets blue,
      In the spring-time newly born.
    Beautiful flowers, each ruddy lip
      Inviteth the humming bee,
    And I, like them, would nectar sip,--
      Then, prithee, come talk to me.

   “Tell me, oh, tell me, lovely flowers,
      Why do ye bloom so fair?”
   “To lighten, my love, the dreary hours,
      And sweeten the cup of care.”
   “But why do ye fade, oh, gentle flowers?”
      “By cold winds cruelly slain,
    That we may spring up in brighter hours,
      And blossom and smile again.

   “So thou, in thy youth, my little child,
      Will spring up in golden bloom,
    But soon will the storm or the tempest wild,
      Smite thee down to the dreary tomb;
    But thou shalt arise in beauty fair,--
      To a happier clime make wing,
    And blossom in heaven’s eternal air,
      Like flowers in a brighter SPRING!”




[Illustration: _Dividing the cake on twelfth-night._]


                               Christmas.


Christmas is an interesting festival, held in commemoration of Christ’s
birth, which is supposed to have taken place on the 25th of December,
the day on which Christmas is celebrated.

Those who belong to the Romish or English church, pay great attention
to Christmas: on that day they hold religious meetings, and have their
most interesting services. On the occasion, the churches are decorated
with evergreens, and have a handsome appearance.

In this country the people, generally, do not pay great attention to
Christmas; but in all European countries it is noticed by a variety of
customs, some of which are pleasing and interesting. In England, though
the Christmas customs have many of them ceased, there are others which
are kept up and observed with much interest. It is there a time for
making presents, particularly to friends, and it seldom happens that
any boy or girl does not receive some gratifying mark of regard in this
way.

Christmas is a time when hospitality and kind feelings are cherished
and displayed. The rich then remember the poor, and there are few
indeed, on that day, that have not the means of making a feast, though
in many cases it may be a humble one.

Among the superstitious notions of the olden time, was this: they used
to believe that St. Nicholas, familiarly called _Santaclaus_, used to
come down chimney on Christmas eve, the night before Christmas, and put
nuts, cakes, sugarplums, and pieces of money, into the stockings of
such people as would hang them up for the purpose. Now it really did
often happen, that when the stocking was hung up, in the morning it
was found stuffed with such things as children take delight in! I have
seen this actually done: and in New York, where Santaclaus is supposed
to be at home, it is still practised. But the secret of the matter is
this: the parents and friends, when children are snug in bed, and fast
asleep, slip into the room, and fill their stockings with such things
as please the young sleepers. In the morning, when they get up, they
find their treasures, and give old Santaclaus all the credit of the
pleasant trick.

There are other very agreeable customs connected with Christmas, but I
suppose my readers know as much about them as I do. I will, however,
say a few words about twelfth-day, which occurs on the twelfth day
after Christmas; being the last of the Christmas holidays, it is kept
up with great glee in England.

In certain parts of Devonshire, the farmer, attended by his workmen,
with a large pitcher of cider, goes to the apple orchard on the eve of
twelfth-day, and there, standing round one of the best bearing trees,
they drink the following toast three times:--

         “Here’s to thee, old apple-tree,
    Hence thou may’st bud, and whence thou may’st blow,
    And whence thou may’st bear apples enow!
          Hats full! caps full!
          Bushel--bushel--sacks full,
          And my pockets full too! huzza!”

This done, they return to the house, the doors of which they are sure
to find bolted by the women. Be the weather what it may, these are
inexorable to all entreaties to open them, till some one has named what
is on the spit--which is generally some nice little thing, difficult to
be guessed. This is the reward of him who first names it. The doors are
then thrown open, and the fortunate guesser receives the tit-bit. Some
are so superstitious as to believe that if they neglect this custom,
the trees will bear no apples the coming year.

Another custom among these people, is to go after supper into the
orchard, with a milk-pan full of cider, which has roasted apples
pressed into it. Out of this each person in the company takes an
earthen cup full, and standing under each of the more fruitful
apple-trees, he addresses it thus:--

   “Health to thee, good apple-tree,
    Well to bear pockets full, hats full,
    Pecks full, bushel bags full,”--

and then, drinking up part of the contents, he throws the rest, with
the fragments of the roasted apples, at the tree. At each cup the
company set up a shout.

[Illustration: _Parley pinned to the woman._]

On twelfth-day, in London, from morning till night, every pastry-cook
in the city is busy, dressing out his windows with cakes of every size
and description. These are ornamented with figures of castles, kings,
trees, churches, milk-maids, and a countless variety of figures of
snow-white confectionary, painted with brilliant colors. At evening the
windows are brilliantly illuminated with rows of lamps and wax candles
inside; while the outside is crowded with admiring spectators. Among
these, are numbers of boys, who take great delight in pinning people
together by their coat-tails, and nailing them to the window frames.
Sometimes eight or ten persons find themselves united together in
this way; and such is the dexterity of the trick, that a piece of the
garment is always sacrificed in the struggle for freedom.

Perhaps you have heard that old Peter Parley, when he was once in
London, as he was gazing into a shop-window, seeing the twelfth-night
cakes, got his coat-tail pinned to the gown of a woman, which made no
small degree of fun.

Within doors there is also a frolic going on at this time. A large
cake is cut up among a party of young people, who draw for the slices,
and are chosen king and queen of the evening. They then draw for
characters, thus making a great deal of sport.




                                Puzzles.

  My first and last are man’s beginning;
  My ninth, ’leventh, twelfth, a school-boy’s task;
  My fifth, tenth, sixth, a welcome winning,
  If maids consent when lovers ask.
  My second, third and fourth, to do,
  Is but the lot of human creatures;
  Seven, eight, nine, ten--if books are true--
  Bore once a goddess’ form and features;
  My first half--save a single letter--
  Denotes a jolly, one-legged fellow;
  My other half--perchance the better--
  Doth mean a thing with covers yellow.

  Such is my riddle--can you guess it?
  If so, pray write us, and confess it.
  And if you think you’d like to try it,
  Why, send a dollar--and you’ll buy it.


A friend has sent us the following. Will any of our readers tell us the
secret?

  I am a name of 28 letters.
  My 1st, 15th, 28th, 23d, 11th, 9th, and 5th, is a town in the East
    Indies.
  My 3d, 2d, 6th, 25th, 13th, 26th, 9th, and 9th, is what some persons
    hate to see.
  My 4th, 24th, and 13th is a vehicle much in use.
  My 22d, 5th, and 7th, is a domestic animal.
  My 14th, 17th, and 10th, is a kind of grain.
  My 13th, 12th, 9th, and 11th, is a nickname.
  My 16th, 18th, 8th, and 6th, is a great blessing.
  My 19th, 21st, and 7th, is much to be pitied.
  My 14th, 27th, 20th, and 2d, is a beautiful flower.
  My 4th, 21st, 25th, 7th, 27th, and 6th, is a great article of
    commerce.
                                                        C. B. F.




                               Varieties.


ONCE on a time, a Dutchman and a Frenchman were travelling in
Pennsylvania, when their horse lost a shoe. They drove up to a
blacksmith’s shop, and no one being in, they proceeded to the house to
inquire. The Frenchman rapped and called out, “Is de smitty wittin?”
“Shtand pack,” says Hans; “let me shpeak. Ish der plack-smit’s shop in
der house?”

       *       *       *       *       *

WHY are lovers’ sighs like long stockings? Because they are _heigh
ho’s_.

       *       *       *       *       *

WHY is a child seated down to perform a long sum, like a thermometer at
zero? Give it up?--Because it is down to cipher.




                         HYMN FOR THE NEW YEAR.

            THE WORDS AND MUSIC COMPOSED FOR MERRY’S MUSEUM;
                      THE LATTER BY GEO. J. WEBB.

[Illustration: music]

    Another year is past and gone,
    Bearing its wishes, hopes and fears,
    As winds, the leaves,--away, away--
    To rest with-in this vale of tears.

    Another year upon us breaks,
    Bringing its budding cares and joys--
    And, like a flowery lawn, invites
    Us on to pluck its blooming toys.

    Yet as the circling seasons pass,
    Chasing each other in their flight--
    Oh let us not forget that each
    Doth on the heart its record write!

    And let us all remember well,
    That record we must bear above;
    Oh may it in the judgment hour
    Shine with the heavenly lines of love!




                            MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME III.--No. 2.




[Illustration]


                        Anecdote of a Traveller.


The following amusing anecdote is told of Buckhardt, a famous traveller
in Africa:--

Buckhardt sailed from England early in 1809, and arrived at Malta in
safety. Here he equipped himself in the style of an Oriental, assuming
the character of an Indian Mahommedan merchant, and sailed for Acre,
whence he hoped to be able to reach Tripoli, in Syria, or Latakia.
After being twice duped by the captains of the little trading vessels
with whom he engaged a passage, by their telling him, when he was
fairly embarked, that they were not going to the place which they
had represented, he reached the coast of Syria, at Suedieh. Having
bargained with the muleteers for the transport of himself and his
baggage to Aleppo, he was beginning to load the mules, when he received
a message from the aga, or Turkish governor of the place, requesting
to see him. Our traveller found this dignitary smoking his pipe in a
miserable room, and pulling off his slipper, he sat down before him.
After having partaken of a cup of coffee, Buckhardt asked his highness
what he wanted. The aga answered by making a sign with his thumb and
fore-finger, like a person counting money; at the same time inquiring
particularly what was contained in the chest of which our traveller’s
baggage was composed. Buckhardt, who had among them several packets for
the British consul at Aleppo, told him that he did not know, but that
he thought there was a sort of Frank or European drink (beer) and some
eatables, which he had brought from Malta for the consul. Not to be
thus eluded, the aga sent one of his people to examine the contents.
The messenger tasted the beer and found it abominably bitter, and as
a sample of the eatables, he carried a potato, which he took out of
one of the barrels, to his master. The aga tasted the raw potato, and,
instantly spitting it out again, exclaimed loudly against the Franks’
stomach, which could bear such food. After this sample he did not care
to investigate farther, and exacting a fine of ten piastres he allowed
Buckhardt to proceed.




                       Dr. Cotton and the Sheep.


There is an anecdote told of Mr. Cotton, the old minister of Boylston,
which may perhaps amuse some of our young readers. This gentleman’s
house stood upon an eminence, with a garden sloping down in front,
filled with fruit-trees. At the foot of the garden was a fence, and,
in a straight line with the fence, an old well-curb. Mr. Cotton kept
a great number of sheep, as most of our farmers did in olden times;
and one day these uneasy creatures took it into their heads to get a
taste of their master’s fruit. But the minister had another mind about
the matter, and sallied out to give the marauders better instructions.
The sheep were somewhat alarmed at being detected, and, according to
their usual habit, all followed their leader to escape. The well-curb
being the lowest part of the barrier which presented itself to the
retreating general, over he leaped, and down he went to the very bottom
of the well; and after him came several of his followers, till the
well was in danger of being choked up with the silly sheep. There was
but one way for the good pastor to save his flock; and, like a gallant
chieftain, over the curb he also leaped, and boldly faced the flying
insurgents, who were rushing on to destruction. We need not add that
the _coup-de-main_ was effectual, and that the remainder of the herd
was in this manner preserved. As for the precipitated general and his
comrades, they humbly lifted themselves upon their hind feet, and
stretching their paws toward their master, bleated a faint petition for
release. “Don’t be in haste,” quietly replied the good pastor; “wait
patiently till I go to the house for a rope--then I will try to save
you.” He was as good as his word. Descending the well, he fastened the
rope around their bodies, and drew them safely out; and I dare say the
silly creatures did not soon forget the lesson they had learned at so
fearful a risk.




                               The Robin.


A robin came, in the severity of winter, to the window of an honest
farmer, and appeared as though he wished to enter. Then the farmer
opened the window and kindly took the confiding little animal into
his dwelling. He picked up the crumbs that fell from the table. The
children loved and valued the bird. But when spring again appeared and
the trees were covered with leaves, the farmer opened his window, and
the little stranger flew into a neighboring grove, and built his nest
and sang his cheerful song.

And behold, when winter returned, the robin came again to the dwelling
of the farmer, and brought his mate with him. And the farmer, together
with his children, rejoiced greatly, when they saw the two little
animals, as they looked with their clear, small eyes, confidently
round. And the children said, “The birds regard us as though they had
something to say.”

Then the father answered, “If they could speak they would say, Friendly
confidence awakens confidence, and love produces reciprocal affection.”




                           Echo: a Dialogue.

The following dialogue between Echo and a glutton was written in 1609:--

_Glut._ Who curbs his appetite’s a fool.

_Echo._ Ah, fool!

_Glut._ I do not like this abstinence.

_Echo._ Hence!

_Glut._ My joy’s a feast, my wish is wine.

_Echo._ Swine!

_Glut._ Will it hurt me if I eat too much?

_Echo._ Much!

_Glut._ Thou mockest me, nymph, I’ll not believe it.

_Echo._ Believe it!

_Glut._ Dost thou condemn, then, what I do?

_Echo._ I do.

_Glut._ Is it that which brings infirmities?

_Echo._ It is!

_Glut._ Then, sweetest temperance, I’ll love thee!

_Echo._ I love thee!

_Glut._ If all be true which thou dost tell, to gluttony I bid farewell.

_Echo._ Farewell.




                         The Lion and the Ass.


An ass was one day travelling with a lion, who wanted the assistance
of his bray in frightening the animals he was hunting. The ass felt
very proud of his company, and did not like to speak to his old
acquaintances.

As they were travelling along in this manner, the ass met an old
friend, of his own race, who very civilly bade him a good morning.
The ass started back with a stare, and said, “really, you are very
impudent--I don’t know you!”

“Why not?” replied his friend: “because you are in company with a lion,
are you any better than I am--anything more than an ass?”

Those narrow-minded people, who, in prosperity, forget the friends of
their humbler days, are about as wise as the ass in the fable.




                       National Characteristics.


England is said, by a French paper, to be a vast manufactory, a great
laboratory, a universal country-house. France is a rich farm, tending
to turn itself into a manufactory. Germany is an uncultivated field,
because they are philosophers and not peasants who till it. Southern
Italy is a villa in ruins. Northern Italy is an artificial prairie.
Belgium is a forge. Holland is a canal. Sweden and Denmark are
carpenter’s yards. Poland is a sandy heath. Russia is an ice-house.
Switzerland is an _avalanche_. Greece is a field in a state of nature.
Turkey is a field, fallow. India is a gold mine. Egypt is a workshop
for apprentices. Africa is a furnace. Algiers is a nursery-ground.
Asia is a grove. The Antilles are sugar-refineries. South America is a
store. North America is a till, full. Spain is a till, empty.




                          Merry’s Adventures.


                              CHAPTER XVI.

  _We set out to return.--The woods.--A fierce animal.--A wild
     adventure.--Repose in the forest._


The horses and waggons with which we had travelled to Utica, belonging
to Mr. Stebbins, he concluded to sell them, as he was offered a much
greater price for them than he could have obtained at Salem. This
arrangement left Mat Omsted and myself to find our way back on foot,
for there were no stages, canal-boats, or rail-roads then.

I did not myself dislike the plan, for I was fond of a tramp,
especially with so cheerful a companion as Matthew. It had an air of
adventure, and so I set off for our return, with as buoyant a feeling
as if I had been about to accomplish some great enterprise.

We had each provided ourselves with a bear-skin, which was rolled up
and strapped upon the shoulder. Matthew had also obtained a tinder-box,
with flint and steel; these precautions being necessary, as it was
likely that we might occasionally be obliged to find our lodgings in
the forest.

It was a bright morning in the latter part of November, when we
departed, and the cheerfulness of the weather found its way to our
bosoms. My friend, though not a talkative man, made an occasional sally
of wit, and wore a smile upon his face. I was so light of heart as
hardly to feel the ground upon which I trod. We marched rapidly on, and
in a few hours were several miles from the town, and winding along the
devious road that led through the tall forest.

Although the leaves were stripped from the trees, and the flowers were
sleeping in their tombs--though the birds had fled, and their happy
minstrelsy was heard no more, still there were signs of cheerfulness
around us. The little woodpeckers were creeping up and down the hoary
oaks, seeking for the worms that had taken winter quarters in the bark;
the partridges were calling their mates by flapping their wings upon
some rotten log, thus producing a sound like the roll of a distant
drum; the black and gray squirrels, in vast numbers, were holding their
revel upon the walnut and chestnut trees, occasionally chasing each
other, like birds, among the branches. Small flocks of wild turkeys
frequently crossed our path; and now and then a deer bounded before
us, gazed backward for a moment, and then, with his tail and antlered
head erect, plunged into the wood. We frequently saw racoons amidst
the trees, moving about with a kind of gallop, or sitting upon their
haunches like monkeys, and using their paws as if they were hands.
Sometimes, as we approached them, they sprang up the trees, and having
gained a secure elevation, would look down upon us,--their sharp black
features assuming almost a smile of derision, and seeming to say, “If
you want me, mister, come and get me!”

We marched on, amused by a multitude of little incidents, and as
evening approached, had proceeded about five and twenty miles. It was
our expectation to spend this night in the woods, and we were beginning
to think of seeking a place for repose, when we heard a cry in the
distance, like that of a child in distress. We listened for a moment,
and then both of us plunged into the forest to seek the cause of this
lamentation, and offer relief, if it should be needed. It grew more and
more distinct as we proceeded, until at last, when we had reached the
spot, beneath a lofty hemlock, whence the sounds seemed to issue, it
suddenly ceased. We looked around in every direction, and were not a
little astonished that no human being was there. The space beneath the
tree was open; not a bush or shrub was near to obstruct our sight, or
afford concealment to any object that might have been the occasion of
the thrilling cries we had heard.

While Matthew and myself stood looking at each other in amazement, I
heard a slight rustling in the boughs of the hemlock, over our heads.
I turned my eyes instantly in that direction, and met the gaze of the
fiercest looking animal I had ever beheld. It was of the size of a
large dog, with the figure of a cat, and was crouching as if to spring
upon its prey. I had not time for reflection, for it leaped like an
arrow from the bow, making me the object of its aim. Down came the
formidable beast, its jaws expanded, its legs stretched out, and its
claws displayed, ready to grapple me as it fell.

By instinct, rather than reason, I bent forward, and the creature
passed over my head, striking directly against the foot of a sapling
that stood in the way. My friend had seen the whole manœuvre, and
was ready, with his uplifted cane, to give him battle. Though stunned,
the creature turned upon me, but he received from Matthew a rap over
the skull that made him reel. At the same time my friend caught hold of
his long tail, and drew him back, for he was at the instant about to
fix his fangs upon me. Thus insulted, the enraged brute turned upon his
enemy behind; but Mat held on to the tail with one hand, and pummelled
him with the other. At the same time, in order to secure his advantage
and keep off the teeth and claws of the monster, he gave him a whirling
motion. So, round and round they went, the cudgel flying like a flail,
and the beast leaping, scratching, and howling, till the woods echoed
with the sound. There was an odd mixture of sublimity and fun in the
affair, that even then, in the moment of peril, I could not fail to
feel. Mat’s hat had flown off, his hair streamed in the wind, and his
glaring eyeballs watching every twist and turn of his enemy; his cane
went rapidly up and down; and all the while he was twitched and jerked
about in a circle, by the struggles of the beast.

This passed in the space of a few seconds, and I had hardly time to
recover my self-possession, before Matthew and the monster were both
getting out of breath. I thought it was now time for me to join in the
fight, and, approaching the beast, I laid my cane, with the full weight
of both hands, over his head. It was a lucky blow, for he instantly
staggered and fell upon the ground. Matthew let go his hold, and there
lay the beast prostrate before us!

“Better late than never!” said Matthew, puffing like a porpoise.
“Better late than never. Whew! I’m as hot as a flap-jack on a
griddle,--whew! The unmannerly beast!--whew! So! this is the way of
the woods, is it?--whew! You pretend to be a child in distress--whew!
and then you expect to make a supper of us!--whew! The infarnal
hyppecrite!--whew!

“Well, what sort of a beast do you call it?” said I.

“Why,” said my friend, “it’s a catamount, or a wild-cat, or a
panther--the varmint! It’s just like all other scamps; it’s got a long
parcel of names; in one place it goes by one name, and in another place
it goes by another. But it’s the most rebellious critter that ever I
met with! He came plaguy nigh givin’ your hair a combing.”

“That he did,” said I; “and if you hadn’t been here to comb his, I
should have had a hard time of it.”

“Like as not--like as not,” was the reply. “But, arter all,” said
Matthew, looking at the panther, now lying outstretched upon the
ground, and bearing all the marks of great agility and power, “arter
all, it’s a pity that such a fine fellow hadn’t better manners. It’s
one of God’s critters, and I expect that he loved life as well as his
betters. He’s a noble brute--though I can’t commend his tricks upon
travellers. Poor beast! I’m sorry for you; howsomdever, accidents will
happen: it’s all luck and chance; it might have been Bob, or it might
have been me. Well, it can’t be helped--what’s done is done.”

Matthew having settled the matter in this speech, we left the place,
and at a little distance, beneath the partial shelter of a rock, we
struck up a fire and made preparations for our repose, for it was
already night.




[Illustration]


                      PETER PARLEY’S NEW STORIES.


                                 No. 1.

                            The Two Seekers.


I promised, in my last number, to give my readers some of the genuine
stories found among old Parley’s papers. Here is one of them, and I
shall follow it with others.
                                                          R. MERRY.


There were once two boys, Philip and Frederick, who were brothers.
Philip was a cheerful, pleasant, good-natured fellow; he had always
a bright smile on his face, and it made everybody feel an emotion
of happiness just to look at him. It was like a strip of sunshine,
peeping into a dark room--it made all light and pleasant around.

Beside this, Philip had a kind heart; indeed, his face was but a sort
of picture of his bosom. But the quality for which he was remarkable,
was a disposition to see good things, only, in his friends and
companions. He appeared to have no eye for bad qualities. If he noticed
the faults, errors, or vices of others, he seldom spoke of them. He
never came to his parents and teachers, exaggerating the naughty things
that his playmates had done. On the contrary, when he spoke of his
friends, it was generally to tell some pleasant thing they had said
or done. Even when he felt bound to notice another’s fault, he did it
only from a sense of duty, and always with reluctance, and in mild and
palliating terms.

Now Frederick was quite the reverse of all this. He loved dearly to
tell tales. Every day he came home from school, giving an account of
something wrong that had been done by his playmates, or brothers and
sisters. He never told any good of them, but took delight only in
displaying their faults. He did not tell his parents or teacher these
things from a sense of duty, but from love of scandal--from a love of
telling unpleasant tales. And, what was the worst part of it all, was
this: Frederick’s love of tale-bearing grew upon him, by indulgence,
till he would stretch the truth, and make that which was innocent in
one of his little friends, appear to be wicked. He seemed to have no
eye for pleasant and good things--he only noticed bad ones: nay, more,
he fancied that he saw wickedness, when nothing of the kind existed.
This evil propensity grew upon him by degrees; for you know that if
one gets into a bad practice, and keeps on in it, it becomes at last a
habit which we cannot easily resist. A bad habit is like an unbroke
horse, which will not mind the bit or bridle, and so is very apt to run
away with his rider.

It was just so with Frederick: he had got into the habit of looking out
for faults, and telling of faults, and now he could see nothing else,
and talk of nothing else.

Now the mother of these two boys was a good and wise woman. She noticed
the traits of character we have described, in her sons, and while
she was pleased with one, she was pained and offended on account of
the other. She often talked with Frederick, told him of his fault,
and besought him to imitate his amiable brother: but as I have said,
Frederick had indulged his love of telling tales, till it had become a
habit, and this habit every day ran away with him. At last the mother
hit upon a thing that cured Frederick of his vice--and what do you
think it was?

I will tell you, if you will just keep out of the way of my great toe.
I have got a touch of the gout, boys, and you must be careful. Tom,
Jerry, Peter!--don’t be so careless! Keep clear of my great toe, I beg
of you!

Now I do not believe that any of you can guess what it was that cured
master Frederick. It was not a pill, or a poultice; no, it was a
story--and as I think it a good one, I will tell it to you.

“There were once two boys,” said the mother, “who went forth into the
fields. One was named Horace, and the other was named Clarence. The
former was fond of anything that was beautiful--of flowers, of sweet
odors, of pleasant landscapes. The other loved things that were hideous
or hateful--as serpents, and lizards--and his favorite haunts were
slimy swamps and dingy thickets.

“One day the two boys returned from their rambles; Horace bringing a
beautiful and fragrant blossom in his hand, and Clarence bringing a
serpent. They rushed up to their mother, each anxious to show the prize
he had won. Clarence was so forward, that he placed the serpent near
his mother’s hand; whereupon the reptile put forth his forked tongue,
and then he fixed his fangs in her flesh.

“In a moment a pain darted through the mother’s frame, and her arm
began to swell up. She was in great distress, and sent for the
physician. When he came, he manifested great alarm, for he said the
serpent was an adder, and its bite was fatal, unless he could find a
rare flower, for this alone could heal the wound. While he said this,
he noticed the blossom which Horace held in his hand. He seized upon it
with joy, saying--‘This, this is the very plant I desired!’ He applied
it to the wound, and it was healed in an instant.

“But this was not the whole of the story. While these things were
taking place, the adder turned upon the hand of Clarence, and inflicted
a wound upon it. He screamed aloud, for the pain was very acute. The
physician instantly saw what had happened, and applying the healing
flower to the poor boy’s wound, the pain ceased, as if by enchantment,
and he, too, was instantly healed.”

Such was the story which the mother told to her two sons. She then
asked Frederick if he understood the meaning of the tale. The boy hung
his head, and made no answer. The mother then went on as follows:--

“My dear Frederick--the story means that he who goes forth with a love
of the beautiful, the pleasant, the agreeable, is sure to find it: and
that he who goes forth to find that which is evil, is also sure to find
what he seeks. It means that the former will bring peace and happiness
to his mother, his home, his friends; and that the latter will bring
home evil--evil to sting his mother, and evil that will turn and sting
himself. The story means that we can find good, if we seek it, in our
friends, and that this good is like a sweet flower, a healing plant,
imparting peace and happiness to all around. The story means that we
can find or fancy evil, if we seek for it, in our friends; but that,
like an adder, this only wounds others, and poisons those who love to
seize upon it.”

Now this was the way the mother cured her son. Frederick took the story
to heart; he laid it up in his memory. When he was tempted to look out
for the faults of his companions, and to carry them home, he thought of
the adder, and turning away from evil, he looked out for good; and it
was not long before he was as successful in finding it as his brother
Philip.




                          Resistance to Pain.


On one occasion, while some missionaries at South Africa were at dinner
in their tent, some of the native chiefs and their wives being present,
one of them seeing Mr. Read, a missionary, help himself to cayenne
pepper, its red color attracted his attention, and he asked for some of
it. On getting the cayenne, he instantly threw a quantity of it upon
his tongue, but on feeling its pungency, he shut his eyes, clapped his
hand upon his mouth, and holding down his head, endeavored manfully to
conceal the pain. When he was able to look up, he slyly touched Mr.
Read with his foot to intimate that he should say nothing, but give the
same dose to the others present. Another chief next got some, who also
instantly felt its powers; but, understanding the joke, as soon as he
was able to speak, he asked for some for his wife; and thus it went
round, to the great diversion of all present.




[Illustration: _Indian children singing._]


   Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c., of the Indians of America.


                             CHAPTER XIII.

  _South America continued.--Discovery of Brazil.--Character of
     its inhabitants.--Their treachery and cannibalism.--Notice of
     the first emigrants.--Missionaries.--Teaching the children
     to sing.--Effect of music on the natives.--Present state of
     the country.--Personal appearance of the Indians.--Manner of
     living.--Botucudoes.--Description of this tribe.--General
     description.--Horses, weapons, ornaments.--Religion.--Remarks._


Brazil was discovered in 1500. The first Spaniard who ventured to
cross the equinoctial was Vincent Pinzon. He landed at a point on the
coast of Brazil, about twenty miles south of Pernambuco. A fleet was
soon after sent out from Portugal, in which sailed that fortunate
adventurer, Americus Vespucius, who has given his name to the New World.

The Indians of Brazil were real savages, perfidious, cruel, and
cannibals, who scarcely appear to have had a noble or generous trait in
their characters. The dreadful depravity of these tribes seems to have
infused the spirit of the furies into the female heart; and when the
women of a nation are rendered ferocious, there is little if any chance
that the nation will ever, by their own efforts, become civilized. The
following account of the first interview between the Portuguese and the
Brazilian Indians is sufficient to show the spirit of the latter.

When the ships arrived on the coast, in latitude 5 deg. S., there was
a party of natives discovered on a hill near the shore. Two sailors
volunteered to go ashore, and several days passed without their return.
At length the Portuguese landed, sent a young man to meet the savages,
and returned to their boats. The _women_ came forward to meet him,
apparently as negociators. They surrounded him and seemed examining
him with curiosity and wonder. Presently there came down another woman
from the hill, having a stake in her hand, with which she got behind
him, and dealt him a blow that brought him to the ground. Immediately
the others seized him by the feet, and dragged him away, and then the
Indian men, rushing to the shore, discharged their arrows at the boats.

The boats finally escaped, but the men had to witness the horrid sight
of their poor comrade destroyed by the ruthless savages. The women cut
the body in pieces, and held up the mutilated limbs in mockery; then,
broiling them over a huge fire, which had been prepared, as it seemed,
for that purpose, with loud rejoicings, they devoured them in presence
of the Portuguese. The Indians also made signs that they had eaten the
two sailors![1]

It will not be pleasant or useful to give any more minute accounts
of the practice of cannibalism. Suffice it to say, that the tribes
inhabiting the southern part of South America, appear to have been in
the grossest ignorance and most deplorable state of vice and misery
to which human beings can be reduced. They were more like tigers
and serpents than men; for they used poisoned arrows, deadly as the
“serpent’s tooth,” in battle; and they tore and devoured their enemies
with the voracity of beasts of prey.

The Europeans who first settled in Brazil, had to gain all their
possessions by the sword; and few would go voluntarily to such a place;
the Portuguese settlers were mostly convicts, banished for their
crimes. As might be expected, this class of men, rendered desperate by
their situation, and often hardened in crime, were not very merciful
to the natives, who showed them no mercy. The bloody conflicts and
atrocities on both sides were awful; yet we cannot feel the same
sympathy for the cannibal Indian as for the gentle Peruvian, when his
country is laid waste by the invader.

It was about fifty years from the time of the first landing of the
Portuguese, before a regular government was established, and a governor
appointed by the king of Portugal. Then the Jesuits established
themselves in Brazil, and began their labor of Christianizing the
savages. Several tribes had entered into alliance with the colonists,
and these Indians were, by the governor, forbidden to eat human flesh.
To conquer this propensity, was the great aim of the Jesuits; but
finding they could not reclaim the old ones, they set themselves to
instructing the children.

One gentle propensity these Brazilian savages showed, which seems
hardly compatible with their cruel and vindictive characters--they were
passionately fond of music--so fond, that one Jesuit thought he could
succeed in Christianizing them by means of songs.

He taught the children to sing; and when he went on his preaching
expeditions, he usually took a number of these little choristers, and
when they drew near an inhabited place, one child carried the crucifix
before them, and the others followed, singing the litany. The savages,
like snakes, were won by the voice of the charmer, and received the
Jesuit joyfully.

He set the catechism, creed and ordinary prayers to _sol fa_; and the
pleasure of learning to sing was such a temptation, that the little
savages frequently ran away from their parents to put themselves under
the care of the Jesuits.

The Jesuits labored with the most devoted zeal to convert the natives.
Their labors were of great effect; and gradually a change has been
wrought, and the cannibal propensities, among those tribes that still
remain independent, are no longer indulged.

Many missions, as they are called, that is, villages, where a priest
resides, and instructs the Indians in agriculture and the most
essential arts of civilized life, as well as in their catholic duties,
were established by the Jesuits, and are still continued. One very
unfortunate circumstance has done much to alienate the independent
tribes from their white neighbors. It was thought best to make slaves
of the savages, in order to civilize them. Walsh thus describes the
decree and its effect:--

“The Indians were, as late as 1798, the occupants of the woods,
and were generally found resident on the banks of the rivers and
streams, which intersected the country. An elderly gentleman, who was
secretary to the undertaking, informed me that it was necessary for
the commissioners and workmen to go constantly armed, to be protected
against their hostility. The Puvis lay on the river Parahiba, and
others on the streams which fall into it.

“By a mistaken humanity, however, permission was afterwards given to
the Brazilians, to convert their neighbors to Christianity; and for
this laudable object, they were allowed to retain them in a state of
bondage for ten years, and then dismiss them free, when instructed
in the arts of civilized life, and the more important knowledge of
Christianity. This permission, as was to be expected, produced the very
opposite effects.

“A decree for the purpose was issued so late as the year 1808, by Don
John, and it was one of the measures which he thought best to reclaim
the aborigines, who had just before committed some ravages. He directed
that the Indians who were conquered, should be distributed among the
agriculturalists, who should support, clothe, civilize, and instruct
them in the principles of our holy religion, but should be allowed to
use the services of the same Indians for a certain number of years, in
compensation for the expense of their instruction and management.

“This unfortunate permission at once destroyed all intercourse between
the natives and the Brazilians. The Indians were everywhere hunted down
for the sake of their salvation; wars were excited among the tribes,
for the laudable purpose of bringing in each other captives, to be
converted to Christianity; and the most sacred objects were prostituted
to the base cupidity of man, by even this humane and limited permission
of reducing his fellow-creatures to slavery.

“In the distant provinces, particularly on the banks of the Maranhão,
it is still practised, and white men set out for the woods, to seek
their fortunes; that is, to hunt Indians and return with slaves. The
consequence was, that all who could escape, retired to the remotest
forests; and there is not one to be now found in a state of nature, in
all the wooded region.

“It frequently happened, as we passed along, that dark wreaths of what
appeared like smoke, arose from among distant trees on the sides of
the mountains, and they seemed to us to be decisive marks of Indian
wigwams; but we found them to be nothing more than misty exhalations,
which shot up in thin, circumscribed columns, exactly resembling smoke
issuing from the aperture of a chimney.

“We met, however, one in the woods with a copper-colored face, high
cheekbones, small dark eyes approaching each other, a vacant, stupid
cast of countenance, and long, lank, black hair, hanging on his
shoulders. He had on him some approximation to a Portuguese dress,
and belonged to one of the aldêas formed in this region; but he had
probably once wandered about these woods in a state of nature, where he
was now going peaceably along on an European road.

“We had passed along through Valença, one of these aldêas of the
Indians of the valley of Parahiba, Christianized and taught the arts of
civilized life. Another, called the Aldêa da Pedra, is situated on the
river, nearer to its mouth, where the people still retain their erratic
habits, though apparently conforming to our usages.

“They live in huts, thatched with palm leaves; and when not engaged
in hunting and fishing, which is their chief and favorite employment,
they gather ipecacuanha, and fell timber. They are docile and pacific,
having no cruel propensities, but are disposed to be hospitable to
strangers. Their family attachments are not very strong, either for
their wives or children, as they readily dispose of both to a traveller
for a small compensation.”[2]

One of the most ferocious tribes of Brazil was the Botucudoes,[3]
thought to be the remains of a powerful and most cruel tribe, which
the early settlers called Aymores. This tribe disfigured themselves by
making a large hole in the under lip, and wearing therein a piece of
white wood or some ornament. They also cut large holes in their ears,
and stick feathers in the aperture for ornaments. They used to go
entirely naked, and, brown as the beasts of the forest, were frightful
objects to behold.

“The Brazilian government deserves credit for the manner in which it
has managed these Indians. They lived on the Rio Doce, and laid waste
every settlement attempted in that beautiful and fertile region. In
1809, a party of Europeans were sent up the river, and they found one
hundred and fifty farms in ruins, whose proprietors had either perished
or fled. Detachments were accordingly ordered in all directions, to
restrain their inroads and to punish their aggressions, and every
encouragement was held out, to establish new settlements and civilize
them.

“Every village consisting of twelve huts of Indians and ten of Whites,
was to be considered a villa, with all its benefits and privileges,
and sesmarios or grants of land were made to such as would become
cultivators, giving all the privileges and advantages of original
donotorios. New roads were then opened to form more easy communication,
and considerable effect was produced on these intractable natives. The
Puvis, a neighboring tribe, to the number of one thousand, were located
in villages, called aldêas; and the arts and industry of civilized life
made more progress among them in a few years from this period, than
they had before done in so many centuries.”[4]

In personal appearance, the Brazilian Indians were stout and well
made; but the tribes differed considerably in height; some races being
shorter than the average measure of the red men, or not more than
five feet five inches; and other tribes, particularly the Botucudoes,
were uncommonly tall. They all went naked, or nearly so, and were
excessively filthy, so that their skins were a deeper shade of brown
than the Indians of Mexico and Peru; and, compared with the clean and
becomingly clothed Araucanian, these Brazilians seemed indeed savages.

Their huts--houses they could scarcely be called--were of the rudest
kind. The stems of young trees and poles stuck in the ground, are
bent at the top and tied together, and then a covering of cocoa or
patioba leaves was laid on. These huts were very flat and low. Near
each of them was a sort of grate, consisting of four prongs stuck in
the ground, on which were laid four sticks, and these were crossed by
others laid pretty close, for the purpose of roasting or broiling their
game.

Their weapons were bows and arrows, and many of the tribes had the art
of poisoning their arrows. This appeared to be almost the only art
they had discovered. Nor had they any manufactures; for their uncouth
ornaments evinced so little design or industry in their formation,
that they are hardly worth naming. The women wore beads made of hard
berries, or the teeth of animals, and sometimes bunches of feathers in
their ears.

Both sexes occasionally painted their bodies black and their faces
red. The men wore round their neck, attached to a strong cord, their
most precious jewel, a knife. Before the settlement of Europeans this
was made of bone, or stone. They had no canoes nor any notion of
navigation; and some historians assert that they could not swim.

Their religious ideas were of the grossest kind. They believed in
malignant demons, great and small, and were afraid to pass the night in
the forest alone. They held the moon in high veneration, and thought
her influence caused the thunder and lightning. They had a tradition
of a general deluge; but they had no distinct idea or hope of a future
state.

From this dreadful ignorance and degradation, many of the tribes, or
the remnants of them rather, are now in some measure redeemed. The
labors of missionaries, and the exertions of the government, are still
directed to the improvement of the Indian subjects of the emperor of
Brazil; and though they are still very ignorant and very indolent,
it is greatly to the praise of the Portuguese inhabitants of South
America, that they have not made the natives of the country they have
conquered, worse than they found them.


     [1] See Southey’s History of Brazil.

     [2] See Walsh’s Notices of Brazil.

     [3] See Mrs. Graham’s Journal of a Voyage to Brazil.

     [4] See Walsh’s Notices of Brazil.




                 The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                           of Thomas Trotter.


                              CHAPTER XV.

  _Detention at Lipari.--Passage to Naples in a felucca.--Prospect
     of the Bay of Naples.--Novel sensations on landing in the
     city.--Strange appearances in the streets.--View of the city
     from the hill of St. Elmo.--Lively manners of the Neapolitans._


My readers left me at the island of Lipari, to which place I had been
driven by a storm, while voyaging from Messina toward Naples. Our
vessel was too much shattered by the gale to put to sea again, and
I had the prospect of a long stay at this island, which was little
agreeable to me. There was not much on the island that excited my
curiosity; besides, I was in a hurry to get to Naples, where a thousand
interesting and wonderful objects lay open to my observation. Very
luckily for me, on the fourth day of my stay at the island, a felucca
from Palermo touched there, and I was gratified by the information that
she was bound from thence directly to Naples. I immediately struck a
bargain for a passage in her.

The felucca was a vessel of about sixty tons, with two masts and lateen
sails. We had a good wind, and on the morning of the second day, as I
went on deck, I found we were close to the Italian shore, near the Bay
of Naples. We steered between the island of Capri and the main land.
Capri is a mountainous island, with steep, rocky shores, worn into
arches and caverns by the surf. Little villages and country houses
spotted the surface of it in different parts: and a lofty castle
frowned over our heads as we sailed under the steep cliff that looks
toward the continent. As we proceeded further, the wide bay of Naples
opened in all its magnificent beauty upon us, and as we rounded the
rocky promontory of Sorrento, Mount Vesuvius burst upon the view,
sending forth a column of white smoke from its lofty summit, and
lording it over the whole scene.

Hardly anything can surpass the beauty of this celebrated bay. We have
no scenery in America of a class to compare with it. The novelty of the
objects strikes the beholder no less than their beauty and grandeur.
The great volcano rises proudly in a black-looking mass from the inner
shore of the bay. The dark and rocky coast on one hand is dotted with
white houses all along the water’s edge. On the opposite side, the
great city of Naples rises in a pile of white walls from the water,
with her castles, domes, and turrets. Three or four islands, of the
most beautiful forms imaginable, lie about the mouth of the bay, and
diversify the prospect in that quarter. Castles and palaces stud the
water’s edge in every quarter, for here is no tide which leaves the
strand bare, and the sea beats only in a gentle surf, which gives
additional beauty to the scene along the shore. So enchanting is the
whole prospect that it has given rise to a proverbial saying among the
Italians, “_See Naples, and then die_.”

There were no large vessels under sail in the bay. A few fishing boats
were plying their occupation near the shore, and some small craft were
stretching across from Sorrento to the city. All the large shipping lay
in the upper part of the bay, behind the mole. Here I found an immense
collection of vessels, lying closely in rows, five or six deep, along
the shore. There are no wharves. The shore is so bold that vessels may
lie close to the land. I was surprised to find this enormous fleet all
lying idle. They were stripped of their sails, and mostly bedecked with
barnacles and sea-weed, as if they had long been out of occupation.
In fact, there is very little commerce carried on by the Neapolitans.
Their own ships lie rotting in the bay, while most of their maritime
trade is carried on by French and English merchantmen. American vessels
hardly ever touch at Naples, on account of the high port-charges.

When I got on shore it seemed to me that I was transported into the
midst of Babel. Such a crowd of people, such noise, confusion, bawling,
chattering, vociferating, and hurly-burly I never before witnessed
in my life. I believe the world does not afford another such a scene
as the streets of Naples. Everybody seems to be out of doors, and in
constant talk, bustle, hurry and agitation. The streets are crowded
with passengers; and the _Toledo_, which is the main street of the
city, has all day long a crowd in it as dense, lively, and tumultuous
as that of Boston mall on election day. It seemed almost to me that
I had never been alive before, such exhilaration and excitement were
produced by the novelty of the scene. People do not confine themselves
to the side-walks, for there are none in the city; but crowd the whole
breadth of the street: and all descriptions and classes of people mix
up together, without any regard to the distinction of dress, gentility,
or rank. Gentlemen, ladies, beggars, hawkers, pedlers, children,
carriages, horsemen, donkeys, and herds of goats, are all jumbled up
together in an ever-shifting confusion. It is more picturesque than
any scene that was ever exhibited at a theatre. As often as a chaise
or carriage comes along, the cry of “_gard! gard!_” causes the throng
to open and let the vehicle pass. It was the greatest astonishment to
me that a hundred people were not run over and killed, the first day
that I took my walk through the streets; yet no fatal accident occurred
within my observation.

Nothing makes a stronger contrast with our manners than the propensity
of these people to keep out of doors. They seem to have no privacy,
but do almost everything, in the way of business or amusement, in the
streets.

The shopkeeper carries his goods into the street, and spreads them
over the ground. The cobbler takes his seat outside the door, thumps
his lapstone, and pulls away at his waxed-end, lifting his head at the
passer-by, and inquiring, “any shoes to mend?” The confectioner and
the baker have their little portable ovens in the street, and offer
cakes and comfits piping hot. Cookery of all sorts is going on in the
open air, and at every step you may smell the savory steam of the
frying-pans, stew-pans, and griddles. The brokers and money-changers
sit at their tables, tossing over heaps of silver coin. Old women squat
down in the street to darn stockings and patch their gowns: others
toddle about with a spindle and distaff, spinning flax. Countrymen,
driving their donkeys, loaded with fruit and vegetables, cry their
articles for sale: everybody has something to say, and the jargon,
clatter and tumult can never be adequately conceived except by an
actual witness.

The Toledo is about as wide as Washington street, in Boston; but most
of the others are very narrow. The houses are seven, eight, and nine
stories high. Generally every story is occupied by a separate family.
Those who live in the upper stories do not take the trouble to go down
if they wish to buy anything that is passing in the street, but lower a
basket from the window. In looking through a street, you may see, in
the forenoon, sometimes, fifty or a hundred of these baskets at a time,
dangling in the air. The houses are built of a coarse, soft stone, and
covered with a white plastering. Many of them are painted to resemble
brick, which is a more costly and durable material here than the common
building stone.

A steep and lofty hill rises immediately back of the city, on the top
of which stands an old castle. I climbed to the top of the hill by a
zig-zag road furnished with stone steps. From this spot I had a most
enchanting view of the city and bay. Innumerable domes, covered with
glazed tiles of variegated color, sparkled in the bright sun; and the
blue waters of the bay spread beautifully out beyond, bounded by the
majestic pile of Vesuvius, and the romantic shores of Sorrento. But
what struck me as the most novel, was the remarkable hum of the city.
It was not the ordinary clatter and roar of carriage wheels, but the
audible murmur of three hundred thousand human voices, which broke on
my ear in a continuous roll, like the moan of the distant ocean. The
city is like a great bee-hive where the inhabitants keep up a constant
hum.

To describe the amusements, the lively and comical manners of the
Neapolitans, which render the streets of the city a perpetual fair and
spectacle, night and day, would require a volume. The ordinary manners
of the people, when engaged in the common transactions of life, are
full of action, grimace, and theatrical flourish. Two fellows, making
a bargain, will chatter, bawl, exclaim, sputter, roll up their eyes,
shrug their shoulders, flourish their arms, stamp their feet, cut
capers, and practise the most extravagant grimaces; you would think
they were going to claw each other’s eyes out; yet they are only
higgling about the value of a sixpence. If you ask the price of an
article, in the street, you will be told that it is five dollars; but
there will be no difficulty in beating it down to half a dollar. They
think it not at all disreputable to impose on a stranger, and make him
pay ten times the value of a thing. When they are reproached with these
transactions, they smile in your face, and ask you how you can expect a
poor man to be honest!




The following story is extracted from a little book entitled “Moral
Tales, by Robert Merry,” and published by John S. Taylor & Co., New
York.


                            Cheerful Cherry;


                        OR, MAKE THE BEST OF IT.


“Oh dear me,” said Frederic; “how the wind does blow! It will take my
hat off and throw it into the pond! I wish it wouldn’t blow so!”

“Oh dear, oh dear!” said little Philip, set agoing by the cries and
complaints of his elder brother; “Oh dear, naughty wind, blow Philip
away!”

“How it does rain!” said Frederic.

“Oh how it rain!” said Philip.

“Oh dear, I’m so wet!” said Frederic.

“Oh! Philip all wet!” said the little boy.

“Nonsense, nonsense,” said Geraldine; “don’t mind the wind and the
rain. Why, Freddy, you should be more of a man. Philip, my dear, it
won’t hurt you to get a little wet. You are not made of sugar, child!
We’ll run home as fast as we can, and if you get wet I’ll put you on a
nice dry apron, and a dry gown, and you will be all right again. Come
along! Don’t mind the storm, Freddy. Always make the best of it. We’ll
soon get home!”

Thus cheered by their sister, who was considerably older than
themselves, the children scampered towards the house as fast as their
little feet could carry them. On the way, Freddy’s hat was taken off
by the wind, and away it went, hop, skip, jump, across the field.
Geraldine, or Cherry, as she was familiarly called by the family, left
Philip, and gave chase to the runaway hat. It was a funny race, for the
hat really seemed as if it was alive, and having gained its freedom,
was determined to take final leave of its proprietor. At one time it
rolled along edgewise, like a hoop, and then it leaped from a little
eminence, and skimmed away on the wind, like a hawk with expanded
wings. At last, it seemed to pause for a moment, and Cherry, who was
close upon it, reached out her hand to take it. But just then a puff of
wind lifted it high in the air, whirled it round and round, and with a
determined sweep, cast it into the edge of the pond.

Cherry still pursued, and nothing daunted by the water, in she went,
and seizing the truant hat brought it safely to land. It was dripping
with water when she gave it to Frederic, who, greatly distressed at
the unaccountable behavior of his hat, stood crying where Cherry had
left him. Philip was at his side, and encouraged by the example of his
brother was crying at the top of his little lungs.

“Don’t cry, Freddy! don’t cry, Philip!” said Cherry; “there’s no harm
done!”

“I say there is,” said Frederic; “it’s all wet!”

“Oh dear, it’s all wet, it’s all wet!” said Philip.

“Oh poh!” said Cherry; “that’s nothing; _always make the best of it_,
Frederic! We’ll soon be home now: don’t stop to cry about it--come!
come! We’ll be all safe in a few minutes, and then what a laugh we’ll
have! We’ll tell mother all about it--how the rain and the wind came,
and how Fred’s hat ran away, and jumped into the pond, and how I dove
in to get it! Come on! come on!”

Thus cheered and encouraged, the children hurried forward, and were
shortly safe at home. By the time they arrived there they had been put
in good spirits by Cherry, and instead of weeping and wailing about
their adventures and mishaps, they laughed about them very heartily,
and told the story to their mother with the greatest glee.

“Oh mother,” said Frederic; “we have had such a funny time!”

“Oh! mamma, funny time!” said little Philip, determined to have his
share in the glory.

“Oh yes,” said Frederic; “it rained big drops, and it blew a hurricane.”

“Yes,” said Philip, impatient to speak; “a hallycane, a great big
hallycane, as big as a barn!”

“Yes, mother,” continued Frederic; “and the hurrycane took my hat, and
it went whirling along just like a hoop, and then it went a great way
up into the air, and then it went right down into the pond, and ’twould
have drownded if Cherry had not gone into the pond, and got it out.”

“Yes, so ’twas,” said Philip; “Freddy’s hat went right into the pond,
and was all drownded, and Cherry was all drownded, and the hallycane
was all drownded, and the pond was all drownded, and everything was all
drownded, and it was all so funny!”

This eloquent speech of little Philip’s caused a merry laugh in the
party--the mother and Cherry and Frederic all joining in it--and Philip
was so cheered by the applause, that, like an orator of the stump, he
went on in the same strain, raising his voice, and throwing up his
hands, until he was quite out of breath.

Thus the disagreeable adventure of the morning, instead of being a
source of sorrow and vexation, was turned into a pleasant channel,
and it was a long time remembered as the occasion of agreeable
recollections.

Now it will be seen by the reader, that Cherry, through her
cheerfulness, by _making the best of it_, drew pleasure and mirth
out of circumstances, which, in most cases, would have been sources
of trouble and sorrow. Nor was this all: for she taught her little
brothers that even misfortunes, met by gaiety of heart and cheerfulness
of mind, cease to be misfortunes, and are turned into blessings. And
Cherry’s example may teach us all that cheerfulness has a power that
can transform many of the evils, accidents, and adversities of life
into sources of positive pleasure.

If this virtue of cheerfulness, then, have such a wonderful power, why
should we not all cultivate it? It is certainly worth more than silver
and gold, for these cannot insure happiness: we may still, though we
possess riches, be ill-tempered, discontented, malicious, envious, and
consequently miserable. But cheerfulness chases out these bad passions
from the heart, and leaves it peaceful and happy. Cheerfulness is like
sunshine: it clears away clouds and storms and tempests, and brings
fair weather over the soul.

This subject is so important, that I propose to tell my young reader
something more about Cheerful Cherry; thus hoping to impress her
example on the mind, and render the lesson I would teach enduring and
effectual.

Cherry’s father, whose name was Larkin, removed from his home in the
country, and lived in Boston, where he pursued the business of a
merchant. Now, when spring comes, we all know that it is a delightful
thing for city people to get out into the country, where they can see
the green fields, gather wild flowers, and hear the birds sing.

Well, two or three years after the storm I have described, once when
spring had come, Mr. Larkin told his children, on a Friday evening,
that it was his intention to take the whole family in a carryall, the
next day, to Chelsea Beach, about five miles from Boston. This promise
delighted the children very much, for they wanted to go into the
country, and above all they wished to go to Chelsea Beach. Frederic
was in ecstasies, and Philip, as usual, echoed his older brother’s
thoughts, words and feelings.

When it came time to retire to bed, the two boys could not go to sleep
for a long time, so excited were they by their hopes and wishes and
expectations for the morrow. At last they sunk to repose, but they woke
as early as the lark, and talked of their enterprise till the time came
to be dressed, and go down to breakfast.

What was the disappointment of the family, and especially of Frederic
and Philip, to find that the weather was chill, cloudy and rainy, so as
entirely to forbid the idea of taking the proposed excursion! Frederic
pouted, and Philip cried.

“Oh dear, dear, dear!” said Frederic; “I wish this ugly rain would
stop!”

“Oh dear,” said Philip; “wish ugly rain go away!”

“Father,” said Frederic; “why can’t we go to Chelsea Beach?”

“Why, it rains very fast! my son,” was the reply.

“Well, I don’t mind that! we can go as it is.”

“Certainly you wouldn’t go in such a storm?”

“Yes I would: I don’t care for the storm!”

Such was the reply of Frederic, and nothing could be said by his
father or mother, to pacify him or little Philip. They both became
sulky, and were sent out of the room. Cherry now came to them, and
began to talk in her cheerful way with them.

“Why, what’s the matter now?”

“We want to go to Chelsea Beach; father promised to take us there,”
said Frederic.

“Yes,” said Cherry; “he promised to take us, but it was under the idea
that it would be pleasant weather. I am as sorry as you are not to go.
I wished very much to pick up some shells along the beach; and to see
the blue ocean; and to observe the white gulls, skimming and screaming
over the water; and to watch the vessels, with white sails, gliding by
in the distance. I love the ocean, and every time I see it, it makes my
heart beat, as if I had met some dear friend, whom I had not seen for a
long time.”

“And so do I love the ocean, and wish this dirty rain had kept away,”
said Frederic, with a very sour face.

“And so do I love the ocean, and the rain is very naughty!” said
Philip, in the same temper as his brother; for it is to be observed
that one child is very apt to reflect the feelings of another.

“Well, well!” said Cherry; “you may call the rain all the hard names
you please: you cannot mend the matter. The rain does not come or go at
your bidding. Do you know who makes the rain, Frederic?”

“Yes, God makes it,” was the answer.

“Yes, my dear brother,” said Cherry; “God makes it rain, and do you
think it right to bestow hard words upon that which is God’s work? Is
it right to grumble or complain on account of what God is doing?”

“I did not think of that!” said Frederic.

“I know you did not,” said his sister; “if you had thought of it, I
am sure you would not have spoken so: but we ought always to consider
that what God does is right, and instead of grumbling at it, we should
feel cheerful and content; knowing that what he does is not only always
right, but for the best. Now I wish to show you that in this case, it
is for the best that it should rain.

“You know that it is now spring: that is, all the buds of the trees,
and flowers, and seeds, are now springing forth. Well, these things
all need rain, for it is as necessary that they should have drink, as
that little children should. Now God looks down upon the earth, and
he sees millions and millions of buds, lifting up their heads, and
asking for drink. The sun has been shining very warmly for several
days, and all the plants, the grasses of a hundred kinds, the roses,
the dandelions, the lilacs, the daphnes, the leaves of the trees--all,
all are thirsting for water, and these myriad children of God look up
to him and ask him for rain. And God says, ‘Let there be rain!’ and
the rain begins to fall, and the leaves, and grasses, and plants, and
shrubs, and trees are rejoicing; when, lo! Frederic Larkin comes forth,
and calls out, ‘Stop, stop, rain! or I can’t go to Chelsea Beach!’”

Here Frederic smiled, and though he felt the absurdity and
unreasonableness of his conduct, he was silent, and Cherry went on as
follows: “You see, Frederic, how very important it is that we should
have rain; for without it the grass and grain would perish, and we
should perish too for the want of food. The rain that falls to-day,
will probably be the cause of producing food enough for ten thousand
people a whole year: and you, just for the sake of going to Chelsea
Beach, would prevent all this good; you, for a day’s pleasure, would
make ten thousand people starve.”

“But I didn’t think of all this,” said Frederic.

“I know you did not,” said Cherry; “and I am not complaining of you; I
am only telling you these things, so that when the rain comes in the
way of your pleasure or your plans, you may see that it is all for the
best. If, instead of looking out for causes of discontent, we would
always regard the bright side of things, we could never fail of finding
something to make us cheerful.

“Now as it regards this matter of the rain, if any one had the power of
putting it off, we should never have any rain, and therefore all the
living things in the world would starve. You would put it off to-day,
because you want to go to Chelsea Beach: somebody else would put it off
to-morrow, for then he would want to go there, or somewhere else. The
next day some other person would put it off; and so it would be put off
and put off, till all plants would perish, and the earth would become a
scene of desolation.

“Now God, instead of entrusting so important a matter as rain to us
short-sighted human beings, has kept it in his own hands: and now tell
me, Frederic, are you not satisfied, nay, happy that he has done so?”

“Yes, I am,” said Frederic; “I did not mean to complain of God.”

“I know you did not, my dear brother,” said Cherry; “and what I am now
saying is not designed to rebuke you, but to make you take a right view
of this matter; for if you will do this, you will be able, even when
your favorite plans are thwarted by the dispensations of Providence, to
turn the sources of disappointment into sources of peace and content.
When we find our schemes marred, our wishes defeated by the weather,
or some other event of Providence, we can reflect that it is best
that it should be so; it is best, as well for others as ourselves;
and this conviction, if it is sincere, will reconcile us to every
disappointment.”

By such talk as this, Cherry soon put her little brothers in good
humor; partly by making them forget the cause of their vexation, and
partly by making them feel and see that it is right that God should
rule the weather, and that his creatures should cheerfully submit to
his doings. Beside all this, they had now acquired some new ideas, and
these were a source of diversion. Frederic himself went to the window,
and looking across the street, saw there a climbing rose, against the
side of the house, just putting forth its rosy buds; and, for the
first time in his life, it seemed to him one of the children of God,
looking to its heavenly Father for water: and thus it was that the rose
acquired a new interest in his eyes; he now saw that it was an object
for which even God had cared.

He also reflected upon the vastness of God’s works, as compared with
those of man; for while God was sending his clouds to quench the thirst
of myriads of plants, and provide for millions of animated beings, he
was only thinking of himself and his ride to Chelsea Beach.

After Frederic had been standing at the window for some time, Cherry,
who had been out of the room, returned, and sitting down, called
Frederic to her side, and said that she would tell him a story. He
therefore seated himself, and she proceeded as follows:--

“In Europe there is a country called Greece, the people of which, two
or three thousand years ago, believed in a deity whom they called
Jove. The people fancied that he lived up in a tall mountain, called
Olympus, and from this place issued forth his decrees. They believed
that he ruled over the earth; that he made the clouds; and bade them go
forth to water the earth; that he made the thunder and the lightning,
and commanded them to display his power; that he made the sun, and
required it to rise upon the world, giving light and heat to its
inhabitants. Now I will tell you a sort of fancy story, founded upon
these notions of the ancient Greeks. At the foot of mount Olympus,
there was a little village, the people of which were always grumbling
at the weather. It was always too wet or too dry, too hot or too cold.
Even when the weather was appropriate to the season of the year, there
were some persons in the village always finding fault with it. If
Jove sent a shower of rain, it always produced dissatisfaction and
disappointment to some of the people. Some wished to go a fishing, and
the rain interfered. Some wished to proceed on a journey, and they
were disappointed. Some wished to work in their fields--some to go on
excursions of pleasure, and the rain prevented the execution of their
several plans.

“Now the murmurs of this people came to the ears of Jove, and he
determined to show them their folly. Accordingly he sent them a
messenger, called Mercury,--a lively little fellow, with wings at his
shoulders and his heels, which enabled him to fly very swiftly, and
execute his master’s commands with despatch.

“Mercury flew to the village, and told the people that Jove, having
heard their complaints, had concluded to resign his government over the
weather, and give it up to them; that, accordingly, he had commanded
the clouds and the rain, the thunder and the lightning, the sun and the
wind, the heat and the cold to obey the inhabitants of the village.

“This annunciation was received by the people of the village with the
greatest demonstrations of joy. They assembled in the street of the
place, and bade Mercury take back their thanks to Jove, their benignant
master. Mercury promised to do this; ‘but,’ said he, ‘I have one thing
more to communicate: that all may be satisfied, it is Jove’s decree
that you must be unanimous in your proceedings. The sun will not rise
while one individual opposes it: nor will it rain till every one is
ready; and in fact, all the business of making the weather must stop,
until all are prepared.’ The people, considering this as a new evidence
of Jove’s justice and mercy, shouted aloud in their exultation, and
Mercury departed to report the reception of his message to his master.

“It was evening when Mercury went away. The next morning, at the usual
hour, the greater part of the people arose, but the sun did not appear
as before. It was the time of summer, and the hour of sunrise was four
o’clock. But now it was nine, and the sun had not risen. This caused
a good deal of confusion in the village; the farmers wished to be
at work in their fields; the dairy women wished to milk their cows;
the traveller to set out on his journey; the fisherman to go to his
nets; but all were prevented by the total darkness. The fact was that
there were some lazy people in the village, and the sun had always
risen too early for them; so now they determined to snooze it out; and
consequently it was not till twelve o’clock that all could agree to
have the sun rise; so that about half the day was lost.

“This was only the beginning of trouble; for when the sun was up,
it was difficult to get all to agree when it should set; and thus
everything was thrown into confusion. Similar difficulties occurred in
regard to everything else. The people could not all agree to have a
brisk wind for several months; in consequence of which fevers began to
visit the place, and pestilence swept off numbers of the inhabitants.
Nor could they agree upon any particular day when all were ready to
have it rain; so that at last, when they did agree, the rain was too
late, and everything was parched up; and the crops were cut off, and
the cattle died, and the people came near starving to death. Nor could
they agree upon the degree of heat that was required for vegetation;
for many people did not like hot weather, and so it was kept very cold;
and this was another reason why famine came upon the land.

“After having tried the experiment for a year, and finding that more
than one half the people of the village had perished, and that the
rest were very miserable, those that remained signified their wish to
communicate with Jove. Accordingly Mercury came to them, and the people
desired him to take back to his master the power he had placed in their
hands. ‘Tell him,’ said the people, ‘that we are now satisfied that
Jove is wiser than we; and that it is in mercy, and not in judgment,
that he has ruled over the weather. We wish to restore things to their
former condition; for we believe that it is best for man that there
should be a providence, whose ways are above our ways, and whose
thoughts are higher than our thoughts.’”

“This allegory,” continued Cherry, “may teach you, Frederic, what I
have before said, that things are better managed as they are, than if
confided to men: and instead of grumbling at the ways of providence, we
should submit to them in cheerfulness, regarding them as the ways of
a Father, who knows the wants of his creatures, and tenderly regards
their happiness.”

“This is all very well,” said Frederic; “and I thank you for it,
Cherry; but I am afraid I shall never be like you. Pray how is it,
Cherry, that you make yourself so cheerful?”

“By making the best of everything, Fred!”

“But everybody cannot do this,” was the reply.

“Yes they can, my dear Frederic; I know they can. I used to be
whimsical and capricious, myself--sometimes sweet and sometimes sour;
but our good grandmother, who is now dead, used to talk to me, and she
taught me better. She once told me a little story, which made a great
impression on my mind, and I began to practise on the plan suggested by
that story. At first I found it difficult, but after a while it came
more easy; and now it is my custom to be cheerful: it is my habit to
take pleasant views of things. When any disagreeable event occurs, I
repeat the title of the story my grandmother told me--‘_Always make
the best of it_;’ and this puts me in a right frame of mind, and so I
do make the best of it. All this is easy to me now, for it is easy to
do that which habit has rendered familiar. Our habits are of our own
making; so, if a person wishes to render cheerfulness easy, he has only
to cultivate the habit of being cheerful.”

“It must be a good story that can do such wonderful things,” said
Frederic; “pray tell it to me, Cherry.”

“With all my heart,” said Cherry; and so she went on as follows:--


                      “ALWAYS MAKE THE BEST OF IT;

                             “A FAIRY TALE.

     “In a far-off country a youth set out upon a long journey.
     One day, as he was travelling along a dusty road, he became
     very hot, and having proceeded a great distance, he grew
     fatigued, and at last angry and impatient. ‘Confound this
     dust and heat!’ said he; ‘I wonder why it must be so hot and
     dusty to-day, just as I am obliged to travel over this road.
     Why, it’s enough to melt an ox!’

     “Thus complaining of the heat and dust, the youth worked
     himself up into a fury, so that he became hotter than ever,
     and it seemed as though he would choke from the influence of
     dust, heat and passion. Just at this moment, a lively little
     woman, with bright blue eyes and flaxen hair, stepped out
     from the road-side, and joining the youth unasked, walked
     along with him. The two soon fell into conversation, and the
     youth’s mind being diverted in some degree from his
     troubles, he forgot the evils which had disturbed him
     before. Taking counsel of his companion, he walked a little
     slower; avoided the deep sand in the path, and chose his way
     along the turf by the roadside; amused himself with thinking
     of something beside his toil; and thus he forgot his cares,
     and mitigated the labors of his journey.

     “After a while, the little woman left the youth, and with a
     lightened heart he proceeded on his journey. He wished very
     much to get to a certain tavern to lodge for the night; so
     he travelled late in the evening. At last it grew very dark,
     and the youth once more became impatient. ‘I wonder why it
     need to be so horrid dark just now!’ said he. ‘Why, it’s
     black as Egypt!’ Thus talking to himself, and working his
     feelings up to a considerable pitch of discontent, he became
     careless, and ran against a post by the road-side. In an
     instant he fell to the ground, and as he was getting up he
     heard the little woman by his side.

     “‘Never mind, never mind!’ said she; ‘it’s pretty dark, but
     still we can see well enough if we are careful and patient.
     This accident arose from your indulging your passions, which
     always tend to make us blind.’ Saying this, the little lady
     took the youth’s hand, led him into the middle of the path,
     and directing him to be of good cheer, left him to proceed
     on his way.

     “The youth had not gone far, when he saw something before
     him which seemed to be a mighty giant, standing by the road,
     and stretching its long arms almost across the sky. He
     looked at it steadily for some time: at one moment it seemed
     to be a windmill, and then again it seemed to be a giant. He
     was a good deal perplexed, and though his reason told him
     that it must be a windmill, for there are no such creatures
     as giants; still his fears got the better of him, and he
     stopt short in the road, afraid to proceed any further.

     “While he stood here, his teeth beginning to chatter with
     terror, he heard the voice of the little woman, close in his
     ear. No sooner did he hear her tones, than his alarm
     vanished, and shame for his fears came over him. He
     immediately set forward, and the woman keeping along with
     him, they soon came close to the place where the occasion of
     his terror stood. There it was, an honest old windmill,
     standing perfectly still, and as little like a giant as
     possible!

     “‘You see,’ said the little woman, ‘how we get cheated, when
     our fancies get led away by our apprehensions.--Fear is
     always an unsafe guide, especially in the dark; for then it
     can turn a windmill into a giant, or a bush into a ghost.’

     “Having said this, the lively woman departed, and the youth
     soon reached the town in which he was to lodge. At the inn
     where he put up, he had a poor bed, and this vexed him very
     much. While he lay upon it, fretting and keeping himself
     awake with his murmurs, he heard the little woman’s voice,
     and looking up, there she was before him! ‘Lie down,’ said
     she--‘lie down!--and instead of magnifying the evils of your
     condition, consider that thousands are worse off than you.
     Your bed is small and rather hard, but how many are there
     that have no bed at all!’

     “Doing as he was bid, the youth lay down, and closed his
     eyes, and was soon buried in sweet repose. The next morning,
     much refreshed, he arose and proceeded on his way. He
     travelled steadily until toward evening; being then much
     fatigued, and finding the road exceedingly rough, he became
     discouraged. So he sat down by the way-side, and gave
     himself up to despair. While he sat here, wailing at his
     fate, the lively woman leaped out from some bushes, and
     placed herself before him. ‘Courage, courage, my
     friend!’--said she, cheerily; ‘you have done a good day’s
     work to-day, and the place of rest, for the night, is near
     at hand. Then do not give way to despondence! Think not of
     the evils that you have suffered, or of those that lie
     before you: dwell rather upon the good things in your
     condition. Remember how much you have done--and how little
     remains to do, before sleep will restore strength to your
     limbs and courage to your heart.’

     “Saying this, the bright-eyed lady lifted the youth from the
     ground, and reanimated him by her voice; he then left her,
     and proceeded cheerfully on his way. Soon he reached the
     place where he was to sleep for the night, and here he was
     soon buried in peaceful dreams.

     “The next day the youth proceeded on his journey--and for
     several days he continued to pursue it, until at last he had
     nearly reached the point to which he was bound. On every
     occasion when his courage had failed--when fatigue had
     oppressed him, or when difficulties had stared him in the
     face--the little lady, of flaxen hair and bright blue eyes,
     had come to his aid, and, chasing away his despondence, had
     given him new courage to proceed. As the youth came in sight
     of the city to which he was travelling, she appeared once
     more, and addressed him for the last time.

     “As he was about to bid her farewell, his heart smote him at
     the idea of parting with her forever. ‘My dear lady,’ said
     he, while he kissed her hand tenderly; ‘I owe you much more
     than my tongue can speak. You have watched over me in this
     long and tedious journey; you have lightened my burthen,
     cheered my fatigues, chased away my fears, and given me
     courage in the place of despondence. But for you, I had long
     since lain down and died in the path; or had lingered in
     misery by the way. Would that I could induce you to live
     with me forever.’

     “‘That may not, cannot be!’ said the lady, as a smile passed
     over her face; ‘that may not be. I am not of flesh and,
     blood, like you: I am a fairy--my form is but a thing of
     hues like the rainbow, that seems a bridge leading from
     earth to heaven, and yet is baseless as a dream.’

     “‘Lovely fairy,’ said the youth, kneeling; ‘pray tell me
     your name; and oh, if it be possible, tell me the art by
     which you have taught me to conquer difficulties, to rise
     above doubt, to triumph over indolence, murmuring, and
     despondency!’ The fairy replied as follows:--

     “‘Listen, youth--for I tell you an important secret. My name
     is Cheerfulness, and all my art lies in a single sentence:
     _Always make the best of it._’ So saying, the fairy
     departed, and was seen by the youth no more; but he now
     perceived the force of the fairy’s words, and practising
     accordingly, he soon possessed the great art of securing
     happiness, and of making himself agreeable to others.”




CAUTION.--As you would air a bed carefully, that has been slept in by
one afflicted with an infectious disease, so be very considerate before
you place confidence in a lawyer.




                          The War in Florida.


At the southeastern extremity of the United States, is a long Peninsula
called Florida. This name was given to it by the Spaniards, because it
seemed to them a land of flowers. It continued to belong to Spain till
about twenty years ago, when it was ceded to the United States.

Florida was occupied by several tribes of Indians, when first
discovered. Among them were the Seminoles, a branch of the Creek
nation, who dwelt in the northern part of the territory. When the
country was ceded to the United States, they held possession of the
vast tract which stretches from the Atlantic ocean to the river
Apalachicola, save only a space around the town of St. Augustine. It
was a fair land, watered with many rivers, inhabited by millions of
brilliant birds, and the dwelling-place of vast herds of deer; it was
a land of almost perpetual summer, where the orange and the lemon, and
the vine, flourished in the open air.

Notwithstanding the beauty of their country, the Seminoles consented
to part with the best portion of it. They made an agreement with the
white people, to give up all their vast territory, save only the
central portion, consisting of pine barrens and deep swamps, covered
with a wild vegetation, and the dwelling-place of alligators, serpents,
lizards, tortoises, gallanippers, and a variety of similar inhabitants.

When the time came to carry this bargain into effect, Neha Matla, a
chief of the tribe, told the Indians that they had been cheated,
overreached and deceived by the cunning whites; and he therefore urged
them to resist the treaty. But while the Indians were holding their
war-council, to deliberate upon the matter, the armed soldiers broke
in upon them, deposed the war leaders, and compelled the poor Seminoles
to retire from their land of fruits and flowers, to the pine barrens and
the swamps. They did this, but they carried the memory of their wrongs
written deep in their bosoms.

[Illustration: Osceola.]

Not long after they had taken possession of their new territory, the
Seminoles made another bargain, by which they engaged to retire from
Florida, give up their lands there, and remove to another territory,
upon the upper-waters of the Arkansas, far to the west. When the time
for removal came, the poor Indians still felt reluctant to leave the
land of their fathers, and go away to unknown and distant regions!
In order to compel them to remove, an officer of the United States
called upon them to deliver up their horses and cattle, as they had
promised to do, and go to their new home. Upon this, they prepared for
resistance. They retired to the deep thickets in the swamps, called
_hammocks_, and taking their wives and children and some of their
horses and cattle, set their enemies at defiance.

After a time Osceola, or Powel, as he was sometimes called, was chosen
as their chief. He was partly of Indian, and partly of white blood--but
a man of great courage, skill and energy. When he became the leader,
the war assumed a serious aspect.

I cannot now tell the whole story of the struggle that has been
maintained by the Seminoles for nearly seven years. They have displayed
a degree of courage, patience, perseverance, and patriotism, scarcely
equalled in the annals of history--considering the smallness of their
number, and the mighty force that has been brought against them.

Osceola was a vagabond child among the Indians, but he became their
chief, and maintained the war with vigor for some time. At last he
was taken, and being removed to a fort on Sullivan’s Island, near
Charleston, S. C., he died in 1838.

The war has been continued since his death, and both the Indians and
the American troops sent against them, have performed wondrous feats
of valor. It is supposed that the Indians are now nearly destroyed or
worn out, and that the few who remain must soon surrender to their more
powerful enemies.

Such is the sad story of the Seminoles. They are savages, but they have
shown many traits of character worthy of our respect. We shall soon
possess their lands, but they have cost our country many millions of
dollars, and far more than they are worth. This piece of history tells
us that even an Indian tribe, small though it be, if it bears hatred in
its bosom, founded upon acts of oppression, may become the instrument
by which that oppression is punished.




                              Composition.


The following is a letter of an East Indian servant, addressed to a
physician who had been attending his master:

     To Dr. ----

     Most learned Saib--I am instructed by his excellency, the
     noble saib, to make information that his arm alteration
     of pain, sensibly diminishing heat of surface. Accounted
     for by them Blue Balls which your making master digest. My
     honored master his face already seize collour of custard
     apple which not desirable. Your honor when will come then,
     tell bearer who will show the place of the unfortunate
     Budwood Saib, the prey of the vulture ill-luck.

The meaning of this is as follows:

     Most learned Sir:--I am instructed by his excellency, my
     noble master, to inform you that the pain in his arm has
     sensibly decreased. The heat of his skin is accounted for
     by the blue pills you gave him, which had a very powerful
     effect. My honored master’s face has already become the
     color of a custard apple--a bad symptom. When your honor
     comes to visit him, the bearer will point out his residence
     to you.




[Illustration: _The Cereopsis._]


                  Natural Curiosities of New Holland.

NEW HOLLAND is the largest island in the world, being as extensive as
Europe. It is considered a continent by some writers on geography: but
its size is not the greatest point of interest. It possesses several
birds, quadrupeds, and even vegetable productions, distinct in kind
from those of any other part of the world. It produces kangaroos,
which are as large as a sheep, and carry their young ones in a natural
pocket. They jump seventy-five feet at a bound; and use their tails as
a jumping-pole.

It produces black swans, and flying opossums; the superb menura, a bird
with a tail shaped like an ancient harp; the platypus, a queer fellow,
with a bill like a duck, fur like a beaver, and claws like a woodchuck!

Among other curiosities found in New Holland, is the _cereopsis_, a
kind of speckled goose. We give a picture of this bird, which will
afford a better idea of its appearance, than words can convey. Who
would not like to go to New Holland?




TOLERANCE.--“In my youth,” says Horace Walpole, “I thought of writing a
satire upon mankind; but now, in my old age, I think I should write an
apology for them.”




                        Story of Philip Brusque.


                               CHAPTER X.

  _Pacification.--Another attempt to adopt some form of government._


The morning that followed the battle of the tents, and the death of
Rogere, was fair and bright. The sun, at rising, seemed to burst
from the bosom of the briny element, at the same time converting its
boundless surface into a mirror of burnished gold. The light clouds
that hung in the east, in long horizontal lines, were also of a golden
hue, betokening at once the gentleness of the morning breeze, and
the fair weather that was to characterize the day. M. Bonfils, as he
stepped forth from the tent, and felt the fresh air, and looked abroad,
could not but be struck with the beauty of the scene around. “It is
indeed a lovely morning--and this is a heavenly climate,” said he, half
audibly. “Oh, that the human beings upon this lone island, would look
forth upon nature, and take a lesson of peace from its teaching!”

As he said these words, he was met by Brusque, and several other
persons, who had been deliberating as to what course ought to be
pursued. No communication had, as yet, been had with the defeated
party at the cave, and the state of feeling there was a matter of
entire uncertainty. After a little conversation, M. Bonfils offered
himself to go alone to the cave, and propose some amicable adjustment
of difficulties. To this, Brusque as well as others objected; urging
upon the hoary patriot the danger of placing himself in the power of
these violent men, recently defeated, and likely still to be irritated
by the death of their leader. But these reasons did not shake the old
man’s purpose. He replied that he feared no danger; that the Rogere
party would probably be more reasonable now than before; that his very
helplessness would disarm their vengeance; and that even if they took
his life, it was but the remnant of an existence, now near its close,
and which he could well afford to risk for the sake of his friends.

Finding him entirely devoted to the adventure, Brusque withdrew his
objections, and the aged man departed, taking no weapon of defence;
supported, however, by a light bamboo cane, for his step was tottering,
and his frame frail, from extreme age. The people saw him take his way
up the hill, with anxious and admiring eyes, and there was more than
one cheek down which the tears stole, showing that their hearts were
touched by the fortitude and devotion of the patriarch.

In a brief space after the old man had gone, Brusque and François,
unnoticed by the people, wound their way around the trees, and ascended
to a sheltered spot, near the cave, to be in readiness to offer succor,
should any rudeness or insult be threatened to M. Bonfils. From this
cover, they saw him approach the cave, around which about a dozen men
were standing. They were all armed, and appeared to be in expectation
of attack, yet ready for desperate defence. There was a determination
and daring in their looks, which alarmed both François and Brusque: and
it was with a feverish interest that they saw the old man, tottering
indeed, but still with a calm and tranquil aspect, march directly up to
the party, take off his hat, and speak to them as if the emotions of
fear were unknown to his bosom.

“I have come, my friends,” said he, “for I will not call my fellow-men
enemies--I have come to speak to you of peace. I have come in the
name of those who are your countrymen, in behalf of mothers, sisters,
children, to beg you to lay down your weapons, to lay aside all
thoughts of war; to”----

“Down with the old fool!” said a rough voice; “let us hear no more of
his twaddle.” “Nay, nay!” said another; “none but a brute will injure
an old man: let’s hear him out. It can do us no harm.”

This seemed to be acceptable to the party, and M. Bonfils went on.

“I pray you to listen to me for a moment. Look around upon this island;
is it not a little paradise? How beautiful are the skies above; how
glorious the sun that shines upon it; how soft the breezes that fan its
surface; how luxurious the vegetation that clothes its swelling hills
and its gentle vales! Was this spot made for peace or war? Is there a
heart here that can look around, and not feel that nature whispers a
lesson of peace? Does not every bosom whisper peace? Does not common
sense teach us peace? What can we gain by strife, but evil? Can it
promote our happiness to slay each other like wild beasts? If we are
to have war, and blood is to be shed, will the conquering party enjoy
their victory, when they are forever to live in sight of the graves of
their butchered brethren?

“Oh my friends--my countrymen--take an old man’s counsel: no one can
be happy, if others are not happy around him. If one of us become a
despot, and his will is law, he will still be a wretch, because he will
be in the midst of the wretched. Every human bosom reflects the light
or the shadow that falls on other bosoms. Man cannot live for himself
alone. Let us then be wise and live for each other. Let us enter into
a compact to secure each other’s peace. Let us adopt a system of
government, which shall secure equal rights and equal privileges. This
is just, fair, and wise. It is the only course to save the inhabitants
of this island from misery and desolation. This is my errand; I came
to pray you to throw aside your weapons; I came to beg that what is
past may be forgotten. I propose that you reflect upon these things;
and that, as soon as may be, you send a deputation to the party at the
tents, to acquaint them with your decision.”

Saying this, the old man departed.

This mission was not without its effect. The party at the cave took the
subject into serious consideration, and though there was a division of
opinion, yet the majority concluded that it was best to accede to the
offered terms of pacification. They accordingly appointed two of their
number, who went to the tent party, and proposed that another attempt
should be made to establish some form of government.

This proposition was at once accepted; and a committee, consisting of
five persons, was appointed to draw up a constitution. The result will
be given in another chapter.




                                  Beds

    Strew then, oh strew,
      Our bed of rushes;
    Here may we rest,
      Till morning blushes!


In the days of Elizabeth, the peasants used logs of wood for pillows.
In the time of the Hebrew kingdom; the bed resembled a divan;
consisting of a low elevation, running round three sides of a small
room, and stuffed with cushions. In the early times, the Romans slept
on leaves: afterwards they used hay and straw. Till the close of the
thirteenth century, straw was common in the chambers of palaces. Rushes
were also sometimes used for beds, as the preceding extract from an old
English song shows. To the English belongs the merit of having brought
improvements in beds to the present state of perfection.




[Illustration]


                           THE GREAT BUSTARD.


THIS noble bird, being twice as large as a turkey, weighing often
thirty pounds, is found in the northern parts of Europe, and even in
England. Its food is esteemed as a great delicacy, and therefore it is
scarce in countries thickly inhabited by man. It frequents open plains,
runs with rapidity, and if pursued, rises upon the wing, and skims over
the ground with great swiftness. It lives upon grasses, grain, and the
leaves of tender plants. It lays its eggs on the ground, without a
nest. The young ones, when pursued, skulk in the grass or leaves, and
are thus often taken with the hand. The bustard is sometimes tamed, but
even then it is shy, and never seems to place full confidence in man.




AFRICAN RINGS.--Dollars are in great request among the old kings and
chiefs of the interior of Africa. They first drill two holes, about the
centre, into which they insert a circular piece of lead to slip on to
the finger; the surface of the dollar being on the upper part of the
hand, like a seal.




[Illustration]


                              The Tartar.


Throughout the central parts of Asia are various tribes of Tartars, some
of which pursue the vocation of robbers. We give a picture of one of
these fellows, mounted on his dromedary, and armed with a good supply
of spears.

These Tartar thieves usually roam in small parties over the thinly
settled plains and barren lands of Central Asia, making an occasional
assault upon the poor villagers, or attacking and plundering the
caravans of merchants and travellers that may be met with. They are a
fierce and cruel race, and appear to have pursued this course of life,
from the earliest period to the present time.




                        Answers to our Puzzles.


One of our correspondents has been so kind as to offer an answer to the
puzzle of 28 letters in our last number, as follows:

    The first, instead of a French villa,
    I find to be the town _Manilla_.
    The second, of presaging ill,
    Is that detested scroll, _Rent Bill_.
    The third a _Cab_, and by my hat,
    The fourth is nothing but a _Cat_.
    With Yankee privilege, I’ll try
    To guess the fifth; a grain of _Rye_!
    Sixthly, we find that people will
    Poor master William, nickname _Bill_.
    And seventh, all blessings were in vain,
    Should heaven withhold her showers of _Rain_.
    The eighth discloses man’s worst lot,
    A self-degraded, loathsome _Sot_.
    The ninth as bright in color glows,
    As Sharon’s richest, sweetest _Rose_.
    The tenth, if I have not forgotten,
    Is that important product, _Cotton_.
    The whole, that school of information,
    _Mercantile Library Association._

Another correspondent sends us the following:

     MR. EDITOR:--Our little circle gathered about the table to
     guess out the conundrums in Merry’s Museum; and the result
     of our united investigations I send you.

    That Man begins with _M_, no one, indeed, can doubt;
    A hard _Sum_ is a task, as many school-boys have found out.
    A welcome winning sure, is _Yes_ to all who favors seek,
    And human creatures often _Err_, for they are frail and weak.
    The _Muse_ is often drawn with beauteous face divine,
    And like a goddess do her form, her face, and features shine.

    With Mr. _Merry_ we shall soon be pretty well acquainted,
    And his _Museum_ pleases us, with covers yellow painted.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Manilla_, a town in East Indies is found,
    The _Rent-bill_, to some, maketh sorrow abound.
    A _Cab_ is a vehicle, greatly in use,
    And a _Cat_ is of value, where rats are profuse.
    The _Rye_, when well ripened, is useful for food,
    But _Bill_, for a nickname, I think is not good.
    That _Rain_ is a blessing, sure no one will doubt,
    And a _Sot’s_ to be pitied, whether in doors, or out.
    The _Rose_ is a flower admired by all,
    And _Cotton_, I think, without commerce, would fall.
    Have I found out the puzzle? Surely ’tis great vexation,
    To make rhyme with _Mercantile Library Association_.


    _Lancaster, Jan. 5, 1842._

We cannot refuse a place to the following, for it is both short and
sweet:

     The answers to the puzzles in your magazine, are “_Merry’s
     Museum_,” and “_Mercantile Library Association_.”
                                                   Yours,
                                            A BLACK-EYED FRIEND.




                            THE SNOW-STORM.

            THE WORDS AND MUSIC COMPOSED FOR MERRY’S MUSEUM.

[Illustration: music]

      Down, down the snow is falling slow,
    Powd’ring the bald-pate trees:
      Its myriad flakes
      A blanket makes,
    And wrap the sleeping leaves.

      Fierce now the blast!
      The snow flies fast,
    And whirls in many a spray--
      Wreath chases wreath,
      O’er hill and heath,
    Like spirits in their play.

      Jack Frost is out,
      And drives about--
    The white drift for his sled--
      Loud roars the gale--
      The child turns pale,
    And hugs his trundle-bed!

      The storm is past,
      Gone, gone the blast!
    The moon shines fair and bright--
      Come, girl and boy,
      With shout of joy--
    We’ll have a slide to-night!

       *       *       *       *       *

APOLOGY.--We owe an apology to the Rev. A. B. Muzzy for the insertion
of several articles in our Museum, on the important subject of _habit_.
We copied them from an English magazine, giving credit for them to
that source. We are now informed that they are from an excellent work,
entitled “_The Moral Teacher_,” by the aforesaid gentleman.




                            MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME III.--No. 3.



[Illustration]


                       The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                              CHAPTER VII.

         _Arrival at Yakoutsk.--Letter from home.--Departure._


Nothing could be more dreary than the aspect of the country, as our
travellers approached the town of Yakoutsk. This was situated on a
nearly level plain, which was now covered with snow. There were only a
few stunted trees to be seen, and not a dwelling for miles around the
town. The river, of which a view was afforded, was frozen over, and the
scene bespoke a land of sterility and the stern season of winter.

Yakoutsk contains about 7000 inhabitants, and is built of wood. The
houses are low and mean, and the people, for the most part, live in
poverty and wretchedness. The climate is so severe, that, so late as
June, the frost is not out of the ground; and in September, the Lena,
which is a large river, is frozen over. Of course, the fruits yielded
by the soil are exceedingly few, and the people have hard work, during
the three brief months of summer, to lay up a sufficient store of food,
fuel, and clothing, to save them from perishing during the long and
bitter winter of nine months.

It was now three months since Alexis had parted from his friends at
Tobolsk, and he was separated from them by a space of two thousand
miles. He expected to get letters from home, brought by the post,
and as soon as he and his party had obtained lodgings, he went to the
office, where they were to be left. It was with a beating heart that
he entered the place, and inquired for his letters. So long a time had
elapsed since his departure, and so vast a distance now lay between him
and his friends, that he experienced a sickening sense of anxiety. What
might not have happened to his aged father, or his dear sister?

These were the thoughts in his mind, as the person at the office handed
him a letter, on which he instantly recognised the hand-writing of
Kathinka. He thrust it into his bosom, and, with a rapid step, sought
his lodgings. Here he broke the seal, and read as follows:

     “DEAREST ALEXIS:--It is now two months since you left us,
     and it seems a year. I have counted the very hours since
     your departure, and could I have foreseen the weariness,
     anxiety, and longing that your absence has occasioned, I had
     never consented to your enterprise. When I think that you
     will be two thousand miles from Tobolsk when this reaches
     you, I am really sick at heart. And yet nothing has happened
     to give us any particular cause of anxiety. Indeed, our
     condition has rather improved. The governor’s lady bought
     the lace collar which I wrought, and has since taken other
     articles, and she has paid me well for them. The governor
     himself has noticed me kindly, though there is something
     about him I do not like. He smiles when he meets me, and
     flatters me very much; but still, his dark brow frightens
     me. However, I must not offend him, for he is not only kind
     to me, but he has called upon our poor father, and expressed
     his desire to make his exile as little painful as possible.
     What all this means I cannot say, but I hope it proceeds
     from the kindness of his heart.

     “Do you remember young Suwarrow, who was at our house, while
     the Princess Lodoiska was concealed there? He was somehow
     concerned in aiding her escape; and after her departure, I
     had never seen him till he came here. He is of Polish birth,
     but his family is Russian, and he is now an officer of the
     castle in Tobolsk. He arrived about the time you left us. He
     soon found us out, and has been to see us frequently. He is
     a noble fellow, and, though a Russian soldier, seems to
     possess the heart of a Pole. It is a great comfort to find
     such a friend, and I think it the more fortunate, that he
     and father seem to like each other so much. The only thing
     about it that troubles me, is, that he seems to dislike my
     going to the governor’s house, and is very careful to
     conceal his visits, so that they may not be known to his
     commander. What does all this mean?

     “You will hardly expect me to tell you any news, for we see
     little of society, and in fact we are almost as much lost to
     the world, as if Tobolsk were a prison. The only thing of
     particular interest that has occurred, is the arrival of
     several Polish exiles. Some of them are of noble families,
     and father’s heart has been wrung to agony for them. Alas,
     that the love of one’s country should be a crime, for which
     banishment to this dreary land must atone!

     “You will desire to know all about our dear father. He is
     now happily relieved from the fear of immediate want; the
     products of my needle, so liberally paid for by the
     governor’s lady, supply us with the few necessities of life.
     He spends a good deal of time in reading; for Suwarrow has
     furnished us with books; and occasionally we get the
     Petersburgh Gazette from the same source. He seems more
     tranquil, but I see that sorrow is gradually weaving its
     shadows over his brow. There is a settled sadness in his
     face, which sometimes makes me weep. Oh, how changed is his
     condition! Once in the possession of wealth and power; once
     so active, so energetic, and, by the springs he set in
     motion, exerting so great an influence! now, so utterly
     helpless, isolated, and lost! How is the light of his life
     put out! Dear Alexis, these things move me to tears. I would
     that you were here to share, and thus to soften my grief.
     But I am thankful that there is one often here who
     understands my feelings. Is it not strange that a Russian
     should be the depositary of our confidence, and the
     alleviator of our sorrow? I think father likes Suwarrow more
     than I do. If you were here, I should care less for him; but
     what can I do, in my brother’s absence, but find consolation
     in the society of one who seems to have a brother’s interest
     in my happiness?

     “I have had a great deal of anxiety for you. Pray write me a
     long letter, and tell me all about your journey. How have
     you borne the long and weary march of two thousand miles?
     Alas, that Alexis Pultova should have come to this! And yet,
     my brother, it may be good for you: I mean, it may promote
     your happiness. It may seem strange to you, for it surprises
     myself, to find a real pleasure in my toil. I once thought
     that labor was a curse, but I now find it a blessing. It is
     associated in my mind with the comfort and independence of
     our father; there is something soothing and consoling to
     think that I, poor I, can be so useful. Do not think me
     conceited, but really, Lex, I feel quite important! And you
     may find a similar compensation for your exertions and
     privations. Only think, now, if you should bring home a
     quantity of fine furs, and enable father to live a little
     more according to his wont; what a pleasure that would be!
     It appears to me that, if I were a young man, I should be
     very proud to be able to do something clever. The
     consciousness of being able to compel fortune to come at
     one’s bidding, is reserved for your sex. We girls can only
     admire such things in men; we may not possess the feeling
     itself. Still, I now feel a certain degree of confidence in
     myself, which is a source of much cheerfulness to my heart.

     “I have now written my sheet nearly full, yet I have not
     told you a hundredth part of what I think and feel. Oh that
     I could see you, dear, dear Alexis! I never loved you so
     well as now, in your absence. I am not content with this
     cold way of speaking to you. I want to pour out my soul with
     the lips to your own ear, and in your real presence. Yet I
     must not be impatient. I would not recall you, for I believe
     you are in the path of duty. Let the confidence that an arm
     more powerful, protects you, nerve your heart for your hardy
     enterprise. Write me a long letter. I shall write again in
     four months, so that on your return to Yakoutsk, after your
     hunting excursion upon the banks of the Lena, you will get
     news from us once more. Father sends his blessing, and a
     thousand kind prayers and wishes for your safety. Suwarrow
     wishes to be kindly mentioned to you. Farewell! farewell!

                                                      KATHINKA.”


We need hardly say that this tender epistle drew many tears from
Alexis. For a time he was almost overcome with a yearning for home,
but this feeling subsided, and he was able to direct his attention
to other matters. The streets of Yakoutsk presented many objects of
curiosity. There were parties of Kamtschadales, in the town, muffled in
skins, and drawn on sledges by dogs; and there were Samoiedes--short
copper-colored fellows, dressed in sealskins, and drawn by reindeer.
These, and hunters and trappers of many other tribes, were to be seen
in the streets, all of them seeking a market for their furs. And there
were merchants here to buy them from Russia, and Tartary, and Japan,
and other countries. Nothing could be more curious than the contrasts
furnished by these different people.

Linsk had been here before, and understood the manners and business of
the place. He was a good judge of furs, and having some spare cash,
he bought a few skins, remarkable for their fineness, knowing that he
could make a large profit on them on his return to Tobolsk. These he
deposited, for safekeeping, in the hands of a merchant.

After a few days, having made provision for their wants, the hunters
left Yakoutsk, and taking a northern course along the banks of the
Lena, pursued their way to the hunting-ground, where they hoped to
gather a rich harvest of sable-skins.

It was now mid-winter, and it is hardly possible to conceive of
anything more dreary than the country through which they passed. It
was a rolling plain, covered deep with snow, over which the wind was
driving in its swift and unbroken career. Not a house or hut was
visible for leagues; there was no path; and the travellers were obliged
to guide themselves, as they proceeded on the hard snow-crust, like the
voyager upon the sea, by the heavenly bodies, or occasional landmarks.

Pursuing their weary and lonely way--seeming, in the vast expanse, like
insects creeping slowly on--they reached at night a small uninhabited
hut, situated in a wooded ravine, and designed for the shelter of
travellers.

Here the party made preparations for rest, and soon fell asleep. Early
the next morning, Linsk went forth, leaving Alexis and his sons to
their repose; his object being to see if he could not find some game,
for he was now becoming eager to enter upon business. Scarcely had he
proceeded two hundred yards when a bear sprung suddenly from a thicket
of fur trees, and rearing on his hind legs, was about clasping the old
hunter in his arms! But Linsk was like a weasel--always on the watch.
Quick as thought, he seized the bear by the throat, and drawing his
dirk, plunged it into his bowels. He fell with a fearful growl to the
earth, and Linsk, drawing back, levelled his rifle at his head, and
letting go the ball, killed him in an instant.




FRUITS OF INDUSTRY.--Franklin, the greatest philosopher and statesman
of America, was once a printer’s boy. Simpson, the great mathematician,
and author of many learned works, was at first a poor weaver. Herschel,
one of the most eminent of astronomers, rose from the low station of
a fifer boy in the army. These examples show us the happy effects of
industry and perseverance.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. WATTS.--It was so natural for Dr. Watts, when a child, to speak in
rhyme, that even at the very time he wished to avoid it, he could not.
His father was displeased with the propensity, and threatened to whip
him if he did not leave off making verses. One day, when he was about
to put his threat into execution, the child burst into tears, and on
his knees said,--

    “Pray, father, do some pity take,
    And I will no more verses make.”

       *       *       *       *       *

SENSIBILITY.--A lady, who made pretensions to the most refined
feelings, went to her butcher to remonstrate with him on his cruel
practices. “How,” said she, “can you be so barbarous as to put little
lambs to death?” “Why not, madam,” said the butcher, “you would not eat
them alive, would you?”




[Illustration:

  1. _Bees making wax._
  2. _Working bee._
  3. _Queen bee._
  4. _Drone._
  5. _Humble bee._
  6. _Mason bee._
  7. _Death’s-head moth._
  8. _Honey guide._
  9. _Honey ratel._]


                                 Bees.


There are several kinds of bees; the most interesting species of which
is the honey bee. Small and insignificant as this little creature
might appear to be, it is one of the most wonderful animals in the
world. Many of them live in a wild state and make their hives in hollow
trees. In America, and other countries, there are persons who devote
themselves to finding these hives for the sake of the honey. One of
the most common methods adopted is to place some bee-bread, in order
to tempt the bees, on a flat board or tile, and draw a circle round
it with white paint. The bee always settles upon the edge of anything
flat, so she must travel through the paint to reach the bee-bread. When
she flies away, the white on her body enables the observer to trace
her flight, and her course is marked down with a pocket compass. The
same thing is done at another spot, some distance from the first, and
by comparing the direction of the two lines, the situation of the nest
is easily found, as it must be at the point, where, if continued, the
lines would meet. In Africa, the bee hunter is aided by a little bird
called the honey guide. In the same country the honey ratel will sit
and hold one of his paws before his eyes, about the time of sunset, in
order to get a distinct view of the objects of his pursuit; and when
he sees any bees flying, he knows that at that hour they are returning
home, and so he follows them.

The domestic bees afford a good opportunity for studying the habits of
this wonderful race of insects. Three kinds of bees are discovered in
the hive; the drone, the queen bee, and working bee. The drones are the
fathers of the young bees, and live an idle life. They are larger than
the rest, and make a louder hum in flying. The queen is the mother of
the young bees, and governs the hive. The subjects are much attached to
her.

If she dies, the whole community is thrown into the greatest agitation,
and those which first find out what is the matter, run about the hive
in a furious manner, touching every companion they meet with their
little horns or feelers, which are called antennæ. These in their turn
run about in the same manner, and inform others of the sad event,
till the whole hive is in confusion. This agitation lasts four or
five hours, after which the bees begin to take measures for repairing
their loss. Nothing can be more extraordinary than the way in which
they proceed. They build several cells, which are much larger than the
common ones, and of a different form. Having removed one of the worker
worms into each of these, they feed it with a particular kind of food,
and in a few days it grows larger, and at length comes out a queen. One
of these becomes the sovereign of the hive.

If the bees lose their queen, and there are no worms or young to supply
her place, they leave off working, and die in a few days. But if in the
midst of their agitation their lost queen should be restored, they are
quiet immediately, for they instantly remember and distinguish her from
all others. If a new queen were to be placed in the hive too soon after
the loss of the other, no attention would be paid her, and she would be
starved or smothered in the crowd. But when four and twenty hours have
passed, and the first grief is over, a stranger queen is well received
and reigns immediately. The bees crowd about her, touch her by turns
with their antennæ, give her honey, range themselves round her in a
circle, and follow her as a guard when she moves.

The offspring of one queen alone is too numerous for a hive to hold.
She will sometimes lay in one season sixty or seventy thousand eggs; so
it would never do to have more than one queen. Some of the eggs turn
to queens, some to drones, and the largest portion to workers. The
swarms that leave the hive are each led by a queen. The drones do not
collect honey, or help to build the cells. People, who like them lead
an idle life, are sometimes called drones. The drones are turned out
of the hive before winter, that they may not eat the honey that the
industrious workers have collected.

A swarm of bees, on entering a new hive, immediately want cells to
store their honey in, and to bring up their young. These cells cannot
be made without wax, which is obtained, not from flowers, as is
supposed, but from the body of the bees. This forms best while they are
quiet; and in order to obtain it, they hang themselves in clusters,
clinging to each other’s legs. Having remained in this situation for
twenty-four hours, they scrape it off, and form it into cells, the
tongue being used as a sort of trowel. Their industry, skill and
contrivance in doing this are admirable.

Bees have many enemies beside man, the honey guide and the honey ratel.
Wasps and hornets attack them while in search of flowers, and moths
steal into the hive, where they sometimes do great mischief. At night,
sentinels are set to watch, and by moonlight you may see them pacing
to and fro, turning in every direction. If an enemy approach, the
sentinels utter a loud hum, and other bees rush to their aid. If the
moth gets in, and escapes being stung to death, it lays its eggs, which
produce grubs, that sometimes oblige the bees to quit the hive. The
death’s-head moth, which is very large, sometimes gets in and produces
a sound, which renders the bees motionless, and then it steals their
honey.

The humble bee is a clumsy looking creature, with which most people
are acquainted. It builds its nest in hayfields, of moss. The way in
which the bees collect this material is curious. One bee settles on a
tuft of moss, with its head turned from the place where the nest is to
be. It then tears off little bits with its teeth and fore legs, and
passes them to the middle pair, and then to its hind legs, when it
holds out the bunch of moss as far as it can, to another bee who is
placed behind. This bee receives it, and in the same way passes it to
the next, and so on till it reaches the nest. This is lined with coarse
wax, and contains a few combs, clumsily made.

The humble bee is tormented by a kind of mite, which sometimes is
found upon them in great numbers. They have recourse to a most amusing
contrivance to get rid of them. A humble bee thus tormented will go to
an ant-hill, and then kick and scratch till the ants come out to see
what is the matter. Before they drive their noisy visiter away, the
ants seize upon these mites and carry them off as a prize, and the bee,
as soon as it is set free from its enemies, flies away contented!




HENRY IV., KING OF FRANCE.--This monarch always made his children call
him papa and father, and not the usual ceremonious title of “sir,” or,
“your majesty.” He used frequently to join in their amusements; and one
day, as he was going on all-four’s, with the dauphin, his son, on his
back, an ambassador entered his apartment suddenly, and surprised him
in that attitude. The monarch, without moving from it, said to him,
“Monsieur l’Ambassadeur, have you any children?” “Yes, sire,” replied
he. “Very well then,” said the king, “I shall finish my race round my
chamber.”

       *       *       *       *       *

WOMEN.--Fontenelle being asked by a lord in waiting, at Versailles,
what difference there was between a clock and a woman, instantly
replied, “A clock serves to point out the hours, and a woman to make us
forget them.”




[Illustration]


                     The several varieties of Dogs.


The above engraving represents the most remarkable kinds of dogs. The
following is a description of them, beginning at the left hand of the
top row.

1. Irish Greyhound,--the largest species.

2. Newfoundland, web-footed, fond of the water, and remarkable for his
sagacity.

3. Mastiff, a favorite as a guard.

4. Greyhound, the fleetest of all dogs.

5. Esquimaux, used to draw the sledges of the Esquimaux.

6. Large, rough water dog, used in hunting ducks.

7. Spanish pointer, a favorite with sportsmen.

8. Setter, a fine sporting dog.

9. Old English greyhound, now very scarce.

10. Bandog, a rare species, resembling the mastiff.

11. Shepherd’s dog, used in Europe for tending sheep.

12. Bull-dog, the fiercest of all dogs.

13. Cur-dog, active and sagacious.

14. Lurcher, used for killing hares and rabbits.

15. Fox-hound, used for pursuing foxes.

16. Harrier, strong and active.

17. Beagle, used in pursuing hares.

18. Dalmatian, used as an attendant upon a coach.

19. Large water spaniel, docile and affectionate.

20. Small water spaniel, resembles the former.

21. Springer, used for hunting woodcocks.

22. Terrier, active and strong, used for destroying rats and mice.

23. Turnspit, formerly used in England for turning a spit.

24. Comforter, kept as a lap-dog.




                        Anecdote of the Indians.


Mr. Catlin, who is a portrait painter, has been a great deal with the
Indians in the far west, in order to paint likenesses of the chiefs and
others. He has met with many curious adventures, and these he has told
in a book, which is just published. The following story is from this
work:

“The sensation I produced amongst the Minatarees, while on the Upper
Missouri, by taking from amongst my painting apparatus an old number
of the New York Commercial Advertiser, edited by my kind and tried
friend, Col. Stone, was extraordinary. The Minatarees thought that I
was mad, when they saw me, for hours together, with my eyes fixed upon
its pages. They had different and various conjectures about it--the
most current of which was, that I was looking at it to cure my sore
eyes, and they called it the ‘medicine-cloth for sore eyes.’ I, at
length, put an end to this and several equally ignorant conjectures,
by reading passages in it, which were interpreted to them, and the
object of the paper fully explained; after which it was looked upon as
a much greater mystery than before, and several liberal offers were
made me for it, which I was obliged to refuse, having already received
a beautifully garnished robe for it from the hands of a young son of
Esculapius, who told me that if he could employ a good interpreter to
explain everything in it, he could travel about amongst the Minatarees,
and Mandans, and Sioux, and exhibit it after I was gone, getting rich
with presents, and adding greatly to the list of his medicines, as
it would make him a great medicine-man. I left with the poor fellow
his painted robe and the newspaper; and just before I departed I saw
him unfold it to show some of his friends, when he took from around
it some eight or ten folds of birch bark and deer skins, all of which
were carefully enclosed in a sack made of the skin of a pole-cat,
and undoubtedly destined to become, and to be called, his mystery or
medicine bag.”




NO DISPUTING ABOUT TASTES.--The hedgehog will eat Spanish flies, which
will kill a dog, and a common hog feasts upon rattlesnakes.




                          Indians of America.


                              CHAPTER XIV.

  _South America continued.--Recapitulations.--Indians of the
     Pampas.--Manner of living.--Employment, war.-- Weapons.--
     Manner of fighting.--What effect the use of fire-arms would
     produce.--Reflections.--Abipones.--Manners.--Occupation,
     and exercises.--Employments of the females.--Polygamy,
     and its effects.--Missionaries.--Intemperance of the
     Indians.--Number of Indians in South America.--Reflections._


I have, in the preceding chapters, given a sketch of the history,
manners, &c., of the chief Indian nations in South America, which have
been subjected to European power. The influence of the invaders has
operated on all the tribes, even on those who still retain their wild
liberty and savage customs; but in the interior of that vast country,
and amid its rocky fastnesses the red man is yet uncontrolled, and
seems uncontrollable.

The most marked and extraordinary difference of character and customs
among these wild tribes is exhibited by the Indians of the Pampas, or
great plain east of the Cordillera, and the tribe of Abipones, residing
in Paraguay. These Indians always appear on horseback, and their habits
being influenced by this Cossack mode of life, are worth a separate
description.

The Pampas[5] Indians are a handsome race, but wild and fierce as
mountain eagles. They may be said to pass their lives on horseback.
They wear no clothing, not even a covering on the head, either in the
freezing winter or hot summer.

They live together in tribes, each of which is governed by a cacique,
but they have no fixed place of residence. Where the pasture is good,
there they are to be found, until it is consumed by their horses,
and then they instantly remove to a verdant spot. They have neither
bread, fruit, nor vegetables, but they subsist entirely on the flesh of
their mares, which they never ride; and the only luxury in which they
indulge, is that of washing their hair in mare’s blood.

Their whole occupation is war; this they consider the natural and most
noble employment of men; and they declare that the proudest attitude of
the human figure is when, bending over his horse, a man is riding at
his enemy.

Their principal weapon is the spear. It is about eighteen feet long,
and they use it with great dexterity. When they assemble, either to
attack their enemies or to invade the country of the Christians, they
collect large troops of horses and mares, and then, uttering the wild
shriek of war, they start at a gallop. As soon as the horses they ride
are tired, they vault upon the bare backs of fresh ones, keeping the
best until they see their enemies. The whole country affords pasture
for their horses, and they kill the mares for their own provisions. The
ground is their bed, and to that only have they been accustomed, so
that they find no inconvenience in their long marches of thousands of
miles. These Indians, with their red lances, at present are but little
heeded; but, to quote Captain Head, “as soon as fire-arms shall be put
into the hands of these brave, naked men, they will be elevated in the
political scale as suddenly as though they had fallen from the moon.”
It may not suit the politics of the whites to calculate upon such an
event as the union of the Araucanian and the Pampas Indians--but who
can venture to say that the hour may not be decreed, when these men,
mounted upon the descendants of the very horses which were brought over
the Atlantic to oppress their forefathers, shall rush with irresistible
fury on their invaders, till the descendants of the Europeans are, in
their turn, trampled under foot, and in agony and torture, in vain are
asking mercy from the savage Indians?

It was the rude, wild and despised tribes of the old world, that,
rushing from their mountains and forests, broke in pieces the mighty
fabric of Roman power, and overturned and destroyed all their systems
of civilized policy, and the refinements of luxurious taste.

It is only by the introduction of true Christianity, that any permanent
improvement in the character of these Indians can be hoped; and the
Araucanians are the nation which, if rightly instructed in the truths
of the Bible, seem most likely to become the missionaries and teachers
of the red race.

The Abipones,[6] resident in Paraguay, are also a nation of horsemen,
but in many habits, are more like the Araucanians than the Pampas
Indians. They wear clothing, and are very industrious in manufacturing
cloth, and utensils of various kinds.

They are a very healthy race, and long-lived. They are temperate in
eating, and the women never drink intoxicating liquors of any kind.
They are also very modest in their behavior: the girls spend all their
time with their mothers in domestic employments, and the young men,
engrossed with the exercise of arms and horses, never attempt any acts
of gallantry, though they are cheerful and fond of conversation.

Riding, hunting, and swimming are their daily employments. They climb
trees to gather honey, make spears, bows and arrows, weave ropes of
leather, dress saddles, practise everything, in short, fatiguing to
the hands or feet. In the intermission of these employments, they race
their horses for a sword, which is given to him who reaches the goal
first.

The women, debarred from the sports and equestrian contests of the men,
are occupied day and night with the management of domestic affairs.
They are however very active on horseback. They must needs be, as
all their journeyings are made in this manner. They carry all their
household utensils, goods and chattels packed on the horses they ride,
and frequently stow their little children in bags of skins, among the
pots and pans; and there they ride very easily.

The Abipones, like most of the American savages, practised polygamy.
But here, and also among the Araucanians, it is chiefly confined to
the richest men among the tribe, the others not being able to support
more than one wife. But the Abipones were guilty of another horrid
crime, which was never practised in Araucania,--the mothers frequently
destroyed their new-born infants. This awful sin was in consequence of
polygamy being allowed: the mother was fearful that, if she devoted
herself to taking care of her infant, her husband would marry another
wife in the meantime. Here we see how wickedness increases itself, and
thus causes sin to abound more and more.

Since the instruction of the missionaries, however, there has been a
great change in the conduct of the Abipones. They have been taught
that there was a divine law against this cruelty, though their nation
did not punish it, and they now seldom put their infants to death.
And it was wonderful to see the change wrought in the course of a few
years, after polygamy, divorce, and infanticide had been, by Christian
discipline, abolished. The nation seemed filled with happy little
children; for religion makes earth, as well as heaven, a place where
innocence may live in peace. But there is still a great reformation
needed in this tribe. The men are intemperate; even those who profess
to be Christians, and have been baptized, will join in their drunken
frolics. True, neither the women nor the youth drink any intoxicating
draught and the missionary,[7] from whose works we select, says, that
if they did, the whole Abipone nation would soon come to destruction.

Their chief liquor is a kind of mead, made from honey and the
_alforba_, a berry which abounds in the woods during four months of
the year, from December to April. During these months a married man
of the nation used seldom to be sober; but there is a change for the
better. Yet, the missionary says that it is easier to eradicate any
other vice from the minds of the Indians, than this of intemperance.
They will sooner live content with one wife, abstain from slaughter
and rapine, give up their ancient superstitions, or employ themselves
in agriculture and other labors, notwithstanding their indolence. But
it must be done; and if white Christians, or those who bear the name,
would all practise temperance, as well as teach it, the red men might
be made temperate.

There are, according to Humboldt, nearly six millions of Indians in
South America. We think there is reason to believe that they have, on
the whole, decreased in that country since its discovery by Europeans.
In the south they have mingled with the European settlers, which in
North America has never been found practicable. The religious orders
have also founded missions, which, though doubtless encroaching on the
liberties of the natives, have generally been favorable to the increase
of population. As the preachers advance into the interior, the planters
invade their territory; the whites and the castes of mixed breed,
settle among the Indians; the missions become Spanish villages, and
finally the old inhabitants lose their original manners and language.
In this way, civilization advances from the coasts towards the centre
of the continent.[8]

Such was the aspect of affairs while these provinces were under the
Spanish government; since they became independent, the Indians, in most
of the states, are allowed the full benefit of the free institutions
established. As education becomes more diffused, and religion,
divested of its superstitions, becomes more pure and peaceful; we may
confidently hope, that the red man will partake of the blessings of
civilization and Christianity, and, in South America at least, enjoy
those moral and intellectual advantages which shall elevate him to an
equality with his white brethren.


     [5] See Head’s Journey over the Pampas and the Andes.

     [6] See a history of this people, by Martin Dobrizhoffer,--
          eighteen years a missionary in the country.

     [7] Martin Dobrizhoffer.

     [8] Humboldt.




ABSENCE OF MIND.--Sir Isaac Newton, one evening in winter, feeling it
extremely cold, drew his chair very close to the grate, in which a
fire had been recently kindled. By degrees, the fire being completely
kindled, Sir Isaac felt the heat intolerably intense, and rung his
bell with unusual violence. John was not at hand; he at last made
his appearance, by the time Sir Isaac was almost literally roasted.
“Remove the grate, you lazy rascal!” exclaimed Sir Isaac, in a tone
of irritation very uncommon with that amiable and placid philosopher,
“remove the grate, before I am burned to death.” “Please your honor,
might you not rather _draw back your chair_?” said John, a little
waggishly. “Upon my word,” said Sir Isaac, smiling, “I never thought of
that.”




                           The Wisdom of God.


The wisdom of the Creator is shown by the relation which the structure
of animals bears to their mode of life.

The instances of this kind are numerous. There is a curious resemblance
between the stomach of a hen and a corn-mill; the crop answering to
the hopper, and the gizzard to the stones which crush the corn. But
the most interesting point of resemblance is this: to prevent too much
corn from going into the stones at once, a receiver is placed between
them and the hopper, so that it may be dribbled out just as fast as is
required. The same process takes place in the hen, for though the crop
may be filled, its food only enters the gizzard gradually, and as fast
as that is able to digest it.

Another instance of obvious fitness and adaptation of one part to
another, is furnished in birds of prey. Owls, hawks, eagles, &c., by
their talons and beaks, are qualified to seize and devour other birds
and quadrupeds; and accordingly the gastric juice in the stomach of
these birds will act upon or digest flesh, but it will not digest seeds
or grasses, or vegetables of any kind. On the other hand, the mouth of
the ox and sheep is suited to the cropping of herbage; and accordingly
we find the gastric juices of their stomachs will digest vegetable
food, and not flesh!

There is another instance of fitness in a provision of nature, which
marks the intelligence of the Creator, and that is, that the eyes of
all animals are placed in front, in the direction in which the legs
move, and the hands work; and therefore where they are most useful. How
awkward would it be for us if our eyes were in the back of the head!
How comparatively useless would the eyes of quadrupeds be, if placed
behind!

Nature is full of such instances as these, all setting forth the
intelligence and wisdom of the Creator; and not only displaying
the marks of a designing and intelligent Mind, but intelligence in
contriving and power in executing, which know no bounds. No obstacle
seems to be presented that is not surmounted, and no contrivance to
accomplish an object seems to be adopted, that is not, all things
considered, the best that could be devised.

Another fertile and interesting source of evidence of the wisdom of God
is found in the contrivances resorted to by the Creator to compensate
his creatures for certain defects in their organization. Thus the
short neck of the elephant is compensated by the admirable device of a
proboscis, one of the most complicated and ingenious, but successful
expedients of nature.

The bat has a clumsy foot and leg, but to compensate for this, he is
supplied with a hook on his wing, by which he suspends himself to a
beam, or to the sides of rocks, and in this way he usually obtains his
sleep. The crane, the heron, the bittern are destined to live upon
fish, yet they cannot swim. To make up for this deficiency they are
provided with long legs for wading, or long bills for groping, and
sometimes with both.

The common parrot would have an inconvenience in the very hooked shape
of its upper jaw, or mandible, if like that of other birds it was
stationary, for in this case it could hardly open its mouth to take its
food. But this hook being wanted by the parrot to climb and suspend
itself with, to remedy the evil above mentioned, this upper mandible is
capable of being elevated or depressed at pleasure.

There is a grub called the glowworm, that gives out a phosphoric light
in the darkness. Why is this? That her mate may find her; for while she
is a worm he is a fly; while she is on the earth he is in the air.
They would not be likely to meet therefore, if some extraordinary means
of uniting them was not resorted to; but this, Nature has foreseen and
provided for.

The spider’s web is a compensating contrivance, of a very ingenious
character. This creature is made to feed on flies; yet how was it
to catch them, for it had no wings? This might seem to be a case of
difficulty, but the web is a net, and the spider is not only taught
how to weave it, but his body furnishes the thread! How ingenious, how
wonderful, how multiplied, are the resources of the God of Nature!

In many species of insects, the eye is fixed, and cannot be turned
in its socket. To supply this great defect, the eye is a multiplying
glass, with a lens looking in every direction, and showing every object
that may be near. Thus, what seemed at first a privation, by this
curious and interesting expedient is made to be an advantage, as an eye
thus constructed, seems better adapted to the wants of these creatures
than any other. The common fly is said to have four thousand lenses in
each eye, and the butterfly thirty thousand!

The neck of the chameleon is stiff, and cannot be turned; how then
is he to look about himself? It would puzzle most of us to contrive
a remedy for this difficulty; but Nature seems never at a loss. The
eye-ball stands out so far that more than half of it projects from the
head; and the muscles operate so curiously that the pupil can be turned
in any direction. Thus the chameleon, who cannot bend his neck, can do
with facility what is difficult for most other animals--he can look
backwards even without turning his body!




                            The Canary Bird.


A small girl, named Caroline, had a most lovely canary bird. The little
creature sung from morning till night, and was very beautiful. Its
color was yellow, with a black head. And Caroline gave him seed and
cabbage to eat, and occasionally a small piece of sugar, and every day
fresh, clean water to drink.

But suddenly the bird began to be mournful, and one morning, when
Caroline brought him his water, he lay dead in the cage.

And she raised a loud lamentation over the favorite animal, and wept
bitterly. But the mother of the girl went and purchased another, which
was more beautiful than the first in color, and just as lovely in its
song, and put it in the cage.

But the child wept louder than ever when she saw the new bird.

And the mother was greatly astonished, and said, “My dear child, why
are you still weeping and sorrowful? Your tears will not call the dead
bird into life; and here you have one which is not inferior to the
other!”

Then the child said, “O, dear mother, I treated my bird unkindly, and
did not do all for it that I could and should have done.”

“Dear Lina, you have always taken care of it diligently!”

“O, no,” replied the child, “a short time before its death, the bird
being very sick, you gave me a piece of sugar as medicine for it; but I
did not give to him the piece of sugar, but ate it myself.” Thus spake
the girl, with a sorrowful heart.

The mother did not smile at this complaint, for she understood and
revered the holy voice of conscience in the heart of the child.




[Illustration]


                          The Paper Nautilus.


This little animal is to be found, chiefly, in the Mediterranean sea.
Its shell is very thin and brittle, from which circumstance it is
called the paper nautilus. It is mentioned by Pliny and some other
ancient writers, and it is supposed that the art of navigation owed
its origin to the expert management of this little sailor. Eight arms
it raises for sails, while six hang over the side of the shell, and
are used for oars. While sailing upon the water this animal has the
appearance of a little vessel. On the approach of danger, which it is
quick to perceive, the little mariner absorbs a quantity of water, and
sinks into the depths of the sea. It is seldom taken when sailing.

There is another species of nautilus, which has a thick shell, in which
there are several chambers.




                          Merry’s Adventures.


                             CHAPTER XVII.


I cannot easily make my readers, who have always lived in cities or
towns, understand the pleasure of sleeping in the woods, with no roof
but the sky. Perhaps most persons would think this a hardship, and so
it would be, if we had to do it always: but by way of adventure now and
then, and particularly when one is about seventeen, with such a clever
fellow as Mat Olmsted for a companion and a guide, the thing is quite
delightful.

The affair with the panther had excited my fancy, and filled my bosom
with a deep sense of my own importance. It seemed to me that the famous
exploits of Hercules, in Greece, which are told by the old poets, were,
after all, such things as I could myself achieve, if the opportunity
only should offer.

Occupied with these thoughts, I assisted Mat in collecting some fagots
for our night fire--but every moment kept looking around, expecting to
see some wild animal peeping his face between the trunks of the gray
old oaks. In one instance I mistook a stump for a bear’s head, and in
another I thought a bush at a little distance, was some huge monster,
crouching as if to spring upon us.

The night stole on apace, and soon we were surrounded with darkness,
which was rendered deeper by the fire we had kindled. The scene was
now, even more wild than before: the trees that stood around, had the
aspect of giants, lifting their arms to the sky;--and their limbs often
assumed the appearance of serpents, or demons, goggling at us from
the midnight darkness. Around us was a seeming tent, curtained with
blackness, through which not a ray of light could penetrate.

I amused myself for a long time, in looking at these objects, and I
remarked that they assumed different aspects at different times--a
thing which taught me a useful lesson, and which I will give, gratis,
to my young readers. It is this, that fancy, when indulged, has the
power to change objects to suit its own wayward humor. Whoever wishes
to be guided right, ought, therefore, to beware how he takes fancy for
a guide.

When our fire had been burning for about half an hour, Matthew having
unbuckled his pack, took out some dried deer’s flesh, upon which
we made a hearty supper: we then began to talk about one thing and
another, and, finally, I spoke of the Indians, expressing my curiosity
to know more about them. Upon this, Mat said he would tell an Indian
story, and accordingly, he proceeded nearly as follows:

These six nations, you must know, were not originally confined to
this small tract of country, but they were spread far and wide over
the land. Nor were they always united, but in former days they waged
fierce wars with one another. It was the custom among all the tribes
to put captives to death, by burning them, inflicting at the same time
the most fearful tortures upon the victims. Sometimes, however, they
adopted the captive, if he showed extraordinary fortitude, into the
tribe, and gave him all the privileges of the brotherhood.

An instance of this sort occurred with the Senecas. They had been at
war with the Chippewas, who lived to the north. Two small bands of
these rival tribes met, and every one of the Chippewas was slain, save
only a young chief named Hourka. He was taken, and carried to the
village of the victorious Senecas. Expecting nothing but torture and
death, he awaited his fate, without a question, or a murmur. In a day
or two, he saw the preparations making for his sacrifice: a circular
heap of dried fagots was erected, and near it a stake was driven in the
ground.

To this he was tied, and the fagots were set on fire. The scorching
blaze soon flashed near his limbs, but he shrunk not. An Indian then
took a sharp piece of stone, and cut a gash in Hourka’s side, and
inserted in it a blazing knot of pine. This burned down to the flesh,
but still the sufferer showed no signs of distress. The people of the
tribe, came around him, and jeered at him, calling him coward, and
every other offensive name: but they extorted not from him an impatient
word. The boys and the women seemed to be foremost in taunting him;
they caught up blazing pieces of the fagots, and thrust them against
his naked flesh; but yet, he stood unmoved, and his face was serene,
showing, however, a slight look of disdain. There was something in
his air which seemed to say, “I despise all your arts--I am an Indian
chief, and beyond your power.”

Now it chanced that a daughter of an old chief of the Senecas, was
there, and her heart was touched with the courage and manly beauty
of the youthful Chippewa; so she determined to save his life if she
could: and knowing that a crazy person is thought by the Indians to
be inspired, she immediately pretended to be insane. She took a large
fragment of the burning fagot in her hand, and circling around Hourka,
screamed in the most fearful manner. She ran among the woman and boys,
scattering the fire on all sides, and at the same time exclaiming, “Set
the captive free,--it is the will of Manitto, the Great Spirit!”

This manoeuvre of the Indian maiden was so sudden, and her manner was
so striking, that the Indians around were taken by a momentary impulse,
and rushing to the captive, sundered the strings of bark that tied him
to the stake, and, having set him at liberty, greeted him as a brother.
From this time, Hourka became a member of the tribe into which he was
thus adopted, and none treated him otherwise than as a chief, in whose
veins the blood of the Senecas was flowing, save only a huge chief,
called Abomico.

This Indian was of gigantic size, and proportionate power. He had taken
more scalps in fight, than any other young chief, and was, therefore,
the proudest of all the Senecas. He was looked upon by the girls of the
tribe, very much as a young man is among us, who is worth a hundred
thousand dollars. When, therefore, he said to Meena--the daughter of
the chief who saved the life of Hourka--that he wanted her for his
wife, he was greatly amazed to find that she did not fancy him. He
went away wondering that he could be refused, but determining to try
again. Now the long, dangling soaplocks, and filthy patches of beard,
worn by our modern dandies, who desire to dazzle the eyes of silly
girls--were not in vogue among the Senecas: but foppery is a thing
known among savages as well as civilized people.

Accordingly, Abomico, when he had determined to push his suit with
Meena, covered himself entirely over with a thick coat of bear’s
grease; he then painted one side of his face yellow, the other blue;
his arms he painted red; on his breast he drew the figure of a snake;
on one leg he painted a skunk; on the other a bear. Around his neck he
hung a necklace of bears’ claws, and on his arm he bore forty bloody
scalps, which he had taken from the heads of enemies slain in battle;
at his back was a quiver of arrows, and in his left hand was a bow.
In his hair was stuck a bunch of eagles’ feathers; from his right ear
swung the skin of a racoon; in his right hand he bore the wing of a
crow.

Thus attired, Abomico marched toward the tent, where Meena dwelt with
her father. Never was a beau of one of our cities, new from the hands
of the tailor, more delighted with his appearance, than was this
Indian dandy, as he drew near to the tent, and waited at the door for
the maiden to appear. “If she can resist my charms now,”--thought
Abomico,--“she must be bewitched indeed!”

Meena soon appeared--and the chief spoke to her again, begging her
to become his wife. “Come!” said he--“go with me, and be the singing
bird in my nest. I am a great warrior. I have slain forty brave men in
battle. I have feasted on the flesh, and drunk the warm blood, of my
enemies. I have the strongest arm, the truest hand, the swiftest foot,
the keenest eye, of any chief in the mighty tribe of the Senecas.”

“It is not true!” said Meena.

“Not true?” said the chief, in great anger and astonishment. “Who dares
to match himself with Abomico? Who can vie with him in the race? Who
can shoot with him at the mark? Who can leap with him at the bar?”

“Hourka!” said Meena.

“It is a lie,” said Abomico; though I must say, that he meant
no offence--because, among the Indians, such a speech was not a
discourtesy.

“Nay--nay,” said Meena--“I speak the truth; you have come to ask me to
be your wife. Hourka has made the same request. You shall both try your
power in the race and the leap, and at the bow. He who shall be the
master in the trial, may claim Meena for his slave.”

This proposition was gladly accepted, and Hourka being informed of it,
a time for the trial was appointed. The people of the village soon
heard what was going on; and, as the Indians are always fond of shows
and holidays, they rejoiced to hear of the promised sport.

The day of the trial arrived. In a grassy lawn, the sport was to be
held; and here the throng assembled. It was decreed by the chiefs that
the first trial should be with the bow. A large leaf was spread out
upon a forked branch of a tree, and this was set in the ground, at
the distance of about fifty yards. Abomico shot first, and his arrow
pierced the leaf, within half an inch of the centre. Hourka followed,
and his arrow flew wide from the mark, not even touching the leaf. He
seemed indeed careless, and reckless. But, as he turned his eye upon
Meena, he saw a shade of sorrow come over her face.

In an instant the manner of the young chief changed. He said to
himself,--“I have been mistaken: I thought the maiden slighted me and
preferred my rival: but now I know that she loves me, and I can now
beat Abomico.”

There were to be three trials of the bow. In the two which followed
the first, which we have described, Hourka had the advantage and
was pronounced the victor. And now came the leap. A pole was set
horizontally upon stakes, to the height of about five feet, and Hourka,
running a little distance, cleared it easily. Abomico followed, and he
also leaped over it with facility. It was then raised about a foot,
and Hourka, bounding like a deer of the wood, sprang over the pole,
amid the admiring shouts of the multitude. Abomico made a great effort,
and he too went over, but his foot grazed the piece of wood, and the
victory here again was awarded to Hourka.

The face of the haughty Abomico, now grew dark as the thunder-cloud. He
could bear to be rejected by Meena; but to be thus vanquished before
the whole tribe, and that too by one who had not the real blood of a
Seneca, was more than his pride could bear. He was, therefore, plotting
some scheme of revenge, when the race was marked out by the chiefs. It
was decreed that they should run side by side to a broad river which
was near; that they should swim across; ascend on the opposite bank to
a place above a lofty cataract in the river, and recrossing the river
there, return to the point of their departure.

The place occupied by the spectators, was so elevated as to command
a fine view of the entire race-ground; and the interest was intense,
as the two chiefs departed, bounding along, side by side, like two
coursers. The race was long nearly equal. They came to the river, and
at the same moment both plunged into the water. They swam across, and
at the same moment clambered up the rocky bank on the other shore.
Side by side they ran, straining every muscle. They ascended to the
spot above the roaring cataract, and plunged into the river; then
drew near the place where the water broke over the rocks in a mighty
sheet, making the earth tremble with the shock of their fall. Still the
brave swimmers heeded not the swift current that drew them toward the
precipice. Onward they pressed, cutting the element like ducks, and
still side by side.

Intense was the interest of the spectators, as they witnessed the
strife. But what was their amazement, when they saw Abomico rise above
the wave, grapple Hourka and drag him directly toward the edge of the
cataract. There was a shout of horror, through the tribe, and then a
deathlike silence. The struggle of the two rivals was fearful, but in
a short space, clinging to each other, they rolled over the precipice,
and disappeared among the mass of foam, far and deep below!

Killed, by falling on the rocks, and gashed by many a ghastly wound,
the huge form of Abomico was soon seen drifting down the stream; while
Hourka swam to the shore, and claimed his willing bride, amid the
applauses of men, women and children.




[Illustration]


                              The Zodiac.


The Zodiac consists of a broad belt in the heavens, among which the sun
appears to make his annual circuit. The stars are arranged in groups,
and the ancients, who were fond of astronomy, called these groups or
constellations, by particular names. One group they called ursa major,
or great bear; one they called orion; another, the crown; another, the
dog; another Hercules, &c.

In the month of March, the sun is said to enter aries, that is the
group or constellation called aries, or the ram; in April it enters
taurus, or the bull; in May, gemini, the twins; in June, cancer,
the crab; in July, leo, the lion; in August, virgo, the virgin; in
September, libra, the scales; in October, scorpio, the scorpion; in
November, sagittarius, the archer; in December, capricorn, the goat; in
January, aquarius, the water bearer; in February, pisces, the fishes.




                 The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                           of Thomas Trotter.


                              CHAPTER XVI.

  _The grotto of Pausilippo.--A dying man.--The Lazzaroni.--Weather
     at Naples.--The grotta del cane.--Inhuman sport.--Subterranean
     fires.--A Funeral.--Characteristics of the Neapolitans._


I had heard a great deal of the grotto of Pausilippo, which is a great
tunnel through a mountain at one end of the city, and I took a walk
toward that quarter, for the purpose of visiting it.

This is certainly one of the most surprising works of art in the world,
considering its age. It was executed two or three thousand years ago,
and is probably the most permanent artificial work on the face of the
earth. Even the Egyptian pyramids will not last so long as this. To
have some idea of it, you must understand that Naples is separated from
the towns on the northern coast by the hill of Pausilippo, which is a
ridge of solid rock.

Through this rock an immense tunnel is cut, three quarters of a mile
long, and nearly a hundred feet high. It is broad enough for two
carriages to pass, and lighted by lamps. Several air-holes, at proper
distances, serve to ventilate it and keep the air pure. A great deal
of travel is constantly passing through it: and during the heat of
summer, the grotto, has a most refreshing coolness. The rumbling of the
carriages is echoed from the rocky vault overhead in a very remarkable
manner. Altogether, the place struck me with surprise and astonishment;
and when I thought of our railroad tunnels, which we boast of as modern
inventions, I could not help repeating the observation of king Solomon,
that “there is no new thing under the sun.”

While I sat at supper in the evening, I was startled by hearing a bell
tinkling violently under my window. I ran to the balcony and found the
whole street in a blaze of light. A religious procession was going down
the street bearing lighted tapers. I was told that it was a priest
going to administer extreme unction to a dying man.

At the sound of the bell, which was carried by one of the procession,
all the neighbors ran to the windows and balconies with lamps and
candles, and fell upon their knees; for this is the custom on such
occasions. In an instant the whole street was in a blaze of light, and
the prospect of this illumination, with the long procession of persons
dressed in white, chanting a mournful dirge, and the crowds in the
balconies in solemn and devout attitudes, struck me very forcibly. As
the procession passed by each house, the spectators crossed themselves
and uttered a prayer for the soul of the dying man. So sudden are the
transitions of these people from the gayety and merriment of their
daily occupations to the solemnity of their religious observances.

Everybody who has been at Naples, has something to say about
the _Lazzaroni_, which is the name given to the idle fellows and
ragamuffins of this city. Many people imagine them to be a distinct
race of men, like the gipseys in other parts of Europe; but this
is an error. Every city in Europe has its proportion of lazy and
ragged fellows: but in Naples their number is so great that they have
obtained this peculiar name. By some, their numbers are stated at
twenty thousand. I will not vouch for the full number, but they exist
in swarms. Nowhere else did I ever see such comical raggedness as
among these people. The scarecrows, which Yankee farmers set in their
cornfields to frighten away the birds, are genteel figures compared to
these fellows. One has half a pair of trowsers; another half a jacket,
and no trowsers at all; another wears the leg of an old stocking for
a cap; another has a ragged pair of breeches the wrong side upwards
for a shirt. As to the patches and tatters, they surpass all power of
language to describe. How they get their living, one is puzzled to
guess, for they seem to spend all the day basking in the sun; and in
spite of their rags and dirt, they appear to be as happy as lords.
They are constantly in good humor, singing, chattering, grimacing, and
cutting capers from morning to night. In fact, notwithstanding their
want of almost all those things which we call necessaries of life,
they appear to be troubled with very little suffering. Their rags
and nakedness give them little concern, for the climate is so mild
that they hardly feel the want of a covering. Their food is chiefly
macaroni, which is very cheap here: two or three cents worth will
suffice a man for a day. Their manner of eating it makes a stranger
laugh; they hold it up in long strings, at arm’s length, and swallow it
by the yard at a time. As for their homes, the most of them have none:
they sleep in the open air, on the steps of the churches, and wherever
they can find a convenient spot to lie.

It was about the middle of March, which is the most disagreeable month
of the whole year in this country; yet I found the weather very mild
and pleasant. Light showers of rain happened almost every day; but
these lasted commonly but a few minutes and were succeeded by warm
sun-shine. I could discern the Appenines at a distance, covered with
snow, while the hills around the city were decked with green olive
trees. Oranges and lemons were plenty and very cheap: three or four for
a cent.

I set out on a walk to visit the famous _grotta del cane_, or “dog’s
cavern,” which is only a few miles from Naples. The road lay through
the grotto of Pausilippo, and I could not avoid again admiring this
wonderful cavern, the work of men who lived in what we have supposed
to be an age of barbarism. At the further end I emerged into the open
air and found a region of fields and vineyards, separated by walls of
clay. Little children ran along by my side, tumbling head over heels,
clacking their chops, making queer noises and antic gestures by way of
begging for coppers. All along the road were poplar trees, to which the
vines were trained, but they were not in leaf. After a walk of three or
four miles I came to lake Agnaro, a piece of water about the size of
Fresh Pond in Cambridge. On the shore of this lake is the _grotta del
cane_. It is a rocky cavern which enters horizontally a little above
the water, and emits from its mouth a sulphureous steam or vapor, which
will kill a dog if he is put into the cavern. People who live in the
neighborhood keep dogs for the purpose of exhibiting this phenomenon to
strangers. The dogs know the fatal properties of this cave, and refuse
to go in. While I was there, some of these fellows came to me and
offered to exhibit the experiment; but I declined, not wishing to see
an animal treated with cruelty for mere curiosity. They assured me that
the dog need not be killed--that they would only keep him in the cave
long enough to throw him into a swoon, and then bring him to life again
by plunging him into the water. I told them this was as bad as killing
him outright: for the animal could suffer no more by actually dying.
They were very unwilling to lose their expected fee, and answered me
that there was no suffering in the case, but, on the contrary, the dogs
were very fond of the sport! I laughed at this impudent falsehood, and
refused to have anything to do with the exhibition.

A few minutes after, a party of visiters arrived who had no such humane
scruples: they were resolved to see the experiment tried. Accordingly,
a dog was brought forward; and I now had a chance to see how much
truth there was in the assertion that these animals were fond of being
choked to death. The poor dog no sooner perceived his visiters than he
became as perfectly aware of what was going forward as if he had heard
and understood every syllable that had been said. It showed the utmost
unwillingness to proceed towards the cavern, but his master seized him
by the neck and dragged him with main force along till he reached the
mouth of the cave, into which he thrust him howling and making the most
piteous cries. In a few minutes he fell upon the ground motionless, and
lay without any signs of life. The spectators declared that they had
seen enough to satisfy them; on which the fellow took the dog up by
the ears and plunged him into the lake. After two or three dips, the
poor animal began to agitate his limbs and at length came to himself
and ran scampering off. These inhuman exhibitions ought not to be
encouraged by travellers.

Every part of the neighborhood of the city abounds with evidence of the
existence of volcanic fire, under ground. As I walked along the road
I found the smoke issuing from holes and clefts in the ground: and on
placing my hands in these fissures, I found them so hot that one might
roast eggs in them. Yet people build houses and pass their lives upon
these spots, without troubling themselves with the reflection that they
live on a thin crust of soil hanging over a yawning gulf of fire! In my
walk homeward I passed by a hill, about the size of Bunker Hill, which
some time ago rose up suddenly, in a single night, from a level plain.
It is now all overgrown with weeds and bushes. If it were not for Mount
Vesuvius, which affords a breathing-place for these subterranean fires,
it is highly probable that the whole face of the country would be rent
into fragments by earthquakes and volcanic explosions. Vesuvius may be
called the _safety valve_ of the country.

On my way home, I was stopped on the road by an immense crowd. It was
a funeral. A long train of monks and priests attended the hearse, each
one clad in a dress which resembled a loose white sheet thrown over the
head and falling down to the feet, with little round holes cut for the
eyes. They looked like a congregation of spectres from the other world.
The corpse was that of an army officer. He lay not in a coffin, but
exposed in full uniform upon a crimson pall edged with gold. Everything
accompanying the hearse was pompous, showy and dazzling.

This indeed is the characteristic of the people; almost everything in
their manners and mode of life is calculated to strike the senses and
produce effect by dazzling and external display. Nothing can surpass
the splendor of their religious processions, the rich and imposing
decoration of their churches, and the pomp and parade and showy
display which attend the solemnization of all their public festivals.
The population of these countries are exceedingly sensitive to the
effect of all these exhibitions, and their lively and acute feelings
bring them under the influence of whatever is addressed strongly to
their outward senses. They are little guided by sound reason and sober
reflection, but are at the mercy of all the impulses that arise from a
keen sensibility and an excitable imagination.




                        Story of Philip Brusque.


                              CHAPTER XI.

  _The meeting.--Discussion.--A government adopted.--Conclusion
     for the present._


The time for the meeting of the people to take measures for the
establishment of a government for the island of Fredonia, was fixed for
the day which followed the events narrated in the last chapter. This
meeting was looked forward to with intense interest, by all parties.
The men, who knew that there could be no peace or safety in society,
without government, regarded the event as likely to decide whether the
inhabitants of the island were to be happy or miserable.

The women, who were perhaps not apt to reflect upon these things, had
also learned from their experience that a government, establishing and
enforcing laws, was indispensable to the quiet and security of society:
they saw that their own lives, their freedom, their homes, were not
secure, without the protection of law. Even the children had found that
government was necessary, and these as well as the women, were now
rejoicing at the prospect of having this great blessing bestowed upon
the little community of Fredonia.

The day for the meeting arrived, and the men of the island assembled,
agreeably to the appointment. First came the men of the tent party, and
then, those from the Outcast’s cave. The latter were greeted by a shout
of welcome, and mingling with the rest, a kind shaking of hands took
place between those, who so lately were arrayed against each other in
deadly conflict.

After a short time, Mr. Bonfils, being the oldest man of the company,
called the assembly to order, and he being chosen chairman, went on to
state the objects of the assembly, in the following words:

     “My dear friends; it has been the will of Providence to cast
     us together upon this lonely, but beautiful island. It would
     seem that so small a community, regulated by mutual respect
     and mutual good will, might dwell together in peace and
     amity, without the restraints of law, or the requisitions of
     government. But history has told us, that in all lands, and
     in all ages, peace, order, justice, are only to be secured
     by established laws, and the means of carrying them into
     effect. There must be government, even in a family; there
     must be some power to check error, to punish crime, to
     command obedience to the rule of right. Where there is no
     government, there the violent, the unjust, the selfish, have
     sway, and become tyrants over the rest of the community. Our
     own unhappy experience teaches us this.

     “Now we have met together, with a knowledge, a conviction of
     these truths. We know, we feel, we see that law is
     necessary, and that there must be a government to enforce
     it. Without this, there is no peace, no security, no quiet
     fireside, no happy home, no pleasant society. Without this,
     all is fear, anxiety, and anarchy.

     “Let us then enter upon the duties of this occasion, with a
     proper sense of the obligation that rests upon us; of the
     serious duty which is imposed on every man present. We are
     about to decide questions which are of vital interest, not
     only to each actor in this scene, but to these wives and
     sisters and children, whom we see gathered at a little
     distance, watching our proceedings, as if their very lives
     were at stake.”

This speech was followed by a burst of applause; but soon a man by
the name of Maurice arose--one who had been a leading supporter of
Rogere--and addressed the assembly as follows:

     “Mr. Chairman; it is well known that I am one of the persons
     who have followed the opinions of that leader who lost his
     life in the battle of the tents. I followed him from a
     conviction that his views were right. The fact is, that I
     have seen so much selfishness in the officers of the law,
     that I have learned to despise the law itself. Perhaps,
     however, I have been wrong. I wish to ask two questions--the
     first is this: _Is not liberty a good thing?_ You will
     answer that it is. It is admitted, all the world over, that
     liberty is one of the greatest enjoyments of life. My second
     question then is--_Why restrain liberty by laws?_ Every law
     is a cord put around the limbs of liberty. If you pass a law
     that I shall not steal, it is restraint of my freedom; it
     limits my liberty; it takes away a part of that, which all
     agree is one of the greatest benefits of life. And thus, as
     you proceed to pass one law after another, do you not at
     last bind every member of society by such a multiplied web
     of restraints, as to make him the slave of law? And is not a
     member of a society where you have a system of laws, like a
     fly in the hands of the spider, wound round and round by a
     bondage that he cannot burst, and which only renders him a
     slave of that power which has thus entangled him?”

When Maurice had done, Brusque arose, and spoke as follows:

     “Mr. Chairman; I am happy that Mr. Maurice has thus stated a
     difficulty which has arisen in my own mind: he has stated it
     fairly, and it ought to be fairly answered. Liberty is
     certainly a good thing; without it, man cannot enjoy the
     highest happiness of which he is capable. All useless
     restraints of liberty are therefore wrong; all unnecessary
     restraints of liberty are wrong. But the true state of the
     case is this: we can enjoy no liberty, but by submitting to
     certain restraints. It is true that every law is an
     abridgment of liberty; but it is better to have some
     abridgment of it, than to lose it all.

     “I wish to possess my life in safety; accordingly I submit
     to a law which forbids murder: I wish to possess my property
     in security; and therefore I submit to a law which forbids
     theft and violence: I wish to possess my house without
     intrusion; I therefore submit to a law which forbids one man
     to trespass upon the premises of another: I wish to go and
     come, without hindrance, and without fear; I therefore
     submit to a law which forbids highway robbery, and all
     interference with a man’s pursuit of his lawful business.

     “Now, if we reflect a little, we shall readily see that by
     submitting to certain restraints, we do actually increase
     the amount of practical, available, useful liberty. By
     submitting to laws, therefore, we get more freedom than we
     lose. That this is the fact, may be easily tested by
     observation. Go to any civilized country, where there is a
     settled government and a complete system of laws, and you
     will find, in general, that a man enjoys his house, his
     home, his lands, his time, his thoughts, his property,
     without fear: whereas, if you go to a savage land, where
     there is no government and no law, there you will find your
     life, property, and liberty, exposed every moment to
     destruction. Who, then, can fail to see that the very laws
     which abridge liberty in some respects, actually increase
     the amount of liberty enjoyed by the community.”

Maurice professed himself satisfied with this solution of his
difficulties; and the meeting proceeded to appoint a committee, to
go out and prepare some plan, to be submitted to the meeting. This
committee returned, and after a short space, brought in a resolution,
that Mr. Bonfils be for one year placed at the head of the little
community, with absolute power; and that, at the end of that period,
such plan of government as the people might decree, should be
established.

This resolution was adopted unanimously. The men threw up their hats in
joy, and the air rang with acclamations. The women and children heard
the cheerful sounds, and ran toward the men, who met them half way. It
was a scene of unmixed joy. Brusque and Emilie met, and the tears of
satisfaction fell down their cheeks. François went to his aged mother,
and even her dimmed eye was lighted with pleasure at the joyful issue
of the meeting.

We must now take leave of the island of Fredonia--at least for a
time--and whether we ever return to it, must depend upon the wishes of
our young readers. If they are anxious to see how the people flourished
under the reign of their aged old chief, and how they proceeded in
after years, perchance we may lift the curtain and show them the scene
that lies behind it. But I hope that our readers have learnt, that not
only men and women, but children, have an interest in government, and
therefore that it is a thing they should try to understand.




[Illustration]


                             The Tanrec.


This creature resembles the hedgehog, but is larger than that animal,
and is destitute of a tail. It does not roll itself into a ball, for
defence, like the former animal. It passes three of the warmest months
of the year in a state of torpor, differing in this respect from other
animals, which become torpid from extreme cold. Its legs are very
short, and it moves very slowly. It is fond of the water, and loves
to wallow in the mud. It moves about only by night. There are three
species, all found in the island of Madagascar.




                      Letter from a Correspondent.


_Little Readers of the Museum:_

I sometimes read Mr. Robert Merry’s Museum, and I like it very much,
as I presume all his little “blue-eyed and black-eyed readers” do. He
talks very much like good old Peter Parley. I should think he had heard
him tell many a story while he rested his wooden leg on a chair, with a
parcel of little laughing girls and boys around him. Oh, how many times
I have longed to see him, and crawl up in his lap and hear his stories!
But Mr. Merry says he is dead, and I never can see him. I am very--very
sorry, for I hoped I should sometime visit him, for I loved him very
much, and I guess he would have loved me some, for I like old people,
and always mean to treat them with respect. How cruel it was for
others to write books and pretend that Peter Parley wrote them!--for
it seems that this shortened his life. I am glad, however, that Mr.
Merry has his writings, for I think he loves his little friends so well
that he will frequently publish some of them. I said that I loved Peter
Parley, and I guess you will not think it strange that I should, when
I tell you what a useful little book he once published, and how much
pleasure I took in reading it. He wrote a great many interesting pieces
which I read and studied, and they did me much good, I think. I hope
that the little readers of the Museum will learn a good deal from what
they read.

Peter Parley wrote a piece which told us how to make pens. I read it
over, and over again, and, finally, I thought I would see if I could
not make one. So I went to my little desk and took out a quill, got my
aunt’s knife and laid the book before me and tried to do just as Peter
Parley told me I must. I succeeded very well, and my friends were quite
pleased. This encouraged me very much, and soon I made them so well
that my teachers made me no more pens. By-and-by my little associates
got me to make and mend theirs, and I loved the business very much.

Well, a few years since, I went to a beautiful village to attend
school, where a splendid academy stands, around which, are large green
trees, under whose shade my little readers would love to sit. There I
staid two or three years. Often did I walk out with the teachers, whom
I loved, to botanize, or ramble, with nimble step, over the beautiful
hills of that sweet place, and listen to the constant murmur of its
waterfalls, or gather the delicate flowers that grew so plentifully
there. But to my story. My teachers saw that I made my own pens, and
occasionally, when they were busy, would bring me one to make for them.
The students soon found it out, and I had plenty of business. One day
the principal of the school came to me and offered to compensate me
by giving me my tuition one term, which was six dollars, if I would
make and mend pens. I did not accept the money of course, though I
cheerfully and gladly performed the small service.

So you see, Peter Parley’s instruction has done me a great deal of
good, for how many persons there are who cannot make a good pen,
because they never learned how.

My little readers, I am now almost twenty years old, but I still
remember many other things which I read in Peter Parley’s books when
I was a little girl. Mr. Robert Merry talks and writes just like him,
almost, and I hope you will love to read and study attentively Merry’s
Museum, for it is a good little work, and a pleasant one. Be assured,
my young friends, you can learn a great deal from it, if you read it
carefully. I should like to say much more to you, but I cannot now. I
have been sitting by the fire, in a rocking-chair, writing this on a
large book, with a pussy under it for a desk, but she has just jumped
from my lap, and refuses to be made a table of any longer. So farewell.

                                              Your young friend,
                                                          LAURA.
  _Springfield, Jan. 6, 1842_




COOKERY BOOK.--“Has that cookery book any pictures?” said Miss C. to
a bookseller. “No, miss, none,” was the answer. “Why,” exclaimed the
witty young lady, “what is the use of telling us how to make a good
dinner, if they give us no _plates_?”




[Illustration: Names of different kinds of Type.]

                 Names of different kinds of Type.

  Great Primer          I will now tell you something
  English               about printing. It may be useful to
  Pica                  spend a few lines in giving you an idea of
  Small Pica            the names which are applied to the different
                           sorts
  Long Primer           of type employed in the printing of books. This
                           I shall
  Bourgeois             do by putting against each line of the present
                           paragraph the
  Brevier               name of the type in which it is printed. I
                           shall not attempt to
  Minion                explain the origin of these odd terms, but
                           content myself with giving
  Nonpareil             you a notion of the proportion which one type
                           bears to another; so as to enable
  Pearl                 you, when you become author, to give instruc-
                           tions to your printer as to the type you
                           wish him to use.
  Condensed             And by way of enlarging your vocabulary of
                           types, I will
  Full-face             add a few examples of fancy letters, adapted to
                          the title-
  Antique               PAGES OF BOOKS, SHOW BILLS OF VARIOUS
  Gothic Condensed      KINDS, BUSINESS CARDS, VISITING CARDS, AND MANY
                           OTHER
  Black                 purposes. If you will go to Mr. Dickinson’s
                           printing-office,
  Script                No. 52 Washington Street, Boston, you will see a
  Extended              GREAT VARIETY
  Gothic                OF FANCY TYPE; AND YOU WILL
  Gothic Outline        ALSO SEE HOW THEY ARE SET
  Tuscan Shade          UP, AND HOW THEY ARE
  Full-face (Capitals)  PRINTED, WITH WHAT HE CALLS A
  Phantom               ROTARY PRESS.
  Condensed (Capitals)  YOU WILL ALSO SEE PRESSES WORKED BY STEAM,
                           AND EN-
  Full-face Italic      _gaged in printing books, newspapers,_
  Extra Condensed       PAMPHLETS, MAGAZINES, AND MANY
  Shaded               {OTHER THINGS. IF YOU WILL
                       {GO TO NO. 66 CONGRESS STREET,
  Ornamented            YOU WILL FIND WHERE
  Title Letter          MERRY’S MUSEUM
  French Shade          IS STEREOTYPED.




[Illustration]


                      PETER PARLEY’S NEW STORIES.

                                No. II.


                        About the Three Sisters.


There were once three little girls, who went to see a balloon. When
they got to the place, they saw that it was a great bag of silk, with a
netting put over it, and to this netting, a little car was attached.

There were a great many people around the place, anxious to see the
balloon rise and sail away in the air. There were several persons very
busy in filling the balloon with what is called _hydrogen gas_, which
is a kind of air, and so light that it rises upward and carries the
balloon with it.

Pretty soon there was considerable gas in the balloon, and it then
began to ascend a little; in a short time it rose more, and, after a
few minutes, it seemed in such a hurry to get away that several men
were obliged to take hold of the net-work, and restrain it till all was
ready.

Now a man by the name of Lauriat, who had made the balloon, was
going up with it. When all was prepared, he got into the little car,
holding in his lap a cat fastened in a cage, with a thing like an
umbrella, attached to it. In a few moments Mr. Lauriat called out, “all
right!”--and the men let go of the net-work, and up went the balloon,
and up went Mr. Lauriat in the little car hanging beneath it!

It was a beautiful sight, and the people were so delighted, that the
air rang with acclamations. The three little girls, whom we shall call
History, Poetry, and Romance, were as much pleased as anybody, and
shouted, with their little voices, as loud as they could. What made it
all more pleasant, was that the people could see Mr. Lauriat, who waved
a little flag, as he ascended; and though it was almost frightful to
see a man so high in the air, yet he appeared quite at his ease and
very much gratified.

When the balloon had risen to a great height, so as to look only about
as large as my wig, Mr. Lauriat let the cat and the cage fall; but the
thing like an umbrella, called a _parachute_, kept it from coming down
very swiftly. It was a beautiful sight to see! At first the cage and
parachute were hardly visible, but they grew more and more distinct,
and at last they came nearer and nearer, and finally dropped down upon
a distant hill. Some boys ran to the place, and behold, puss was in the
cage, a good deal frightened, but as safe as ever. There are very few
cats that have had such a ride as this!

At last the balloon looked no bigger than a fly, and then it entered
a cloud and was seen no more. The company separated and went to their
homes, all talking of the balloon, and Mr. Lauriat, and puss, and the
parachute. Our three little girls also returned to their homes, and,
rushing to their mother, they were each so anxious to tell the story,
that neither could be understood. At last their mother said to them,
“My dear children, I must hear you, one at a time. Let us all sit down,
and History, who is the oldest; shall tell the story first. Then Poetry
shall tell it, and then Romance shall tell it.”

To this they all agreed, and History began as follows: “We reached the
place about four o’clock in the afternoon. There were already many
people present, but as the time advanced, others came, and soon about
two thousand people were there.

“The balloon was enclosed in a fence, made of boards, and none but the
workmen and Mr. Lauriat were permitted to enter the enclosure. There
were six large casks around, in which they made the hydrogen gas; this
was conducted to the balloon by means of tubes.

“The balloon was a large bag of silk, about forty feet long and
eighty feet in circumference. When full of gas, it was shaped like a
bell-pear, the stem downwards. The silk was oiled, so as to retain the
gas, which is lighter than the air, and floats upward in it, as a piece
of wood does in water. The balloon was enclosed in a net-work, and
beneath, a little car, or boat, was attached to it, and in this, Mr.
Lauriat sat, when he ascended.

“As the gas was conducted to the balloon, the latter gradually swelled
out, and when it was full, the men who held it down, let go; and it
ascended with Mr. Lauriat, into the air. He was cheered by the voices
of the people, and he waved a little flag back and forth, in return. It
was a pleasing scene, in which fear for the airy sailor, and admiration
of his skill and courage, were mingled.

“Mr. Lauriat had taken up with him a cat, enclosed in a cage, and to
this cage a parachute was attached. When he had risen to the height of
about a thousand feet, he let the cage go, and it came gently down like
a snow-flake, falling at last on a distant hill. The cat was taken up
unhurt. The balloon gradually grew less and less to the vision, and
finally it disappeared in a thick cloud, upon which the rays of the
evening sun were now falling.”

Such was the account given of the scene by History; and now Poetry
began:

“Oh mother, it was beautiful! The balloon went up like a soap-bubble,
and it sailed along on the air like a bird. I could hardly believe that
it was not alive, it glided in the air so gently, and so gracefully!
And Mr. Lauriat, he looked so happy! Oh it was wonderful to see a man
so high in the air, and to see him so much at his ease! I felt afraid
for him, and yet the scene pleased me the more. I wished to be with
him, though I knew I should have been frightened. And yet it seemed
so pleasing to go up in the air, and look down upon so many people,
and to know that they were all looking at you, and that so many hearts
were beating for you, and that so many were admiring you! It would be
beautiful!

“And, mother, you know that the balloon glided up and away so softly,
that it seemed like a dream, fading from the memory. And at last, when
it was like a mere insect in the vast blue sky, it stole into a cloud,
and hid itself, and then I had a feeling of sadness. Can you tell me
why, mother?”

Here there was a pause, and the blue-eyed girl, stood for a moment, as
if expecting an answer. But Romance was impatient to begin, and her
dark eye, shaded by the long black lashes, seemed to grow larger and
brighter as she spoke thus:

“History has told you, mother, all the events that occurred, and she
has accurately described them. Poetry has painted the scene, and made
it clear and bright by comparisons. But I must tell you of the thoughts
and feelings it awakened in my breast, and of the fairy world in which
I seemed to be, while I looked on the balloon.

“When the balloon went up, it seemed as if I went with it, into a new
scene. I think I have dreamed something like it, in my sleep, when
my thoughts seemed like wings, and all around was fair and heavenly.
As the balloon ascended, I seemed to ascend also. I did not, at the
moment, think how strange it was, but I went on fancying myself with
the balloon, and riding upon the air, in that little boat. And I
thought of the vast blue space around, and the earth beneath, and the
heaven above, and I felt as if I was something like an angel, gifted
with the power of rising upward, and seeing earth, and sky, and heaven,
as others could not see them. And I felt a sort of happiness I cannot
express.

“Well, as the balloon sailed farther and farther upon the airy sea,
and as it grew less and less to the sight, like a ship that glides
away upon the ocean--I began to think of the realms to which it seemed
hastening. And at last, when it flew into the cloud, I did not dream
that it had disappeared. My eye was still bent upon the spot, and I
still fancied that I was with it, and that I was sailing on and on,
upon the blue deep, and among regions where the happy and the lovely
only dwell.”

When Romance had got to this point of her story, the mother smiled,
and History tittered aloud. Poetry, however, drew nearer, and seemed
entranced with the tale of the dark-eyed girl. But Romance was dashed
at the ridicule she had excited, and was silent.

Now I suppose some of my waggish young readers, some of the roguish
Paul Pries, will laugh at me, as History did at Romance; and think me
not a little ridiculous, for telling such a rigmarole tale as this. But
old Peter knows what he is about! He has an object in view; and now, as
Mr. Lauriat let the cat out of the car, he will “let the cat out of the
bag.”

My purpose is to teach the meaning of the three words, History, Poetry,
and Romance. History is a true record of events; and, accordingly, the
little girl whom we call History, tells the exact story of the balloon.
Poetry is a display of fanciful thoughts, and deals much in comparison;
and so, our little Poetry gives a fanciful description of the scene,
embellishing her tale by many illustrations. Romance is a picture of
fantastic and extraordinary scenes and feelings; and our dark-haired
maiden, who deals in it, sets forth the fairy world of visions and
sentiments that is reflected in her own breast.

I suppose all my readers have heard of the Nine Muses, goddesses of
ancient Greece. One was called Clio, the muse of history; one was
Erato, the muse of poetry. And I have sometimes fancied that the idea
of these goddesses, might have originated among the fanciful Greeks,
from perceiving the different ways in which different persons notice
the same scenes; one being apt to remark things soberly and accurately,
like our Miss History; another being apt to see them fancifully, like
our Miss Poetry; and another apt to weave a world of fiction out of
them, like our Miss Romance.




                              The Zephyr.


I must tell my young reader, in order to explain these lines, that in
ancient times, the Greeks used to think that the light summer wind was
a sort of goddess, whom they called _Zephyr_.

   “Where have you been to-day?” said I
    To a zephyr, as it flew by;
    And thus it made reply.

   “I have been upon the sea,
    Where the waves were full of glee,
    And they lov’d to dance with me.

   “On the mountain I have strayed,
    And with its green leaves played,
    ’Mid the sunshine and shade.

   “I have been in the dell,
    Where the wild flowers dwell,
    And oh, I loved them well!

   “I have been with the brook,
    And its laughing ripples shook,
    As my kisses they took.

   “I have been with the flowers,
    In their sweet-scented bowers,
    And forgot the flight of hours.

   “I have played with the hair
    Of a girl, wild and fair--
    And I loved to linger there!

   “I have been with clouds on high,
    As with pinions they do fly,
    In many a glorious dye!”




                         To my Correspondents.


I am gratified to find, although it is now but about a year since I
began to be known to the public, that already I have some thousands
of black-eyed and blue-eyed acquaintances, in different parts of the
country. I receive many letters from young persons, and they give me
great pleasure, for they show that poor Bob Merry, though he has a
“timber toe,” is not destitute of friends. I was much pleased with
a bear story about his great-great-grandfather, sent me by J. W. L.
Cheseborough, of New London. I intend to make something of it, one of
these days. Two puzzles, received from other correspondents, are given
below. I must beg those who are anxious to hear how I lost my leg--to
wait a little while. It will all come out in due season. Perhaps the
leg will turn out as interesting as Peter Parley’s great toe, that used
to tickle the boys so! I have only one thing to add, which is, that I
desire all my friends to address their letters to care of Bradbury &
Soden.




                                Puzzles.


                                          _Portsmouth, Feb. 4, 1842._

MR. MERRY,--Sir: if you think the following worthy a place in your
valuable magazine, by inserting the same you will oblige a CONSTANT
READER.

                       I am a word of 18 letters.

  My 1, 12, 17, 13, 5, 18, is an article of ladies’ dress.
  My 18, 7, 6, 16, 5, is a number.
  My 6, 2, 15, has been the ruination of many.
  My 12, 3, 8, 12, 17, is a vegetable.
  My 11, 8, 10, 4, is an article of food.
  My 7, 12, 5, is much used by farmers.
  My 18, 6, 12, 14, 18, is a kind of fish.
  My 18, 8, 3, is a valuable ore.
  My 9, 8, 15, 5, is a foreign fruit.
  My whole is a great ornament to the country.

       *       *       *       *       *

                      I am composed of 16 letters.

  My 2, 1, 8, is a portion of water.
  My 2, 12, 4, 15, 16, 8, has been the ruin of thousands.
  My 16, 1, 15, 10, 8, is the most contemptible of all animals.
  My 6, 14, 4, 15, is the name of a once celebrated tragedian.
  My 3, 8, 15, 15, is the name of a town not far from Boston.
  My 11, 12, 1, 15, 5, 9, is the name of a great country.
  My 3, 4, 6, 7, is a sheet of water.
  My 11, 13, 12, 9, is one of the elements.
  My 1, 13, 12, is another.
  My 11, 3, 8, is an insect.
  My 15, 13, 3, 7, is the name of a river justly
  celebrated in ancient and modern history.
                                                        C. B. F.
  _Boston, February 1, 1842._




                           MARCH--A SONG.

            THE WORDS AND MUSIC COMPOSED FOR MERRY’S MUSEUM.

[Illustration: music]

    March is like a child,
    Now gentle and now wild;
    March is like a child,
    Now gentle and now wild;

    To-day, the soft winds blow,
    To-morrow it doth snow,
    To-day the soft winds blow,
    To-morrow it doth snow.

    March is like a rill,
    Now roaring, and now still;
    Today the blast is stinging,
    To-morrow birds are singing.

    March is like a cloud,
    Now bright, and now a shroud;
    To-day the warm rain falls,
    To-morrow we have squalls.

    March is like a bear,
    With sharp claws and soft hair;
    To-day ’tis rough and wild,
    To-morrow, all is mild.




[Illustration: THE HARPY EAGLE.]




                            MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME III.--No. 4.




[Illustration: _Montezuma._]


   Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c., of the Indians of America.


                              CHAPTER XV.

  _Description of Mexico.--Montezuma.--Landing of Cortez.--His
     reception.--Advances towards the Capitol.--War with the
     Tlascalans._


In the first part I have related, briefly, but with as much clearness
as possible, the history of the Indians of the West Indian Islands,
and of South America. I have described their customs and manners, and
traced the progress of the Spaniards and other Europeans from the
“Landing of Columbus,” till all the islands, and the greater part of
the southern continent were subjected to the invaders. We will now
turn to North America, and pursue the fortunes of the Red Man from the
burning clime of Darien to the cold regions of the Arctic sea.

At the time of the discovery of the New World, the region which is at
present known by the name of the Republic of Mexico, extending from the
Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the United States to Guatemala,
was called _Anahuac_. This vast country was inhabited by several
independent nations, of which the Mexicans were by far the greatest and
most civilized. Their capital city, Mexico, was situated on a group of
islands in the Lake of Texcuco, partly natural and partly formed by
the labor of the inhabitants. The lake of Texcuco lay in a large and
beautiful valley, called the Vale of Mexico, in the central part of the
country of Anahuac. From the shore, three great dykes or causeways,
formed of stone and earth, led to the city, the appearance of which
must have been magnificent, even to men of enlightened Europe.

The houses of the common people were mostly low wooden buildings,
arranged with the greatest regularity. But the dwellings of the
nobility were of stone, and some of them spacious and magnificent. The
city was adorned with numerous temples, the principal of which was the
great temple of their god Mexitli, the Mars of the Mexicans. This was
an enormous four-sided pyramid, one hundred and twenty feet high; on
one side were steps to ascend to the top, which was a square platform.
On this were two small temples, containing images of their gods and
altars, on which, (horrible to relate!) great numbers of human victims
were sacrificed every year, by this inhuman people.

The lake around was covered with vessels of all descriptions, and
numbers of floating gardens, filled with the most beautiful flowers.
Numerous canals were cut through the city, in which the boats of the
natives were constantly passing, as in the great towns of Holland.

But all this greatness and splendor was not, as might be supposed, the
growth of many ages of prosperity; from the foundation of the city,
according to the account of the natives, to its capture by Cortez, in
1520, had elapsed a period of only one hundred and ninety-five years.
The ancient history of the Aztec or Mexican nations, as given in their
own annals, is as follows:--

“During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries after Christ, a great
number of nations or tribes arrived at Anahuac, from some country to
the north; they are supposed by many to have come, originally, from
Tartary, crossing over to America at Bhering’s straits; but of this
we have no certain proof. The first who arrived, found the country
entirely unoccupied, except by a few stragglers, the remnant of a great
and highly cultivated people, called Saltees, who formerly possessed
the country, and had been destroyed, or driven away by famine and
pestilence. To them are ascribed the pyramid of Cholula, and many other
works of power and skill; and to them the new comers were indebted for
their knowledge of many of the arts of civilized life.

“The Aztecs or Mexicans were the last of the emigrating nations who
arrived in this country. For a long time they remained an insignificant
tribe, living in the most wretched condition, on the borders of the
lake of Tezcuco, often in a state of slavery to the neighboring kings.
At last, having regained their freedom, they settled, in the year 1325,
on a group of islands in the lake, and here founded the city of Mexico.

“This city, after remaining for about twenty years a mere collection of
wretched huts, suddenly began to increase with wonderful rapidity. By a
long series of wars, undertaken partly through desire of conquest and
partly for the horrid purpose of obtaining victims for their human, or,
rather, inhuman sacrifices, the Mexicans rendered themselves masters
of nearly all the country of Anahuac. A few states, however, among
which was the brave little republic of Tlascala, still maintained their
independence, almost at the gates of the capital.”

Such was the state of affairs at the time when Montezuma II. mounted
the throne, in the year 1502. Before, and for a short time after his
accession, he was esteemed a prince of a mild and humble disposition,
and of the greatest wisdom. But his real character soon began to
appear. He showed himself haughty, arrogant, and cruel, and a merciless
oppressor of the common people. At the same time, he was liberal
to those who faithfully served him, and a brave, and successful
warrior. He founded a hospital for his disabled soldiers, built many
magnificent edifices, and added much, by his conquests, to the extent
of his dominions.

In a war, however, with the brave republicans of Tlascala, he did not
meet with his usual success. The Tlascalans having sent an embassy to
the Mexican court, to complain of grievances which they suffered from
their neighbors, received for answer, that the king of Mexico was lord
of all the world, and all mortals were his vassals; and that, as such,
the Tlascalans should render him due obedience, and acknowledge him by
tribute; if they refused, they were to be utterly destroyed, and their
country given to another people.

To this arrogant demand, the Tlascalans returned a brave and spirited
refusal, and both nations immediately prepared for war. The Mexicans
were, by far, the most numerous, but they wanted the courage which
their enemies derived from the feeling that they fought for life
and liberty, for their homes and their country. The Tlascalans were
victorious in two pitched battles, and their opponents were compelled
to retire from the contest in disgrace.

With this exception, the first years of Montezuma’s reign were in
every respect prosperous. But suddenly a great reverse took place; a
large army of Mexicans, on an expedition to a distant country, after
suffering severely from a storm, were utterly destroyed by their
enemies. At the same time, a comet made its appearance, spreading the
greatest consternation throughout the nation; for, according to their
diviners, it portended the downfall of the empire.

While the king and his subjects were in this state of anxiety and
dread, news arrived, that a number of huge vessels, bearing men
speaking an unknown tongue, and clothed in glittering armor, had
arrived on the coast of his empire. These strangers, who so naturally
excited the admiration and awe of the natives, were no other than
Cortez and his companions.

On the second of April, 1519, this bold and enterprising Spaniard
entered the harbor of Saint Juan de Ulua, on the eastern coast of
Mexico, with eleven small vessels, containing only about six hundred
men; and of these, more than a hundred were sailors. With this small
force was he about to make war upon a monarch, whose dominions were
more extensive than all the kingdoms subject to the Spanish crown. On
the following day he landed his troops, and having selected a suitable
place for a camp, began to fortify it; in which he was zealously
assisted by the unsuspecting natives. Here he was soon visited by the
governors of the district. He received them with many demonstrations
of respect, and informed them that he had come as ambassador from Don
Carlos, of Spain, the greatest king of the East, with proposals which
he could only declare to their monarch himself. He therefore demanded
to be led immediately to his presence.

The governors attempted to dissuade him from visiting the capital,
but at the same time laid before him a rich present of gold and
silver articles, which had only the effect of increasing his desire
to proceed. He therefore repeated his demand in a determined tone.
Seeing among his visiters several painters, who were busily engaged
in taking down, for the information of their sovereign, everything
remarkable in the appearance of the strangers, he resolved to give them
a specimen of his warlike power. He ordered his troops to be drawn up
in battle-array, and to go through the evolutions of a mock battle.
While the natives were gazing in astonishment at the spectacle, the
cannon, pointed towards the thick woods which surrounded the camp,
were suddenly fired, and made terrible havoc among the trees. At
the dreadful sound, some fled, others fell to the ground, overcome
by amazement and terror; and the painters had now to exercise their
ingenuity to invent figures and symbols by which to represent the new
and surprising things they had seen.

In a few days an answer was received from the emperor, refusing an
audience, and commanding the Spaniards to leave the country; but,
at the same time, directing that they should be supplied with all
things requisite for their voyage. Notwithstanding this prohibition,
Cortez resolved to proceed, and his followers eagerly joined in
the determination. They first set about founding a colony on the
place where they had landed, as this was one of the objects of the
expedition. The whole army labored with the utmost diligence; a number
of houses, or rather huts, were soon erected, and the whole strongly
fortified. The infant settlement received the name of “_Villa rica de
la Vera Cruz_;” “the rich town of the true cross.”

The next act of the troops appears deserving of mention as a display
of heroic and determined courage almost without a parallel. Cortez,
fearing lest, when their enthusiasm should subside, the soldiers should
be seized with a desire to return, by his arguments and representations
so wrought upon them, that, of their own accord, to cut off all
opportunity for retreat, they dragged the vessels upon the beach, and
burnt them to ashes.

They had now no choice but to proceed; and, accordingly, much to the
dismay and dissatisfaction of the Indians, who did not, however,
dare to oppose them by force, they set out on their march towards
the capital. On their way, they passed through the territories of
several _caziques_ or chiefs, who bore with impatience the yoke of
their Mexican conquerors, and were glad to free themselves from it, by
transferring their allegiance to the king of Spain. Cortez eagerly
accepted their services, and artfully represented that he had been
deputed, by his sovereign, to redress the grievances which they had
suffered at the hands of the Mexicans. These new allies afterwards
proved extremely useful.

After proceeding for several days without obstruction, the Spaniards
arrived at the confines of Tlascala. Knowing the implacable enmity
of the inhabitants to the Mexicans, he expected that he should meet
from them a friendly reception. The Tlascalans, however, were far
differently disposed. Having heard that he was on his way to visit the
Mexican king, they probably suspected, that, notwithstanding all his
professions, he courted the friendship of a monarch whom they both
hated and feared. The ambassadors whom he sent to them with proposals
of alliance, they seized, and, regardless of their sacred character,
prepared to sacrifice them to their gods. At the same time they
collected their forces in order to prevent their unknown invaders from
making good a passage by force of arms.

This, however, was the only way by which the Spaniards could hope
to attain the object of their expedition. Accordingly, they entered
the Tlascalan territories, prepared to fight their way through all
opposition. They were immediately attacked by the troops of the
enemy with great intrepidity; but courage and numbers availed little
against the arms and discipline of the Spaniards, who were everywhere
victorious, without the loss of a man. The horses of the invaders
contributed much to their success. For a long time the horse and
his rider were considered as one animal; and terrible stories were
circulated of his power and ferocity. Even when they discovered their
mistake, they still believed that the horse fought with his teeth,
and devoured the bodies of the slain. Hence, when they had the good
fortune to slay one of these terrible animals, they cut off his head
and carried it in triumph as the greatest trophy of victory.

But notwithstanding their constant success, the Spaniards, at length,
worn out by their continual exertions, and the unceasing attacks
of their determined foes, were almost ready to despair. But the
Tlascalans, on a sudden, began to relax their exertions; they were
convinced that the small force, on which all their numbers and boldness
could make no impression, must be composed of beings of a superior
order; and concluding that it would be in vain to contend longer
with the children of the Sun, as they supposed them to be, they made
proposals of peace, which were joyfully accepted by Cortez and his
troops. They were hospitably received into the capital of their former
enemies, who ever after remained their most faithful allies.




[Illustration]


                              Butterflies.


Who has not watched with interest these little insects of the spring
and summer? Who has not been struck with the elegant beauty of these
creatures--

    Which flutter round the jasmine stems,
    Like winged flowers, or flying gems?

Who has not watched them, hovering over the flowers, more than
rivalling these lovely creations of the garden and the meadow, in the
splendor of their colors? And who has not seen them resting on the
flower, with a touch so light as not to make even the slenderest stalk
bend? Who has not seen them reposing on the bosom of a flower, opening
and shutting their gaudy wings to the summer dew, and alternately
raising and lowering their long, and slender antennæ or feelers? And
who has not stopped to see them unroll their long tube, coiled up like
a French horn, and apply it to the sucking up of the nectar of the
flowers? How beautiful are these creatures, and how beautifully did old
Spenser describe one of them almost three hundred years ago!

   “The velvet nap which on his wings doth lie,
    The silken down with which his back is dight--
    His broad and outstretched horns, his airy thigh--
    His glorious colors and his glistening eye!”




[Illustration: _Distant view of Vesuvius._]


        The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences of Thomas Trotter.


                             Chapter XVII.

  _Naples and the neighborhood.--The palace of
     Portici.--Herculaneum.--Comical scene at Resina.--Ascent
     of Vesuvius.--Fields of lava.--Meeting with a party of
     travellers.--Reach the top of the mountain._


The country all round Naples is full of strange and interesting objects
for the curiosity of a traveller. Vesuvius is commonly the first
among these to entice him upon an excursion. One fine morning I took
my trusty stick in hand, and set out on a pedestrian jaunt towards
the mountain. The roads were crowded with country people driving
their little donkeys to the city, with panniers of greens, oranges,
lemons, and all sorts of fresh eatables for the market. The beautiful
country-seats of the rich Neapolitans excited my admiration, with their
finely ornamented gardens, lawns, and pleasure-grounds. But all these
delightful spots are surrounded by stone walls, ten or fifteen feet
high, often bristling at the top with sharp iron spikes, broken glass,
and such formidable defences. These things reminded me, perpetually,
that I was in a country where a wide distinction existed between
the poor and the rich, and where property has little security from
public opinion, or the moral habits of the common people, but must be
maintained by force. In fact, the owners of these beautiful dwellings,
have far less comfort in their possession than one would imagine. They
are surrounded by a poor, ignorant, immoral, and degraded population,
against whom they must be constantly on their guard, for nothing but
walls and watchmen can insure the rich man against depredation and
robbery.

A few miles from the city, my course brought me in front of a splendid
palace where the road appeared to terminate. I thought I must have
mistaken my route, but on inquiring of an old friar, who happened to be
passing, I was told to go straight on. I now found the road to pass
directly under the palace, which hung over it upon lofty arches, wide
enough for several carriages to pass abreast. This was the royal palace
of Portici, the place where the antiquities of Pompeii were formerly
kept; but they are now removed to Naples. At a little distance beyond
this town I came to a village called Resina, under which, at the depth
of seventy or one hundred feet, lies the ancient city of Herculaneum.
Nothing of it is to be seen but by going down a dark pit, like the
shaft of a mine; and as I meant to devote this day to Vesuvius, I
deferred my visit to these subterranean regions till another time.

Resina is the point where all travellers stop to take their start for
the mountain. The people of the village live by letting donkeys and
acting as guides. Beyond the village, the roads become rugged and
steep. Most travellers hire these animals, but I preferred walking.
While I was stopping a few moments to rest, I heard whips cracking and
the sound of wheels; and presently a couple of carriages drove into
the village, full of English travellers, going up the mountain. The
street was already crowded with villagers, each with his donkey saddled
and bridled, ready for the journey. The moment the carriages stopped,
they all crowded round them and began pushing, struggling, pulling,
hauling, tugging, and scratching one another; bawling and screaming all
the time like a pack of bedlamites. Never in my life did I witness so
comical a hurly-burly. Each man scrambled and pressed for the carriage
door, thrusting his donkey forward through the crowd, by main force,
hoping to catch an Englishman on his back as he stepped out of the
carriage. The first comer was thrust away by the second, and this one
by the third; the whole crowd of them were jammed so hard against the
carriages that the doors could not be opened, and the astonished and
affrighted travellers remained fast penned up and unable to stir. The
tumult and clamor increased; the poor little donkeys, squeezed up
in the crowd, whisked their long ears about, and bobbed their noses
against everybody around them; presently they began kicking and rearing
up, and now the scramble and uproar rose to a pitch that surpasses all
description! Down tumbles one of the donkeys, upsetting two or three
fellows in his fall; another animal pitches head-foremost over him;
the crowd scramble and push forward; whoever tries to get up catches
hold of another’s leg and lays him sprawling too; donkeys and men lay
scrambling and floundering, pell-mell, with a roaring and braying, such
as never was heard before under the sun! I laughed till the tears ran
down my cheeks, and even to this day, I never can think of the scene
without laughing for the hundredth time! At length the carriages made
a start forward, leaving the whole ragged regiment behind in the most
woful plight. How they settled the matter among themselves I never
knew, but jogged on my way up the mountain.

The road now began to be pretty steep, and the country looked broken
and rugged, yet I passed a great many vineyards on the way, which
shows that the ashes and volcanic matter of Vesuvius can make the
rocky soil of this region very productive. After going two or three
miles, I reached the station called the Hermitage, which is another
stopping-place for travellers. It is a kind of rustic hotel standing in
a lonely place, where the vineyards yield a species of wine which is in
high repute. I found half a dozen travellers stopping here to refresh,
and joined them. The keeper of this house goes by the name of the
Hermit, but always expects pay for giving you a luncheon. This is fair
enough, for, otherwise, he would soon be eaten out of house and home
by his visiters. After taking some refreshment we all started together,
taking a soldier with us for a guide and defence, being told this
was indispensable, for fear of robbery. These people have a thousand
cunning practices by which they obtrude their services upon you for a
small compensation; and travellers generally put up with their tricks,
to save themselves the trouble and delay of a dispute. My companions
were all mounted on donkeys, but on this steep road, they never go
faster than a common walk, so that I had no difficulty in keeping up
with them. One of our number was a lady, who rode her gallant dapple in
a queer, snug little sort of a pannier, or side-saddle, by the help of
which she maintained her seat in safety, while the animal tottered and
scrambled over the crags and gullies.

In a short time the vineyards disappeared, and the road passed over
broken heaps of lava. The great cone of Vesuvius lay before us,
towering over our heads. On the left we looked down into a deep, rocky
gulf, beyond which rose the long, craggy, red ridge of Monte Somma, the
twin peak of Vesuvius. On our right, the eye wandered over an immense
field of black lava, which darkened the sides of the mountain up to the
very top of the cone. The road now grew every moment steeper, and wound
through a wild region, among craggy and ponderous masses of lava which
covered the ground in every direction. All this tract was impassable
for a long time, after the last eruption; the lava being as hard as the
firmest rock, and rent into abrupt chasms and crags like a field of
broken ice. A path was at length made by cutting through these masses
and beating the lava up into a sort of Mac Adam. We passed a mile or
two on this wild road, and at length reached the foot of the cone.

This rests upon the main body of the mountain, like a dome upon a
gigantic edifice. It is too steep to be climbed, even by donkeys or
mules, besides, being of too loose materials to afford a footing
for these animals. It consists of coarse gravel, loose stones and
cinders, thrown out by the mountain with as steep a slope as such loose
materials can possibly lie in. Here we found a large number of the
above mentioned animals waiting for their riders, who had gone up. Our
party dismounted and began the ascent. I found it exceedingly toilsome.
What with the steepness of the surface and the treacherous footing to
my steps, I was constantly slipping backward, and losing by one step
what I had gained in a dozen.

But what was done with our fair companion? Ladies without number had
gone to the top of the mountain, and she was resolved not to be outdone
by any one of them. Ladies have never been considered deficient in
curiosity; and the mountaineers have a contrivance by which they can
be gratified in their desire to visit the summit of Vesuvius. Three
or four stout fellows harness themselves with a strong leather strap,
which they pass around the lady’s waist and then march onward, drawing
her after them. In this manner our fair attendant managed to ascend
the steep and slippery road up to the crater. About half way up we
met another party, likewise with a lady. She had less strength or
resolution than our friend, for she had given out, and was on the point
of returning.

This great cone, when viewed from a distance, seems to taper off almost
to a point; yet, on reaching the top, we found ourselves among heaps
of enormous lava crags extending widely around, with columns and jets
of white smoke streaming up from the clefts and spiracles here and
there. We groped our way among these black and threatening masses, and
presently came upon a party of travellers, seated upon a crag, eating
their dinner. The air was cool on the mountain top, and they had fixed
themselves in a comfortable spot, where they were roasting eggs in a
hot crack of the lava! It costs nothing for fire here. The mountaineers
came round us with baskets of fruit, bottles of wine, &c., to sell.
They drive a profitable trade with hungry travellers at the top of
Vesuvius. People whose heads are full of curiosity, are not apt to
higgle about prices, when they can purchase a comfortable mouthful in
so strange a place as the summit of a volcano.


                             CHAPTER XVIII.

  _Description of the crater.--Prospect from the top.--Accident
     in the descent of the mountain.--Visit to Torre del
     Greco.--Singular life led by the inhabitants.--Remarkable
     situation of a powder-house._

Although we were now on the top of the mountain, yet the crater was
still at some distance, and we followed a rude pathway which ran for
nearly a quarter of a mile among the lava crags. Everywhere the rents
and fissures sent up streams of white smoke from beneath our feet, and
the smell of sulphur loaded the air. The masses of lava were heaped
confusedly around us. The surface had evidently been once a smooth bed
of this hard material, which had cooled on the spot after its ejection
from the bowels of the mountain, and subsequently had been split up and
blown into fragments by another convulsion. There would be no passing
here had not a pathway been made by levelling the crags and filling up
the gaps which yawn at every step. The traveller is reminded at each
moment that he is walking over terrible fires which are at no great
distance beneath his feet. For all this, no one need be afraid to go to
the top of Vesuvius. Eruptions never break out so suddenly but that a
man may escape from the top of the mountain to the foot, in season for
his safety. Generally, some days before the mountain begins to burn, it
gives warning by subterranean noises, slight shakings, and increased
volumes of smoke. Whenever lives have been lost, it has been owing to
the disregard of these symptoms, and the presumptuous curiosity of
those who dare to ascend the mountain when on fire.

Heavy columns of smoke now rose before us, pouring off horizontally
through the air over an abrupt and long ridge of lava. On climbing
this last ascent, the view of the great crater burst upon us, with
its yawning depths, puffing out smoke and steam. Here we stopped to
contemplate the spectacle. We stood on the edge of the crater, which
was wide enough to enable us to walk along with safety. The smoke
concealed one side of it from our view. We judged it about half a mile
across; but in this lofty region, with no neighboring objects for
the eye to light upon and form a comparison, the measurement cannot
be depended on. It goes shelving down on all sides, with a fearful
steepness, showing great bright crags of brimstone and red fire-stones
jutting out from the black lava surface. The great spiracle in the
centre appeared to be choked up; the smoke rising through minor clefts
and chinks all round the sides and bottom of the crater. The edge on
which we stood, and along which we walked for a quarter of a mile, was
full of holes and cracks sending out smoke; and on thrusting our sticks
into them, they took fire and were drawn out blazing. The windward side
of the crater only, is accessible; there is no going quite round, on
account of the suffocating smoke. All the inner surface of the crater
appeared to be firm and solid, and we judged, by throwing stones down,
that a person might descend to the bottom in safety, were it not for
the fumes of sulphur with which it is constantly filled. I tried it for
some distance, letting myself carefully down upon my hands and feet
from crag to crag, until I became half stifled, when, being convinced
that no wise man would go any further, I seized a fragment of the rock
as a trophy of my exploit, and clambered up again. The performance cost
me the best part of a pair of boots, which were pretty well crisped
among the hot rocks.

The distant prospect from the top of Vesuvius is most superb. The
great, craggy red head of Monte Somma frowns wildly opposite, while far
beneath are the blue waters of the bay, the white clustering houses of
Naples, the mountainous coast of Torrento, dotted with white houses,
and the sweet blue islands of Capri, Ischia, and Procida, resting on
the distant ocean. All around, on the land side, the eye wanders over
green fields, orchards, and gardens, fresh with flowers and herbage,
even at this early season. Away in the east the long mountainous ridge
of the Apennines is seen skirting the horizon with their dark sides and
snow-capped peaks. The view is sublime, and worth, of itself, a voyage
across the Atlantic.

We spent nearly an hour about the crater, admiring the beauty and
grandeur of the scenery, and picking up curious bits of lava and
other minerals, which arrest the traveller’s curiosity at every step.
I found, among other things, a lump of salt, about the size of my
fist, most beautifully crystallized into the shape of a tree. As we
were preparing to descend, I cast my eyes downward and discovered
our donkeys at the foot of the cone, standing huddled together in
a cluster. They were almost directly under our feet, but at such a
distance that they were diminished to the size of young rabbits. To
descend the cone is quite as toilsome as to climb up, and a great
deal more dangerous. In the loose soil one is apt to move downward too
fast, and between walking and sliding, a great deal of care must be
taken lest you go heels over head. I had got about half way down, when
I heard a loud cry above; I looked up and saw a great stone coming down
upon me. One of the party above had loosened it, while floundering and
scrambling his way through the loose earth, and now gathering speed in
its progress, it was rolling down directly over my head, bouncing from
heap to heap, and ploughing up the soil in a most fearful manner. I
scrambled down hill much faster than before, but again casting my eyes
upward, found that the stone was overtaking me. I now began to feel
seriously alarmed, for I was in imminent danger of being crushed to
death. The stone came thundering onward, but fortunately, just before
it reached me, it struck a little knoll and bounded off obliquely,
dashing the gravel and pebbles to the right and left and ploughing the
ground into a furrow, till it reached the bottom. A great avalanche of
earth and stones came pouring after it, by which I was nearly carried
off my legs and swept away; but by fixing my staff firmly into the
ground and resisting with main force, I checked my slide till the
danger was over. I reached the foot of the cone with no other mishap
than to find myself completely out of breath.

The guides told me that many accidents had happened and much injury
been occasioned to travellers by the tricks of frolicsome and imprudent
people, who frequently set the stones rolling down hill for their own
amusement. These are always the travellers themselves, for the natives
are too well acquainted with the dangerous nature of such sport to
allow themselves to practise it.

On our way homeward we went to see the little town of Torre del Greco,
which stands at some distance up the mountain. In the neighborhood are
immense fields of lava and every mark of the fearful ravages of the
volcano. Whenever a great eruption takes place, this town is almost
sure to suffer. Earthquakes shake it, ashes and cinders overwhelm
it, and rivers of burning lava scorch its fields and sweep away its
houses. How many times it has been destroyed I do not remember; but
the inhabitants always go back and rebuild it when the lava cools.
They live a strange life, constantly in the jaws of destruction; yet
the vicinity of so much danger gives them no more concern, on common
occasions, than the dangers of the sea cause to a sailor. When the
mountain shakes and bellows, and the flames begin to issue from the
top, they prepare for a start; but it is not till the streams of lava
pour down upon the back of the town, that they consider it time to
run. Then they snatch up their bundles and scamper for life. It is
remarkable that the only powder magazine about Naples used to be here,
and, for aught I know, may be so still!




[Illustration: _Herschel’s Telescope._]


                        Herschel the Astronomer.


Sir William Herschel was born at Hanover, in Germany, in 1738. At
the age of fourteen he entered the Hanoverian Guards, as a musician,
and in 1757, proceeded to England in that capacity. Here he became a
teacher of music. In 1770, he began to devote himself to the study of
astronomy. In 1781, he discovered the planet now called _Herschel_,
but which he called _Georgium sidus_, or George’s star, in compliment
to George III., then king of England. In 1787, he completed his great
telescope, the tube of which was forty feet in length, and which
was surrounded with machines for turning it in all directions. When
observing a heavenly body, he sat at the top of the tube, and looked
down to the bottom, where, in a measure, he saw the reflection of
the object he wished to notice. In 1789, he discovered the sixth and
seventh moons of Saturn. He died in 1822, in the eighty-fourth year of
his age. His son is now one of the most famous of living astronomers.




                      PETER PARLEY’S NEW STORIES.


                                No. III.

                   Truth and Falsehood--an Allegory.


In ancient days, there lived in Damascus, a city of Syria, a youth
whose name was Myron. His father, who was very rich, died suddenly,
leaving him a vast estate. He had a great deal of money, and a
beautiful house, to which a fine garden was attached. One day he was
walking in this garden, and the air being warm and pleasant, he sat
down by a fountain, sheltered from the sun by the overhanging branches
of the cedar trees. The scene was tranquil and soothing, and such was
its effect upon Myron, that he fell into a dream or reverie, in which
the following events seemed actually to come to pass.

He fancied that he was walking in one of the paths of the garden,
thinking upon the death of his father, and the situation in which
he was now placed. His mother had been dead for some years: he was
therefore an orphan, and must depend upon himself to mark out his
course of conduct. His wealth, indeed, brought around him a host of
friends, real or pretended--but could he confide in them? Some of them
spoke smooth words to him, and flattered him, and made themselves
very agreeable; while others were less pleasing, but apparently more
sincere. But which, of all these persons, could he confide in? This
question often occurred to him, and he felt anxious to decide and act
according to the dictates of wisdom. While he was thinking on this
subject, the scene changed, and he appeared to be on a journey alone,
and travelling a road which was new and strange to him.

The path before him seemed plain enough for a time, but soon it became
less defined, and several other roads branched off to the right and
left. He, however, proceeded--but at length the road entered a forest,
which grew deeper as he advanced, while the track became more obscure.
At last he came to a point where he was entirely in doubt as to the
road he was to take; and this doubt was mingled with anxiety, for night
was now at hand, and a thunder-storm was approaching. Already the ruddy
lightning was flashing among the dark shadows of the pines, and the
thunder was growling over the distant hills.

While the youth was looking anxiously around for some one to be his
guide in this dilemma, he was surprised as well as pleased to see
a comely youth approaching him. Scarcely had he greeted the young
stranger, when an aged and reverend man also joined the party.

Myron looked at them both attentively, for their appearance was
remarkable; beside, he was now in a situation to need counsel and
direction, and he wished, if possible, to learn from the aspect of
these persons, which he might most safely trust. He was, however,
unable to decide between them, and at last he spoke to them as follows:

“I am travelling, my friends, to a distant city, and having lost my
way, I beg you to tell me which road I am to follow.”

The youth replied, with a bland smile, “Fair friend, I know the way to
the city you seek, and as it is my pleasure to aid the unfortunate,
I will lead you to the end of your journey, if you will put yourself
under my care.”

Myron noticed, that as the youth spoke, his face grew more lovely,
and the tones of his voice were sweet and musical, like the notes
of a lute. He was captivated with the young stranger, and was about
to express both his thanks and his assent to the proposal, when he
observed a frown upon the brow of the old man, at their side. At the
same time this grave stranger said, “Do you know, young man, the name
of this person under whose guidance you are about to place yourself?”

“I do not,” said Myron, “nor do I care to know it. The fair face and
soft speech of the young man, assure me of his kindness and fidelity;
and I am willing to place my happiness in his hands. Come,” said he,
“let us depart on our journey, and leave this haughty old man to his
musings.”

With this rude speech, Myron turned on his heel, and taking the arm of
the youth, they were about to depart, when the sage spoke to Myron,
saying,--“The time may come, young man, when you will need a friend:
when such an occasion arrives, and you are ready to abide by safe
counsel, call for me, and I will obey your summons. My name is Truth!”

The two youths now departed, laughing heartily at the old codger, as
they called him, whom they left behind. After a short space Myron asked
the name of his companion--as a mere matter of curiosity. “Oh,” said
the young man, “that old fellow, Truth, calls me Falsehood, but I pass
under the various titles of Pleasure, Fancy, and Folly--according to
the humor I am in. One day, when I sport with the flowers, they name me
_pleasure_; and at another time, when I play with the sunbeams, they
call me _fancy_; and again, when I give myself up to mirth or wine,
they call me _folly_.”

“But do you do all these things?” asked Myron, in some wonder.

“To be sure I do, and many others,” said the youth, “as you shall see
before our acquaintance ends. But remember that I am now your guide;
and it is my duty to make your journey pleasant. Let us take this path
to the left, for it will conduct us through the most charming scenes.”

The two companions took the left hand path as suggested, and for some
time it led them among pleasant valleys, and sweet lawns, and the most
enchanting landscapes. At last they came to a scene more beautiful
than any they had met. Groups of lofty trees were scattered here and
there over a grassy slope, the verdure of which was like velvet. In the
middle of this spot was a fountain, and the waters being thrown into
the air, fell in glittering showers, making at the same time a sound
of entrancing music. Amid the forest bowers, were birds of gorgeous
plumage, and their song was more lovely than that of the nightingale.

Myron was delighted. He had never before seen anything so beautiful.
Again and again he thanked his guide for the pleasure he had bestowed
upon him. So absorbed was he in the scene, that he forgot his journey,
and it was not till the sun began to set behind the hills that he was
called to reflection. He then asked his guide where they were to spend
the night. The reply was evasive, and Myron did not fail to remark that
a sinister smile came over the face of his friend, as he said--“Let us
go forward, we shall find a lodging in due time.”

The two proceeded, but they had not gone far before the clouds began
to thicken, and in a short space it was intensely dark. The road grew
rough and thorny, and at last Myron fell over a stone of considerable
size. He rose with difficulty, and when he called for his companion,
he was not to be found. Nothing could exceed the amazement and terror
of the young traveller; for now he began to hear the cries of wild
animals, and in a short space he could make out the form of a lion,
stealing upon him, through the darkness.

The words of the old man whom he had treated so rudely, now flashed
upon his memory--and in the agony of the moment he called out,
“Truth--Truth--come to my aid, and be my guide!” These words were
uttered aloud, and with such energy, that Myron awoke from his dream,
his heart beating, and his body covered with a cold perspiration. But
the vision seemed to bear a wholesome meaning, and the words, which
broke from his lips in the moment of his fancied peril, became the rule
of his after life. He rejected falsehood, which promises fair, and for
a time tempts us with darling pleasures, but leads us into scenes of
terror and distress, and leaves us helpless at the hour of our utmost
need. He made Truth his friend and guide, and was both successful and
happy in the great journey of life.




                             The Chimpansé.


This is a species of ape, found on the western coast of Africa. He is
more like a man than any other of the four-handed race, and is the only
one that can easily walk erect. He is often seen walking with a cane in
the woods. The negroes say that he is a kind of man, and only refuses
to talk because he is afraid of being made to work.

These creatures live in the woods, and sometimes attack the natives
with clubs and stones. The Europeans, who live in the settlements along
the coast, have trained some of these creatures so that they perform
various kinds of labor, such as bringing water in jugs, rinsing out
glasses, turning spits, and handing liquor round to company at table.

[Illustration]

M. Grandpry, a French gentleman describes one that he had on board a
vessel. She had learnt to heat the oven; she took great care not to
let any of the coals fall out, which might have done mischief in the
ship; and she was very accurate in observing when the oven was heated
to the proper degree, of which she immediately apprized the baker, who,
relying with perfect confidence upon her information, carried his dough
to the oven as soon as the chimpansé came to fetch him. This animal
performed all the business of a sailor; spliced ropes, handed the
sails, and assisted at unfurling them; and she was, in fact, considered
by the sailors as one of themselves. The vessel was bound for America,
but the poor animal did not live to see that country, having fallen a
victim to the brutality of the first mate, who inflicted very cruel
chastisement upon her, which she had not deserved. She endured it with
the greatest patience, only holding out her hands in a suppliant
attitude, in order to break the force of the blows she received. But
from that moment she steadily refused to take any food, and died on
the fifth day, from grief and hunger. She was lamented by every one
on board, not insensible to the feelings of humanity, who knew the
circumstances of her fate.




[Illustration]


                            The Sugar-Cane.


Sugar is found in a great many vegetables, particularly in beets,
carrots, parsnips, sugar-cane, Indian corn, the sugar-maple tree, &c.
Sugar is manufactured from beets, in large quantities, in France, and
in this country it is made from beets also, to some extent. It is also
made from the juice of the maple tree, particularly in the western
states. In March the trees are tapped in the sides, and little reeds
are inserted, in which the sap, as it ascends from the earth to the
extremities, is caught and conducted into wooden troughs. It is then
boiled down, and becomes first molasses and then sugar. Many millions
of pounds are made in this way each year.

But this is a very small quantity, compared with what is made from
the sugarcane, in the West Indies, Louisiana, and South America. The
sugar-cane is a jointed reed, of a fine straw color, growing from eight
to fourteen feet high. It terminates at the top in blade-shaped leaves,
the edges of which are finely notched. Its flowers form a delicate
silver-colored cluster.

When the cane is about a year old, it is cut and crushed between iron
rollers, which press out the juice. This is then conducted into large
copper boilers, and by various processes, of boiling and cooling, it is
at last made into sugar, and molasses, the latter being the liquid part
that drips from the sugar. In the process of manufacture, a good deal
of lime and bullocks’ blood are mixed with the juice of the cane, and
these assist in refining the sugar.

A very interesting discovery has lately been made in this country,
which is, that the stalks of Indian corn, if the ears are cropped
just after they begin to set, will produce more sugar than the
cane. Accordingly a machine for the crushing of the stalks has been
contrived, and a model of it may be seen at the patent office at
Washington. It is said that a single acre of ground will yearly produce
a ton of sugar, and it is believed that sugar will soon be raised in
abundance in all the western states, in this way. The stalks make
excellent fodder for cattle, after the juice is crushed out.

Sugar is now regarded as one of the necessaries of life, and about
600,000 tons, or 120,000,000 of pounds are annually produced. Yet it
seems that sugar was not known to the Greeks or Romans, and it is never
mentioned in the Bible. It was, in fact, only known as a medicine, till
modern times. In the tenth century it took the place of honey in the
druggist’s shop, and was chiefly used in fevers, to relieve them.

The sugar-cane was found growing wild in the West Indies, by
Christopher Columbus. The art of refining sugar so as to make it
white, was discovered in the sixteenth century, by a Venetian, who made
a vast fortune by it.




                        Dialogue on Politeness.


_Louisa._ Good morning, mother. I have been in search of you for the
last half hour. Julia and I have been talking very earnestly on a
certain subject, but we do not agree at all in our opinions; so I have
come to you to get yours. I rather think you will be “on my side,” as I
suppose I have learnt to judge a little as you do; as is very natural I
should, mother.

_Mother._ I should certainly be very sorry, my dear, if your mind and
opinions were not influenced by mine. But what is the question which
has excited such animated discussion? Some new style of bonnet, or the
manner of singing the last new song?

_L._ Neither, mother; but something much more important. We have
been talking of the manners of two of our schoolmates, Matilda Hervy
and Caroline Perkins. Julia prefers Caroline’s manners, and I prefer
Matilda’s. Julia thinks Caroline a perfect pattern of politeness.

_M._ Ah! for what reason, my dear?

_L._ O, because she smiles so sweetly when she speaks; always shakes
hands with people; flatters them, and repeats compliments she has heard
of them, and all that sort of thing.

_M._ Is Caroline the same to all, my dear?

_L._ O, no, mother; she is polite only to a certain set of people.
Matilda is the same to all, both rich and poor. Caroline evidently has
an object in her attentions, which is, to get the favor of those who
can do her kindnesses in return. Can a person be truly polite, mother,
without a kind heart and a well-principled mind?

_M._ I think not, Louisa. I have myself to-day been the witness of
something quite _apropos_ to our subject. In riding in the omnibus from
Cambridge, this morning, I observed among the passengers two young
men, about the age of your brother Albert, apparently collegians, who,
from their intercourse, I judged to be intimate friends--probably
classmates; but there was a marked difference in their manners and
appearance. One of them, to some personal advantages added elegance
of dress, and a voice the tones of which were particularly musical
when he addressed a pretty and fashionable lady opposite him. If, by
the jolting of the carriage, he accidentally touched the hem of her
garment, he apologized most gracefully; and he was evidently regarded
by the whole party as a most polite young man. The classmate had
nothing remarkable in his appearance, bearing none of the externals
of polite life. Suddenly the bell rang, and we stopped to take up a
woman, who had with her a large bundle, which, as we were already
crowded uncomfortably, she retained in her arms. The last-mentioned
young man, seeing that she was heavily burdened, and looked weak and
sickly, kindly told her to allow him to hold the bundle for her. There
was instantly a smile exchanged between the lady and the well-dressed
collegian, with unrepressed glances of contempt at the bundle,
accompanied with loud hints about vulgarity, &c. This conduct was
observed by the woman, and seemed to hurt her feelings much. However,
she did not ride far, and when the coach stopped, her kind young friend
assisted her out with as much consideration as if she were a princess.
This little incident pleased me much.

_L._ Really, mother, I should think there was precisely the difference
between Matilda and Caroline, as between the two collegians. Caroline’s
kind acts and polite words are always for the rich, the high-born, or
the fashionable. Matilda delights in doing favors to those who can
make her no return. She looks upon all as her fellow-creatures--never
seeming to think of their station in life. She treats the poor,
wherever she finds them, as her “neighbors,” in the Bible sense of the
word. She has made many a widow’s heart to sing for joy, and she is
truly a good Samaritan.

_M._ You are enthusiastic, my dear, in praise of your friend. I shall
certainly give my opinion in favor of Matilda, whose politeness
is evidently the politeness of the heart; and though a person may
sometimes be sneered at for practising it toward the poor and humble,
he will generally be respected, and always have more influence than he
who is only polite to a few for interest’s sake. I hope, my dear, as
you appreciate Matilda’s worth, you will make her your model. I am very
glad my daughter loves such a character, as we almost always imitate
what we admire. A person who is polite and kind to all, enjoys the
highest kind of satisfaction; for he knows that in loving his neighbor,
he also obeys God.--[_Young Ladies’ Friend._]




MISTRESS AND SERVANT.--A lady, the other day, meeting a girl, who had
lately left her service, enquired, “Well, Mary, where do you live now?”
“Please, madam, I don’t live nowhere now,” rejoined the girl; “I am
married.”




[Illustration]


                             The Date Tree.


This is a species of palm, which produces the sweet fruit which is
brought to us from Smyrna, and other ports in the Mediterranean, and
which is well known under the name of _date_.

In the regions between Barbary and the Great Desert, the soil, which is
of a sandy nature, is so much parched by the intense heat of the sun’s
rays, that none of the corn plants will grow; and in the arid district,
called _the land of dates_, the few vegetables that can be found are
of the most dwarfish description. No plants arise to form the variety
of food to which we are accustomed; and the natives of these districts
live almost exclusively upon the fruit of the date tree. A paste is
made of this fruit by pressing it in large baskets. This paste is not
used for present supply, but is intended for a provision in case of a
failure in the crops of dates, which sometimes occurs, owing to the
ravages committed by locusts.

The date in its natural state forms the usual food; and the juice
yielded by it when fresh, contains so much nutriment as to render
those who live upon it so extremely fat. As, by the Moors, corpulence
is esteemed an indispensable requisite of beauty, the ladies belonging
to the families of distinction among them, nourish themselves, during
the season, solely with the fresh fruit, and by continuing this regimen
during two or three months, they become of an enormous size.

The date palm flourishes very generally on sandy soils in the hot
countries of Asia and Africa. Not always, however, is the soil that
supports it, barren as the one I have described. It is frequently found
by streams, and as the tired traveller sees its foliage waving afar,
he hastens towards it, hoping to find a stream of water. Sometimes its
tall stem is surrounded by beautiful climbing plants, and the most
brilliant flowers flourish beneath its shadow.

This palm frequently attains the height of sixty feet, and stands
perfectly upright, unlike, in this respect, some other species of palm,
whose slight forms yield to the winds. It was to this tree that the
Psalmist alluded when he said, “The righteous shall grow as the palm
tree,”--firm and unmoved by the shocks of temptation and the storms of
adversity. The clusters of dates are sometimes five feet in length,
and, when ripe, are of a bright gold color, over which the summit of
the tree is crowned with a beautiful foliage.




[Illustration]


                                 Dress.


There is nothing in which mankind display more caprice, than in dress;
and it is curious to remark, that this caprice is most conspicuous in
the more civilized countries. In London and Paris, the fashions of
dress change every year, and in some things, every few weeks. There is
a new style of bonnet in Paris at least every three months.

But in China and India, and indeed over all Asia, the fashions of
dress are unchangeable. The people now wear almost exactly the same
garments, of the same colors and the same forms, as a thousand years
ago.

The country people of Europe, generally, have a fixed costume, which
continues, with little change, from generation to generation; but in
the great cities, all is variety and vicissitude. In this country we
copy European fashions, and there are some silly people whose greatest
desire is to be dressed in the Parisian style.

Now when we are told of the Chinese ladies, who have their feet
bandaged in order to make them small, until they can hardly walk--thus
rendering themselves miserable and useless, and all this to be thought
genteel--we think them very absurd. But look at the picture, on the
preceding page, and tell me if these ladies are not about as foolish.
They are dressed in the fashion of Queen Elizabeth’s time, and it has
been much imitated by the ladies of modern days.

But we must not laugh at the ladies only, for the other sex deserve a
share of our notice. Foppery is not confined to any country. A young
savage of the western woods, has often the ambition to figure as a gay
fellow, as well as the New York or Boston dandy. He does not go to
the tailor, to be made a man of, but he relies upon his own skill. He
paints himself over with clay, of various colors, mixed with bears’
grease. One side of his face is made blue, and another yellow. On his
breast a serpent is figured; on his back, a buffalo or a wolf. On his
head he wears the feathers of an eagle; around his neck, the claws of
the grisly bear; on his back is a bundle of scalps, and on his arms the
skin of a skunk. Over his shoulder is a buffalo-robe decorated with
a frill of quills, and ornamented with beads. Such is your dandy of
savage life.

And now for the dandy of our cities. The great thing is to have
abundance of hair; and the more it hangs over the eyes, and obtrudes
itself around the nose and mouth and neck, and in every other place
that may suggest the idea of discomfort or filthiness, so much the
better, thinks the dandy. For my own part, I lay it down as an
invariable rule, that if a youth displays an unusual quantity of hair
or beard, he is deficient, to the same extent, in brains. I believe
this is a safe ground of judgment. But still, it is the fashion, just
now, to run to hair, and thus it seems our young men have an ambition
to excel in that, in which, after all their efforts, the bear, the
buffalo, and indeed most beasts, will always surpass them. When I see
one of these whiskered, soap-locked fellows, I always think of the
description that an Irish girl gave of a skunk that was rude to her,
upon a certain occasion. As she went home, she carried evidence of the
fact, and when the people asked what it meant--“Faith!” said she, “and
it was a little hairy beast that did it!”




SPANISH NAMES.--The love of long Christian names by the Spaniards
has frequently been a subject of ridicule. A Spaniard on his travel,
arrived in the night at a little village in France, in which there was
but one hotel. As it was almost midnight, he knocked at the door a long
time without hearing any one stir. At length the host, putting his head
out of the chamber window, asked who was there. The Spaniard replied,
“Don Juan Pedro, Hernandez, Rodriguez, Alvarez de Villanova, Count de
Malafra, Cavellero de Santiago d’Alcantara.” “Mercy on me,” said the
host, as he shut the window, “I have but two spare beds, and you ask me
lodging for a score.”




                    Eagles, and some other Matters.


The eagle is considered the king of birds, as the lion is called
the king of beasts. Now both the lion and eagle are strong, and
they readily sacrifice all other creatures to their own gluttonous
appetites. At the same time, they are both cowardly creatures. The lion
is a skulking beast, and steals upon his prey like a thieving cat; and
he readily flies from danger, except when hunger impels him to bold
deeds. The eagle too, when his crop is well filled, is a lazy creature,
and at any time a much smaller bird may drive him away.

Now, the title of king was given to the lion and the eagle, in ancient
days, and it shows what the people then thought of kings. It is obvious
that they supposed a king to be a powerful, but selfish creature,
sacrificing everybody to himself, as do the lion and the eagle. They
did not suppose it necessary for the king to be noble, generous, and
courageous, for they would not, in that case, have given the title of
king, to sly, thieving, cowardly animals.

The opinion of mankind, in early days, being that kings were like lions
and eagles, feeding and feasting upon others whom they could master,
was no doubt just; and, with few exceptions, this is a true view of
the character of kings, in all ages. They have ever cared much for
themselves, and very little for the people at large.

But there is one thing more to be remarked in respect to the characters
given to animals by the ancients. They called the lion noble, because
he was powerful; and for the same reason they called the eagle the
bird of Jove--thus making it the associate of one of their gods! At
the same time that the ancients thus gave such sounding titles to
rapacious and savage animals, they considered a dog as one of the
meanest of quadrupeds, and to call a man a dog, was to insult with a
very opprobrious epithet. The ancients also called the ass stupid, and
a goose was the very emblem of folly.

Now we should reflect a little upon these matters. The dog is a
faithful creature, fond of his master, and choosing to live with him,
whether in wealth or poverty, rather than to live anywhere else. He
prefers remaining in the humble log-cabin, or poor cottage, with only
a bone to eat, provided his master and his friend is there, rather
than to live in the lordly mansion upon sausages and beef steak, among
strangers. The characteristic of the dog, then, is _attachment to his
friend_; and yet, in ancient days, the people called the butchering
lion noble, and the faithful dog mean.

And as to the ass, he is in fact one of the most sagacious of all
quadrupeds. Old Æsop, who made fables, seems to have done justice
to this long-eared, four-legged sage, for, he makes him say a vast
many wise things. But not to insist upon the ass’s gift of speech,
he is not only an intelligent creature, but he is patient, enduring,
hard-working, temperate, and unoffending; at the same time he is
more free from vice than almost any other quadruped, even though he
is often in the hands of persons who do not set good examples, and
abuse him most shamefully. Now as this good beast was called stupid
by the ancients, it is fair to infer, that they considered patience,
temperance, diligence, and freedom from vice, as mean.

And now a word as to the goose. My young readers may titter as much
as they please--for in spite of all their mirth, I am going to stand
up for this poor, abused bird. The goose is not _silly_--but, as
compared with other birds, it is in fact _wise_. There is no creature
so watchful as a goose. In a wild state, when in danger of being shot
down by the huntsman, they set sentinels to keep guard while the flock
is feeding; and on his giving notice of danger, they take wing and fly
away. In a domestic state, they give notice by their cackle of every
disturbance, and any noise that may happen about the house at night.

Geese are also very courageous in defence of their young; and, beside
this, they are capable of attachment, beyond any other bird. The
celebrated writer, Buffon, tells a most interesting story of a goose,
called Jacquot, that became fond of him because he helped the poor
fellow when he was beaten almost to death by a rival gander. Every time
Buffon came near, the grateful bird would sing out to him in the most
cheerful manner, and would run to him, and put his head up to be patted.

“One day,” says Buffon, “having followed me as far as the ice-house at
the top of the park, the spot where I must necessarily part with him
in pursuing my path to a wood at half a league distance, I shut him in
the park. He no sooner saw himself separated from me, than he vented
strange cries. However, I went on my road; and had advanced about a
third of the distance, when the noise of a heavy flight made me turn my
head; I saw my Jacquot only four paces from me. He followed me all the
way, partly on foot, partly on wing; getting before me and stopping at
the cross-paths to see which way I should take.

“Our journey lasted from ten o’clock in the morning till eight in
the evening; and my companion followed me through all the windings
of the wood, without seeming to be tired. After this he attended me
everywhere, so as to become troublesome; for I was not able to go to
any place without his tracing my steps, so that one day he came to
find me in the church! Another time, as he was passing by the rector’s
window, he heard me talking in the room; and, as he found the door
open, he entered, climbed up stairs, and, marching in, gave a loud
exclamation of joy, to the no small affright of the family!

“I am sorry in relating such traits of my interesting and faithful
friend Jacquot, when I reflect that it was myself that first dissolved
the pleasing connection; but it was necessary for me to separate him
from me by force. Poor Jacquot found himself as free in the best
apartments as in his own; and after several accidents of this kind,
he was shut up and I saw him no more. His inquietude lasted about a
year, and he died from vexation. He was become as dry as a bit of
wood, I am told; for I would not see him; and his death was concealed
from me for more than two months after the event. Were I to recount
all the friendly incidents between me and poor Jacquot, I should not
for several days have done writing. He died in the third year of our
friendship, aged seven years and two months.”

This is a very pleasing story, and sets forth the goose as capable of
attachment, and, also, as gifted with much more intelligence than most
animals display. But I have another pleasant story for my readers.

At East Barnet, in Hertfordshire, England, some years ago, a gentleman
had a Canadian goose, which attached itself in the most affectionate
manner to the house dog, but never attempted to enter his kennel,
except in rainy weather. Whenever the dog barked, the goose set up a
loud cackling, and ran at the person she supposed the dog barked at,
and would bite at his heels. She was exceedingly anxious to be on the
most familiar terms with her canine friend, and sometimes attempted to
eat along with him, which, however, he would not suffer, nor indeed did
he manifest the same friendship towards the goose, which it did towards
him, treating it rather with indifference. This creature would never
go to roost with the others at night, unless driven by main force; and
when in the morning they were turned into the field, she refused to go
thither, and bent her course towards the yard gate, where she sat all
day watching the dog.

The proprietor at length finding it in vain to attempt keeping
these animals apart, gave orders that the goose should be no longer
interfered with, but left entirely to the freedom of her own will.
Being thus left at liberty to pursue her own inclinations, she ran
about the yard with him all night, and when the dog went to the
village, she never failed to accompany him, and contrived to keep pace
with his more rapid movements by the assistance of her wings, and in
this way, betwixt running and flying, accompanied him all over the
parish. This extraordinary affection is supposed to have originated in
the dog having rescued her from a fox in the very moment of distress.
It continued for two years, and only terminated with the death of the
goose.

Now is not this a good story? and it is all about a goose, that people
call a foolish bird. But here is another story, quite as good as any I
have told.

“An old goose,” says an English writer, “that had been for a fortnight
hatching in a farmer’s kitchen, was perceived on a sudden to be taken
violently ill. She soon after left the nest, and repaired to an
outhouse where there was a young goose of the first year, which she
brought with her into the kitchen. The young one immediately scrambled
into the old one’s nest, sat, hatched, and afterwards brought up the
brood. The old goose, as soon as the young one had taken her place,
sat down by the side of the nest, and shortly after died. As the young
goose had never been in the habit of entering the kitchen before, I
know of no way of accounting for this fact, but by supposing that the
old one had some way of communicating her thoughts and anxieties,
which the other was perfectly able to understand. A sister of mine, who
witnessed the transaction, gave me the information in the evening of
the day it happened.”

Now I begun this chapter by talking about eagles, and I have been
rambling on about geese--but I have an object in all this. I wish
to show my readers that we have taken certain notions, in regard to
animals, from the ancients, which are erroneous; and which have a bad
influence upon us. Many a time has a poor ass got a kick, just because
of a prejudice that has been handed down from age to age. People
scarcely think it wrong to abuse a creature that is called _stupid_!
Now the ass is not stupid; and it is too bad, wrongfully to give him a
hard name, and then to kick him for it!

And it is much the same with dogs. How much have these poor creatures
suffered, in their day and generation, just because the ancients called
them hard names, and thus transmitted, even to our time, a prejudice!
And the tranquil, quiet, harmless, goose--how often has a boy hurled a
stone at one, and scarcely thought it wrong to wound a creature that is
regarded as the emblem of folly!

Now, as I said, we ought to reflect upon these things; we ought not to
allow such prejudices to influence us, and to make us really cruel to
brute beasts, who are but as God made them, and who fulfil His design
in their creation, more perfectly, I suspect, than some other beings I
could name, who think pretty well of themselves!

And one observation more is to be made here. The facts we have stated
show what erroneous notions the ancients had of virtue. They called
the lion and eagle noble, only because they are powerful; they called
the dog mean, though he is a pattern of fidelity; they called the ass
stupid, though he is patient and frugal; they called the goose silly,
because of its great mildness. All these things prove that in the olden
time, people thought much of power, and almost worshipped it, even
when it was selfish and savage, as is the king of beasts or of birds;
while they rather despised the noble virtues of patience, fidelity,
friendship, frugality and mildness.

I might go on to tell you of the eagles, with which subject I began
this chapter; and especially of the harpy eagle, of which a fine
portrait accompanies this number. But in Volume I., page 5, I have said
so much on the subject, that I must cut the matter short, only saying
that the harpy eagle is a native of South America, and is the most
powerful of birds, it being able, by the stroke of its wings, to break
a man’s skull.




[Illustration]


                                 April.


This month derives its name from the Latin word _Aperio_, to open,
because at this period the earth is opened by the sower and the
planter, to receive the seed. In the southern parts of the United
States, it is a very warm, pleasant season, and so it is in Italy, and
Spain. In Carolina, the weather is so warm in April, that the people
put on their thin clothes, the forests are in leaf, the apple-trees are
in bloom, or perchance already the blossoms are past.

But with us at the north, April is still a windy, chilly, capricious
season. Not a green leaf, not an opening flower is to be seen. A few
solitary birds are with us, and now and then we have a warm day. The
grass begins to look a little green, where the soil is rich and the
land slopes to the south.

But still, April is a month in which we all take delight, for, at this
time we begin to work in the garden, and there is a promise of spring
around us. The snow is gone, the ice has fled, jack-frost comes not,
the hens in the barn-yard make a cheerful cackle, the geese at the
brook keep up a jolly gobble, the boys play at ball on the green, the
lambs frisk on the hill-sides, the plough is in the furrow; winter is
gone--summer is coming!




[Illustration: _Jeremiah foretelling the downfall of Jerusalem._]


                         The Prophet Jeremiah.


Jeremiah was one of the most celebrated of the Jewish prophets. He
lived about six hundred years before Christ, and prophesied about
seventy years after Isaiah. He began his career, by divine command, at
an early age. He was a man of great piety, and a sincere lover of his
country. He foresaw the evils which his sinful countrymen would bring
upon themselves by their idolatries, and while he warned them of the
wrath to come, he seems to have done it with an almost breaking heart.

It became his duty, in obedience to the instruction of God, to predict
the downfall of Jerusalem, and the destruction of the temple. Zedekiah
was then king of Judah, and the fearful prophecy no doubt grated
harshly on his ear. The people, too, who cared not for the truth, but
only desired a prophet who would prophesy smooth things, took Jeremiah,
and were near putting him to death, only on account of his fidelity.

In the 21st chapter of the prophecies of Jeremiah, we see his
prediction of the fate that awaited Jerusalem, and in the 52d chapter,
we see how this sad and fearful warning was fulfilled.

After the destruction of Jerusalem,--he himself witnessing the
completion of this prophecy,--he was carried into Egypt with a
remnant of the Jews, and, according to tradition, was murdered by his
countrymen, for warning them against their idolatrous practices.

The book of Lamentations is a melancholy and pathetic poem, written
by Jeremiah, in commemoration of the destruction of Jerusalem by
Nebuchadnezzar. It is exceedingly affecting, and it is impossible to
read it without deeply sympathizing with the afflicted prophet. Some
parts are very beautiful, and the whole being imbued with a religious
spirit and feeling, it is calculated, in a peculiar degree, to soften,
purify, and sanctify the heart of the Christian.




                       The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                             CHAPTER VIII.

  _A weary journey.--Meeting with Tungusees.--Grand attack of
     wolves.--The first sables killed._


After securing the skin of the bear, the travellers proceeded on their
journey, the weather still continuing clear, but intensely cold. They
were, however, well secured by furs, and they plodded cheerfully on,
over the snow-crust. There was little variety, for the country was
generally level, and often they marched on for hours without meeting
a single object of the least interest. No villages were to be seen
over the wide wastes; not a human being met the view; not a bird, not
a living thing, enlivened the prospect. And it was as still as it was
desolate; for, save when the wind sighed over the snow, not a sound was
to be heard. It seemed as if nature was in a repose so profound as to
resemble death itself.

It is not remarkable, that, after several days of weary travel over
a country like this, our adventurers at last rejoiced to meet with a
small settlement of Tungusees. This was situated in a little valley;
and so low were the houses, that the travellers had come close upon
them before they perceived them. Their approach was announced by the
barking of three or four shaggy wolf-dogs, who seemed to exert their
lungs to the utmost upon the occasion.

The party was stared at in silence by the inhabitants for a short time,
but Linsk soon announced himself and friends as hunters, and as he
spoke in the Tungusian language, the little party were at once made
welcome. Alexis was amused at the whole scene. The houses were made
of stakes set in a circle, covered with mud, over which there was now
a mantle of snow. The entrances were so low that it was necessary to
creep in upon the hands and knees. There was no light within, except
the few rays that struggled in at the door, or were emitted by a
smouldering fire, the smoke of which was let out at a hole in the top.

Each hut consisted of one apartment, and here the family all slept,
cooked, and ate. The beds consisted of the skins of wolves and bears;
the articles of furniture were few, as the people sat on the ground,
and most of the cooking was performed by simple boiling or roasting
before the fire.

Supper was soon provided, for it was evening when the travellers
arrived. This consisted of a piece of bear’s flesh, which was very
juicy, and resembled pork. It seemed to be esteemed a great delicacy by
the people themselves, and a number of persons came into the hut where
our adventurers were entertained, and, somewhat unceremoniously, helped
themselves with their fingers to a portion of the coveted viands.

Our travellers had before seen something of Tungusian life and manners;
but their admiration was excited anew by the greediness which they all
displayed upon the present occasion--men, women, and children. Their
hands were daubed in grease up to the wrists, and a very considerable
portion of their faces was also anointed in the same way. They tore the
flesh from the bones like dogs, and if a piece of meat fell upon the
floor, however it might be powdered with dirt, it was carried to the
mouth without scruple or inspection. The children lay down upon the
floor, and, driving the dogs away, licked up the puddles of fat that
were spilled in the greedy scramble. But there was withal much good
nature and merriment among the party, and though the speech was often
rough and the manner uncouth, good humor seemed to pervade the whole
scene.

After the meal was done, brandy was brought in and circulated freely
among the men of the company. Some of the women contrived to get a
little for themselves through the influence of their admirers. The
party soon grew merry, then boisterous, and at last quarrelsome. There
was some scuffling and many hard words. Late at night the revel broke
up, and the party separated.

It was late the next day, when Alexis and his two young companions
were called by Linsk from their repose. They took an ample breakfast,
and the party set forward upon their journey. For several days they
proceeded without any occurrence worthy of note. At last they came
to a little forest of evergreen trees, in which they found two or
three small huts, but now deserted by their inhabitants. And here, as
it was evening, they concluded to spend the night. Having slightly
closed the door with a few pieces of bark to exclude the cold, they
built a fire, and had sat down to their frugal supper of dried deer’s
flesh, when the ever-watchful ear of Linsk caught certain sounds from
without, which arrested his attention. He had listened but a moment,
when the fragments at the door were pushed aside, and a wolf thrust
his head in at the opening, and gazed intently upon the party. They
were all so taken by surprise, that, for a moment, they neither spoke
nor moved. It was not long, however, before Linsk arose, seized his
gun, and was on the point of discharging it at the wolf, when the
latter suddenly withdrew. The whole party followed him out, but what
was their astonishment to see around them a pack of at least forty
wolves, now ready to make a united attack upon them! It was night, and
their glaring eyeballs seemed like sparks of fire, and their teeth were
laid bare, as if to rend their victims in pieces. At the same time
the barking, yelping, and howling of the savage animals, apparently
driven to desperation by hunger, were terrific. The whole scene was
indeed so unexpected and so startling, that Alexis and his two young
companions immediately slunk back into the hut. Linsk followed, but at
least a dozen of the assailants were snapping at his heels, as he drew
them in through the door. The old hunter saw in an instant that there
was but one mode of warfare which offered the least chance of safety,
and this was, to face the enemy at the opening, and prevent them, at
all hazards, from effecting an entrance. Getting down upon his knees,
therefore, he turned round and looked his furious assailants full in
the face. His gun was in his hand, and his knife ready in the belt.
Fixing his eye intently upon the wolves, so as to watch every motion,
he spoke rapidly to the young men behind him,--“Steady, boys, steady;
don’t be afraid. Draw up close and keep your guns ready. What an
ill-mannered set they are! I’ll give ’em a dose directly.--Now!”

At this instant, the old hunter fired his gun, and a yell of terror and
anguish burst from the pack, who at the moment were jammed into the
entrance of the hut. Two or three of them were killed, and several were
wounded; but others rushed into their places, and in the space of a
few seconds Linsk was again threatened with a mass of heads struggling
for entrance at the door. He soon gave them another shot, and finally
a third, and the disheartened beasts, leaving eight or ten of their
companions dead or mortally wounded on the scene of combat, retired,
with many a howl, into the echoing forest.

The next day was occupied by securing the skins of the wolves, and the
hunters concluded to spend the next night in the hut, taking care,
however, to secure the entrance against the possibility of an attack
like that of the preceding evening.

In the morning, the party rose early, and, instead of pursuing their
journey, they plunged into the forest, hoping to meet with some sables
or ermines. They had not gone far before two little, dark-colored
animals, with very long bodies and short legs, were seen running and
leaping upon the snow. Linsk uttered a low “hush,” and approached
them carefully, under cover of a large tree. He soon approached them,
and raising his gun to his eye, seemed about to fire, when, suddenly
lowering his piece, he beckoned to Alexis, who came instantly to his
side. Obedient to a signal given by Linsk, Alexis drew up his gun and
fired; the whole party ran to the spot, and, with great exultation,
they picked up the animals, which proved to be two very fine sables.
These were the first that Alexis had killed, and they brought to his
mind so forcibly the injunctions of Kathinka, and her intense desire
that he should be successful in his enterprise, that he burst into a
flood of tears. The two sons of Linsk looked at him with amazement,
but the old man guessed the cause of his emotion, and by some sportive
remark, diverted the thoughts of the party into other channels. The
kindness of Linsk in this, and in giving Alexis the first chance to
fire, filled the heart of the young hunter with gratitude, which he did
not soon forget.

They now pursued their sport, and before the evening came, they had
caught seven sables and three ermines. They, therefore, returned to
their hut, and now began to think of spending several weeks at this
place, for the purpose of pursuing the object of their expedition.




                       Letter from a Subscriber.


Many thanks to the writer of the following:-


                                _New York, March 15th, 1842._

     DEAR MR. MERRY--The following lines are from one who has
     been both instructed and amused by your writings, and
     although a very youthful subscriber, she begs you will
     accept them as a small offering from the heart of
                                                MARGARET.

         The name of Merry long will be
         Remembered well, and loved by me.
         Not all the works of ancient lore
         Transmit to youth so sweet a store
         Of learning true, in nature’s dress,
         The garb so simple, yet the best;
         Religion’s power, so deep, so pure,
         Through endless ages to endure!
         Youth bounds at Merry’s joyous name,
         And e’en old age its love may claim.




ENVY.--The envy which grudges the success for which it would want the
courage to contend, was well rebuked by the French Marshal LEFEVRE, who
had been in a great many battles, and who had acquired great wealth
and fame. One of his friends expressing the most unbounded admiration
of his magnificent residence, exclaimed, “How fortunate you are!” “I
see you envy me,” said the marshal; “but come, you shall have all that
I possess, at a much cheaper rate than I myself paid for it. Step
down with me into the yard; you shall let me fire twenty musket shots
at you, at the distance of thirty paces, and if I fail to bring you
down, all that I have is yours. What! you refuse?” said the marshal,
seeing that his friend demurred--“know that before I reached my present
eminence, I was obliged to stand more than a thousand musket shots, and
those who pulled the triggers were nothing like thirty paces from me.”




                       Toad-Stools and Mushrooms.


These two kinds of plants, though of similar appearance, are so very
different, that while one is poisonous, the other is a wholesome and
delicious article of food.

The toad-stool, of which we here give a picture, usually grows in moist
places, and where the soil is very rich.

[Illustration: _Toad-stools._]

The mushroom grows in situations similar to those in which the
toad-stool is found. They both belong to the genus which the botanists
call _agarice_; but they may be easily distinguished. The edges of the
mushroom are usually thin, ragged, and turned a little upward; while
those of the toad-stool are bent down, and carried round in a smooth
circle, the top being shaped like an umbrella. The under side of the
mushroom is of a pinkish hue, and the skin is easily peeled off from
the top.

[Illustration: _Mushroom._]

The mushroom is cooked in various ways; here, it is chiefly used for
making ketchup; but in France, the people stew and fry it, and consider
it among the most delicate of dishes.




                         The Return of Spring.


    Now spring returns, and all the earth
    Is clad in cheerful green;
    The heart of man is filled with mirth,
    And happiness is seen.

    The violet rears its modest head,
    To welcome in the spring,
    And from its low and humble bed
    Doth sweetest odors bring.

    The birds are warbling in the grove,
    And flutter on the wing,
    And to their mates in notes of love
    Responsive echoes sing.

    Far as the eye can view, the hills
    Are clad in verdure bright;
    The rivers and the trickling rills
    Are pleasant to the sight.

    Nature another aspect wears,
    Stern winter’s reign is o’er;
    While everything the power declares
    Of _Him_ whom we adore.




                                Puzzles.


See here, what a string of puzzles have been sent me by my young
readers! Who will unravel them?


                             PUZZLE, NO. 1.

                       I am a word of 6 letters.

  My 1, 2, 6, 5, is what Oliver Twist asked for.
  My 3, 2, 1, is a nickname for a boy.
  My 4, 2, 1, 5, every one loves.
  My 1, 2, 3, 4, every good house-keeper dreads.
  My whole is my dearest friend.
                                                     FANNY.


                             PUZZLE, NO. 2.

                       I am a word of 14 letters.

  My 5, 9, 13, 6, 13, is an important article best found in Ireland.
  My 2, 6, 13, is a very useful fowl.
  My 14, 9, 10, 11, is a very unpleasant state to be in.
  My 9, 10, 12, is very pleasant in summer.
  My 7, 2, 3, 8, 12, is also very pleasant in summer.

  My 7, 2, 3, 4, 11, is a very large fish.
  My 2, 3, 1, 11, is a useful vehicle.
  My whole is the name of a celebrated author, which I shall give you
     in my next.
                                   A BLACK-EYED SUBSCRIBER.


                             PUZZLE, NO. 3.

                I am a sentence composed of 26 letters.

  My 1, 11, 15, 4, 24, 8, is a flourishing city.
  My 3, 15, 18, 17, 17, 16, is a road.
  My 7, 8, 6, is a girl’s name.
  My 12, 11, 10, is a disturbance.
  My 4, 5, 10, 6, is a municipal corporation.
  My 19, 21, 26, 14, is what you take on my whole.
  My 15, 24, 26, is the grass over a grave.
  My 22, 24, 25, 26, is a burden.
  My 13, 2, 6, 9, 5, 23, is a bird of prey.
  My whole is a link of a great iron chain.


                             PUZZLE, NO. 4.

                       I am a name of 17 letters.

  My 9, 10, 3, 12, 17, 2, is a useful mechanic.
  My 15, 10, 13, 8, 7, is what we all wish to be.
  My 1, 11, 4, is that for want of which great misfortunes have
     happened.
  My 2, 14, 5, 8, is an article of commerce.
  My 13, 11, 15, 16, 6, is French for a city.
  My 1, 6, 17, 2, is a person of rank.
  My whole is a distinguished foreigner.


                             PUZZLE, NO. 5.

                       I am a word of 9 letters.

  My 9, 8, 8, 1, is the name of a number.
  My 4, 8, 1, 3, 7, is the name of a kind of house.
  My 9, 5, 3, 3, is the name of a large cask.
  My 6, 5, 3, 9, is what butchers often do.
  My 1, 2, 3, 4, is a nickname.
  My 8, 2, 3, 4, is what every animal in creation does.
  My 6, 2, 3, 7, is the name of a small pet animal, to be found in
     almost every house.
  My 4, 5, 3, 9, is an exclamation signifying “Let alone!”
  My 1, 8, 3, 4, is an implement used by fishermen.
  My 1, 5, 3, 9, is found in the woods.
  My whole is the name of a great sandheap.


       *       *       *       *       *

COME out here, and I’ll lick the whole of you; as the boy said ven he
seed a bottle full of sugar sticks in a shop window!




                         To my Correspondents.


Whew! what a lot of letters I have got from my little black-eyed and
blue-eyed friends, this month! Some contain answers to old puzzles, and
some contain new puzzles, and some put questions which puzzle me not
a little. However, I am very glad to hear from anybody who takes an
interest in poor Bob Merry; and I think all the better of young people,
who can be kind to an old fellow with a wooden leg, and content to hear
stories from one who never went to college. I feel cheered by these
pleasant, lively letters; and sometimes, when my old pate reels with
hard work, and my eyes grow dim as I think over the sad fortunes that
pursue me, I go to the package of my correspondents, and there find
consolation. “No matter--no matter,” say I to myself, “if all the world
deserts or abuses me, at least these little friends will be true to
me!” So, thereupon, I wipe my eyes, clean my spectacles, whistle some
merry tune, and sit down to write something cheerful and pleasant for
my Magazine.

Well, now I say again, that I am much obliged to my kind friends, and
I am glad to observe that _they always pay their postage_. Only one
instance to the contrary has occurred: my little friend, Cornelius
W----, of Newark, New Jersey, forgot to pay the postage on the specimen
of his handwriting that he sent me. I mention this for his benefit,
because the habit of forgetting to do things as they ought to be done
is a very bad habit. Suppose, for instance, that a person should get
into the habit of eating carelessly; why, at last, instead of eating
the meat, and rejecting the bones, he might swallow the bones, and
reject the meat! Think of that, Master Cornelius.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have received the answers of A. L., W. H. S., C. F. W. P., F. A.
S., and others, to the puzzles in the March number, all of which are
right. The first is _Bunker Hill Monument_; the second is _A Black-eyed
Friend_.

The following request I will reflect upon.

     MR. MERRY--I wish very much to have the story of Philip
     Brusque continued. I wish to know what Mr. Bonfils did. Was
     he a good king, and did they have any more riots? If you
     will “lift the curtain,” you will satisfy my wishes, and
     oblige
                                               A SUBSCRIBER.
     _Boston, March 5, 1842._

The “Meditations of an Old Man” are a little too melancholy for our
young readers; they do not like to weep very often, and I expect that
Bob Merry’s story will, by and bye, call for all the tears they can
spare.

I insert the following with pleasure. It seems that young _Bare-Head_
is a “Wolverene;” and if he will tell his real life and adventures, no
doubt they will be worth hearing. What a good title it will be!--“The
Adventures of Ben Bare-Head, the Wolverene!”

                       MASTER BARE-HEAD’S PUZZLE.

                       I am a name of 13 letters.

  My 5, 3, 13, is a stupid fellow.
  My 4, 8, 1, 5, 6, 7, is a kind of shrub.
  My 13, 5, 1, is a nickname.
  My 1, 5, 11, 6, 7, often takes place between two individuals.
  My 6, 7, 2, 4, 10, is a pleasing diversion.
  My 3, 12, 10, 5, 1, is a useful agent.
  My 5, 13, 7, 10, 4, is what we every day behold.
  My 9, 11, 5, 12, 10, is what I am.
  My 6, 7, 10, 3, 13, has ruined many.
  My 4, 7, 5, 1, 10, many do not possess.
  My 7, 2, 11, is what I have not got.
  My 6, 2, 9, 7, is what a Hoosier seldom sees.
  My 7, 8, 12, is common in Michigan.
  My 1, 5, 9, 12, is often seen in Boston.
  My 6, 7, 10, 4, 12, is a convenient article.
  My 11, 10, 10, 12, 7, 5, 6, 7, 10, makes cross women.
  My 1, 8, 13, 10, 8, 1, will doubtless be a benefit to the rising generation.
  My whole may well be considered the pride of America.

     When this is solved, you shall have a harder one.
                                                  BEN. BARE-HEAD.
     _Bertrand, Michigan, Jan. 31, 1842._

The following lines are pretty good for so young a writer:--

  THE DESTRUCTION OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH, THE CITIES OF THE PLAIN.

    Brightly o’er those proud cities
      The morning sun arose,
    And over those princely palaces
      His robe effulgent throws.
    But whether on stately palace,
      Or spire, or idol fane,
    He shows his gorgeous coloring
      There it ne’er must rest again.

    And lovely, O most lovely,
      Was the scene he shone on, now!
    From the verdant flower-decked vale,
      To the mountain’s pine-clad brow,
    With the crystal stream’s meandering flow,
      And its waters dancing bright,--
    All nature teems with beauty,
      With joy, and life, and light.

    And from every shrub and flower
      What a fragrant perfume breathes,
    While fruit of almost every clime
      Hangs in rich clusters from the trees;
    And birds, of plumage rich and rare,
      Pour forth their notes of love,
    In strains so wild, so thrilling, sweet,
      From every sheltering grove!

    And who would deem that sin
      Could mar a scene so beauteous, bright,
    So filled with things that please the eye,
      And give the mind delight?
    And yet such guilt stalked proudly here,
      Such sin without alloy,
    As to tempt the Almighty’s wrath to curse,
      His anger to destroy.

    But soon, ah me! how very soon,
      And what a change is there!
    A bellowing earthquake shakes the ground,
      Loud thunders fill the air;
    Bright fire from heaven flashes
      In sheets of liquid flame,
    And a heap of wretched ruins
      Those proud cities then became.

    What keen remorse and anguish
      Must have through those bosoms thrilled,
    What shrieks and shouts of agony
      Must the echoing air have filled!

    But no remorse, or anguish,
      Could then avail to save,
    And those once splendid cities
      Found one promiscuous grave.
                                 H. D. B.

Well done, my gray-eyed friend--P. J. U. Come and see me, and I will
give _thee_ a hearty shake of the hand!

     _Esteemed Friend_:--

     I have received thy Magazine, and write on purpose to
     inform thee of my wish to see the last of our friend
     Brusque on the island of Fredonia; and hope it will be
     of no inconvenience to unravel the whole. Although I am
     a _gray-eyed_ little friend, I have taken the liberty to
     write thee a few lines, and hope thee will receive it
     from an unknown boy, aged 11 years, who longs to see thee
     and hear those interesting stories which I hope will soon
     appear in our pretty little books; but as that cannot be at
     present, I still hope to get them, with yellow covers, with
     my father’s name on the back.

     From a gray-eyed friend,
                                                    P. J. U.

The suggestion of a “Black-Eyed Friend,” as to juvenile plays or
dialogues, is received, and shall be duly considered. I notice his
remark that I have not given the names of all the kinds of type; and he
is correct in his observation. J. H. W., Oak street, Boston, writes a
fair, handsome hand, and this is a pleasant thing to a blear-eyed old
fellow, like me. His solution is right. G. W. F., of Pittsburgh, also
writes very neatly, and his letter is expressed with great propriety.
He, too, is correct in his answers to the riddles. The enigma of J. W.
P. is ingenious--but the name itself is a puzzle. Here it is: “General
Diebitsch Sabalkansky.” Why, this name reminds me of a stick that was
so crooked it could never lie still!




IRISH WIT.--“Please your honor, is a thing lost when you know where it
is?” said an Irish footman to his master.

“To be sure not, you booby.”

“Och! thank your honor for that; the de’il of harm then, for the new
copper takettle’s at the bottom of the well!”




                            MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME III.--No. 5.




[Illustration]


                               Smelling.


I propose to give my readers some remarks upon the five senses; and
I shall begin with smelling. The seat of this sense is the nose, and
the chief instrument by which it operates is a soft membrane, lining
the interior of the nostrils. This is covered over with an infinite
number of organs, too delicate to be seen by the naked eye, called the
_olfactory nerves_. As the brain is the seat of the mind, these nerves
extend to it, and convey to that organ every impression that is made
upon them. The nerves are like sentinels or messengers stationed in
all parts of the body, whose duty it is to communicate to the seat of
power--to the brain, and thus to the intellect--everything that happens
to the body. Thus, if you pinch your finger, or stub your toe, or put
your hand in the fire, or taste of an apple, the nerves carry the
story to the mind; and thus it is that we feel and find out what is
going on.

So it is with the olfactory nerves; they have the power of perceiving
what effluvia is in the air, and they tell the mind of it. At first
thought, it might not seem that smelling was a very important sense.
The lady in the preceding picture appears to think that the nose is
made only that she may enjoy the perfume of the rose; and there are
others who take a very different view of the matter. I once knew a
fellow who insisted upon it that there were more bad smells than good
ones in the world, and therefore he said that the sense of smelling was
a nuisance, as it brought more pain than pleasure. I am inclined to
think that this view was not singular, for I know several people who
go about with their noses curled up, as if some bad odor was always
distressing them. I make it a point, when I meet such discontented
people, to cross over, and go along on t’other side of the way.

But, however others may feel, I maintain that the nose is, on the
whole, a good thing--that smelling is a convenient sense, and that we
could not get along very well without it. Let us consider the matter.

It must be remarked, in the first place, that in man, as well as
animals, the sense of smelling is placed very near the sense of taste
and the organs of eating. We may, therefore, infer that smelling is
a guide to us in the choice of food; that what is of a good flavor,
in general, is wholesome, and that what is of an offensive smell is
unwholesome. The fact, doubtless, is, that we abuse the sense of
smelling so much by the artificial tastes we cultivate, by eating
spices and pickles, and a great variety of condiments, that it ceases
to aid us as much as nature intended it should. Brutes, who never
eat cooked dishes, composed of twenty different ingredients, have
not their senses thus blunted and corrupted. The cow, the sheep, the
horse, all are guided, as they graze among a thousand kinds of herbs,
by the certain and effectual power of smell, to choose those which are
wholesome, and to reject those which are hurtful. Now if mankind were
as natural and simple in their habits as these animals, no doubt the
sense of smell would be a good counsellor as to what food is good and
what is bad.

There is one very curious thing to be noticed here, which is, that
what is pleasant to one is offensive to another. Now putrid meat is
wholesome to a dog; it sets well upon his stomach; and accordingly
it smells good to him. But such food would produce disease in man;
and to him the smell of it is loathsome. This shows, very clearly,
that the sense of smell is a kind of adviser to tell creatures how to
select their food. It also induces us to avoid places where the air is
tainted or impure; for we are liable to contract diseases in such an
atmosphere. Thus it is obvious that the sense of smelling is important
not only as a guide to health, but as a guardian against disease and
death.

In many animals the sense of smell is very acute. The dog will trace
his master’s footsteps, by the scent alone, through the streets of a
city, and amid a thousand other footsteps; he will follow the track of
the fox, or the hare, or the bird, for hours after it has passed along.
The vulture scents the carrion for miles; and the wolf, the hyæna, and
the jackal, seem to possess a similar acuteness of scent.

While the sense of smell is thus sharp in some animals, others,
which need it less, possess it in an inferior degree. Fishes have
only a simple cavity on each side of the nose, through which water,
impregnated with odors, flows, and communicates the sensation of smell.
Many of the inferior animals, as worms, reptiles, and insects, have
still less perfect organs of sensation, and probably possess the sense
of smell only to a corresponding extent.




                   Sketches of the Manners, Customs,
                    &c., of the Indians of America.


                              CHAPTER XVI.

  _Cortez enters the city of Mexico.--Meeting with
     Montezuma.--Cortez seizes the emperor.--Effect on the
     Mexicans.--Cortez is attacked by the Mexicans, and
     Montezuma dies.--Cortez retreats from the city.--Is
     victorious in a battle.--Obtains possession of Mexico._


After remaining about twenty days in Tlascala, to recruit the strength
of his soldiers, Cortez resumed his march for the capital. The emperor,
convinced by the fate which had overtaken the Tlascalans that it would
be vain to oppose the advance of so powerful an embassy, consented at
last to receive them into the city, and to allow them an audience. The
Spaniards accordingly advanced with great care, for fear of surprise,
and at last began to cross the causeway which led to Mexico, through
the lake.

As they drew near the city, they were met by a magnificent procession,
in which Montezuma appeared, seated on a litter, which was carried
on the shoulders of four of his chief favorites. He received Cortez
with the greatest respect, and conducted him to a palace, built by his
father, where he invited him to take up his abode. It was of stone, and
so large that the whole Spanish force was quartered in it.

After remaining quiet several days, during which he had several
interviews with the emperor, and had time to perceive the extent
and grandeur of the city, Cortez began to reflect on the danger
of his situation. Shut up, with a handful of men, in a vast city,
whose sovereign was perhaps only restrained by fear from inflicting
punishment on his audacious visiters, he saw that, should they once
lose their hold on the mind of the king, they would be in the utmost
peril from his resentment at their open contempt of his authority.
Accordingly he resolved to render himself secure by a bold and
ingenious plan. He determined to induce the emperor, by entreaties or
force, to take up his residence in the Spanish quarters, where he would
always be in their power. The next day, therefore, proceeding to the
palace, accompanied by a few of his officers, he demanded and obtained
a private interview with the emperor; and at last, by assurances of
safety if he complied, and threats of immediate death if he refused, he
prevailed upon him to trust himself in the hands of the Spaniards.

The dejected king was carried to the residence of Cortez by his
weeping attendants, who naturally suspected that he was to be held in
custody, as a hostage for the safety of his jailers. They did not,
however, dare to oppose the will of their sovereign; and Montezuma
remained thenceforth a close prisoner in the hands of Cortez. Still
he was treated by the Spaniards with all the respect due to his rank,
and the operations of government went on as usual, under the name of
Montezuma, but principally according to the directions of Cortez. By
means of the power thus acquired, Cortez was able to collect a large
amount of gold and silver from the royal treasuries, which appeared to
the troops sufficient to repay them for all the toils and hardships
which they had undergone; but when two fifths had been subtracted for
the king and Cortez, together with the sums spent in fitting out the
expedition, the share of a private soldier was found to be so small,
that many rejected it with disdain, and all murmured loudly at the
cruel disappointment--a just punishment for the greedy avarice which
had prompted the undertaking.

In this state matters remained for about six months. Montezuma now
reminded his visiters, that since they had obtained all that they
required, it was time for them to depart from the capital. Cortez was
not then in a situation openly to oppose this request. He, therefore,
in order to gain time for reinforcements to arrive from Spain, replied
that he intended to depart as soon as he should be able to build a
sufficient number of ships, in place of those which had been burnt.
This appeared so reasonable to the king, that he ordered him to be
supplied with all the materials that he might want for this purpose.

While Cortez was in this state of suspense, he received the unwelcome
news that a body of Spaniards, more than a thousand in number, had
landed on the coast, sent by the governor of Cuba, who was his enemy,
with orders to deprive him of his power, and send him, bound, to
Cuba, to receive punishment as a traitor to his sovereign. This was
a critical moment; but Cortez was not a man to be discouraged by any
danger. He left a hundred and fifty men in the capital, directing them
to keep a most watchful eye upon the king, and to use every means to
preserve the city quiet during his absence. He then marched with the
utmost celerity to the place where his enemies were encamped, took them
by surprise, and made them all prisoners, with the loss of only two
men. He then, by kind and friendly treatment, and glowing descriptions
of the riches which they would obtain under his command, prevailed upon
the whole army to enlist under his banners.

With this welcome reinforcement, he returned to Mexico, as hastily as
he came; for he had received from Alvarado the alarming intelligence,
that, in consequence of the cruelty of the Spaniards, the inhabitants
had risen upon them, killed several, wounded more, and were closely
besieging them in their quarters. Cortez, however, was suffered to
enter the city unopposed. He was received by his countrymen with
transports of joy, but he found that the reverence, with which the
Mexicans once regarded him, was gone. The very next day, they attacked
him with the utmost fury, and were not repulsed without the greatest
difficulty. Two sallies, which the Spaniards afterwards made, were
ineffectual.

Cortez now resolved to try a new expedient. When the Mexicans
approached, the next morning, to renew the assault, they beheld
their captive sovereign, who, in his royal robes, advanced to the
battlements, and, while every tongue was mute, addressed them in behalf
of the Spaniards, and exhorted them to cease from hostilities. For
a moment, a profound silence reigned; but the Mexicans had lost the
reverence which they bore toward their monarch, and they soon broke
out into loud reproaches and execration of his cowardice. A volley
of stones and arrows succeeded, one of which struck Montezuma on the
temple, and he fell. The Mexicans, seized with horror and remorse at
the effects of their rage, fled in terror from the walls. The unhappy
king was borne to his apartments by his attendants, who strove to
console him for his misfortune; but in vain. Broken-hearted at the
disobedience of his subjects, and his own wretched situation, he tore
the bandages from his breast, and refused all nourishment, till death
speedily terminated his sufferings.

After the death of his royal captive, Cortez had no other resource than
to retreat at once from the city. He made his preparations with all
diligence, and, on the night of the 1st of July, 1520, set out on his
march, hoping to withdraw unperceived. But he was fatally mistaken. All
his motions were closely watched by the natives, and before he reached
the middle of the causeway leading from the city, through the lake, he
was suddenly attacked by them, both in front and rear--while from the
canoes in the lake showers of arrows were poured upon them from unseen
foes. The Spaniards, confounded by the darkness of the night, and the
number of their enemies, after a slight resistance, broke, and fled in
utter confusion. Many were slain; a number perished in the lake, and
some fell into the hands of the enemy. The fate of the last was far the
worst--for they were reserved to be sacrificed, with the most cruel
tortures, to the gods of the Mexicans.

The next morning, when Cortez reviewed the miserable remnants of his
troops, now reduced to less than half their former number, he is
said to have wept at contemplating the ravages made among his brave
followers in a single night, which was long known and remembered by the
Spaniards, as the _night of sorrow_.

But the spirit of the Spanish leader was still unconquered; he
encouraged his dejected followers by the hopes of future victories,
and exhorted them to push on with all speed to Tlascala, where they
would again be surrounded by their faithful friends. For six days they
proceeded with the greatest difficulty, constantly skirmishing with
small bodies of Mexicans, who shouted as they approached, “Go on,
robbers, go to the place where you shall soon meet the vengeance due
to your crimes.” The Spaniards were not long left in doubt as to the
meaning of these words; for, reaching the top of an eminence before
them, a spacious valley opened to their view, covered with a vast
army, extending as far as the eye could reach. At the sight of this
great multitude, many of the bravest Spaniards began to despair; but,
encouraged by the words and example of their undaunted general, they
advanced; their enemies gave way before them, but only to return again
to the combat in another quarter. Hundreds fell, but hundreds appeared
to supply their places; until the Spaniards were ready to sink under
the fatigue of their unavailing efforts. At this time, Cortez observed
near him the great standard of the Mexicans; and he recollected to have
heard, that upon the fate of this depended the success of every battle.
Collecting a few of his brave officers, whose horses were still capable
of service, he dashed with tremendous force through the ranks of the
enemy, slew their general, and seized the standard. The Mexicans,
seeing the fall of their sacred banner, gave up at once all hope of
victory, threw down their arms, and fled in every direction.

Cortez now continued his march, and soon arrived into the territories
of the Tlascalans. By these faithful allies he was received with
as much cordiality as ever, notwithstanding his reverses, and he
immediately set about making preparations for the conquest of
Mexico, with so much diligence, that, at the end of six months, he
found himself at the head of more than 500 Spaniards, and about
10,000 Tlascalans and other Indians. He did not, however, undertake
immediately the siege; he began by reducing, or gaining over to his
cause, the smaller cities lying near the capital, and thus he gradually
confined the Mexican power within smaller limits.

In the meantime, the Mexicans were not idle; directly after the death
of Montezuma, his brother, Quetlevan, was raised to the throne. His
reign was short; within a few months he was carried off by the
small-pox--a distemper introduced into the New World by the Spaniards.
He was succeeded by his nephew, Guatimozin, who had already given
decisive proofs of his courage and capacity. Immediately upon his
election, he applied himself to repairing and strengthening the
fortifications of the city; large quantities of arms were manufactured,
and an immense army was collected for the defence of the capital.

At length, all his preparations being completed, Cortez united all his
forces for the last great effort; and the siege of Mexico, the longest
and most arduous of all undertaken by the conquerors of America, was
begun. By means of a small fleet, which he had caused to be constructed
in the mountains of Tlascala, and transported thence by land, with
great labor, he obtained entire possession of the lake; while on land,
a constant succession of assaults and repulses were kept up on both
sides, with the most obstinate valor. But the Spaniards gradually
gained upon the natives, though the latter disputed every inch of
ground with the courage of despair; nor would they listen to any
proposals of surrendering, until three quarters of their city were laid
in ruins, and four fifths of the population had perished by famine,
pestilence, or the sword of the enemy.

When the city could no longer hold out against its besiegers,
Guatimozin, moved by the tears and entreaties of his nobles, attempted
to escape, but was taken and brought back to the capital. When led
before his conqueror, he addressed him in a speech, breathing a Roman
heroism: “I have done what became a monarch. I have defended my people
to the last extremity. Nothing now remains but to die. Take this
dagger--plant it in my breast, and put an end to a life which can no
longer be of use.” It would have been well for him if this request had
been complied with; but he was reserved for further indignities.

The quantity of gold and silver found in the conquered city was very
small. The soldiers murmured loudly at their disappointment, and
accused Guatimozin of having thrown his treasures into the lake, in
order to baulk their well-known avarice. They demanded that he should
be compelled by torture, if necessary, to point out the place in which
they had been cast; and to this, Cortez was base enough to accede. The
captive monarch, together with one of his chief favorites, was put to
the torture; but he remained inflexible. The favorite, in the extremity
of his anguish, turned an imploring eye towards his master, as if to
entreat permission to reveal the secret. “Am _I_ now reposing on a bed
of flowers?” returned the suffering prince, darting at him a look of
scorn, mingled with authority. The obedient servant bowed his head in
silence, and expired; and Cortez, ashamed of his cruelty, ordered the
monarch to be released from further torture.

But the sufferings of the unhappy Guatimozin were not yet terminated:
not long after the capture of the city, the natives, driven to
desperation by the cruelties of their conquerors, rose to regain their
freedom; and Cortez, suspecting the king of being concerned in these
attempts, barbarously ordered him to be hanged; and thus, by a deed
which will forever stain the memory of his great actions, he put an end
to the Mexican empire, which had existed for nearly 200 years. After
this period, the vast territories of Mexico were reduced to Spanish
provinces, in which condition they remained nearly 300 years, when the
people formed independent governments. The republics of Mexico, Texas,
and Guatemala, are all within the territories of Montezuma.




[Illustration: _Rebekah and the servant of Abraham_.]


                           Isaac and Rebekah.


Among the many beautiful things in the Bible, there are few stories
more interesting than that of Isaac and Rebekah, as it is told in the
twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis.

Isaac was the son of Abraham, who had left his native place in
Mesopotamia, and settled in the land of Canaan. Abraham was unwilling
that his son should marry a Canaanite woman; so he sent his servant to
his own native land, to find a wife for Isaac. The man set out with ten
camels, and a great variety of things for presents, and at last came
near to the city of Nahor, in Mesopotamia.

He stopped at a well without the city, and made his camels kneel by the
side of it. He knew that the daughters of the men of the city would
come out to draw water at the well, for this was the custom of the
country; so he waited, and prayed to the Lord that the damsel to whom
he should say, “Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink,”
should be the woman designed to be the wife of Isaac.

Pretty soon a beautiful girl came to the well, and the servant spoke
to her, and she let down her pitcher, and gave him some water; and she
also gave water to his camels. She told him that her name was Rebekah,
the daughter of Bethuel, son of Milcah. The servant then gave her
some golden ear-rings and some bracelets; and, upon her invitation,
went, with his whole party, to her father’s house. Here he was kindly
received; and after a space, he told the errand on which he had come.
He closed his story in the following words: “And now, if ye will deal
kindly and truly with my master, tell me: and if not, tell me; that I
may turn to the right hand, or to the left.”

Then Bethuel and Laban, his son, answered and said, “The thing
proceedeth from the Lord: we cannot speak unto thee bad or good.
Behold, Rebekah is before thee; take her, and go, and let her be thy
master’s son’s wife, as the Lord hath spoken. And it came to pass that,
when Abraham’s servant heard their words, he worshipped the Lord,
bowing himself to the earth. And the servant brought forth jewels of
silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave them to Rebekah: he
gave also to her brother and to her mother precious things. And they
did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him, and tarried all
night: and they rose up in the morning; and he said, Send me away unto
my master. And her brother and her mother said, Let the damsel abide
with us a few days, at the least ten; after that she shall go. And he
said unto them, Hinder me not, seeing the Lord hath prospered my way;
send me away, that I may go to my master. And they said, We will call
the damsel, and enquire at her mouth. And they called Rebekah, and said
unto her, Wilt thou go with this man? And she said, I will go. And they
sent away Rebekah, their sister, and her nurse, and Abraham’s servant,
and his men. And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, Thou art our
sister; be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed
possess the gate of those which hate them.

“And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and
followed the man, and the servant took Rebekah, and went his way.

“And Isaac came from the way of the well, Lahai-roi: for he dwelt in
the south country. And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the
even-tide; and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, the camels
were coming. And Rebekah lifted up her eyes; and when she saw Isaac,
she lighted off the camel. For she had said unto the servant, What man
is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And the servant had
said, It is my master: therefore she took a veil, and covered herself.
And the servant told Isaac all things that he had done. And Isaac
brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent, and took Rebekah, and she
became his wife; and he loved her; and Isaac was comforted after his
mother’s death.”




                   Mr. Catlin and his Horse Charley.


In a former number of our magazine, we gave an incident, extracted from
Mr. Catlin’s interesting account of his adventures among the western
Indians. We now add another story from the same work. The writer is
giving an account of a long journey through the wilds of the far west.

“On this journey, while Charley and I were twenty-five days alone, we
had much time, and the best of circumstances, under which to learn what
we had as yet overlooked in each other’s characters, as well as to draw
great pleasure and real benefit from what we already had learned of
each other in our former travels.

“I generally halted on the bank of some little stream, at half an hour
of sunset, where feed was good for Charley, and where I could get wood
to kindle my fire, and water for my coffee. The first thing was to
undress Charley, and drive down his picket to which he was fastened, to
graze over a circle that he could inscribe at the end of his laso. In
this wise he busily fed himself until nightfall; and after my coffee
was made and drank, I uniformly moved him up, with his picket by my
head, so that I could lay my hand upon his laso in an instant, in case
of any alarm that was liable to drive him from me.

“On one of these evenings, when he was grazing as usual, he slipped the
laso over his head, and deliberately took his supper at his pleasure,
wherever he chose to prefer it, as he was strolling around. When night
approached, I took the laso in hand, and endeavored to catch him;
but I soon saw he was determined to enjoy a little freedom; and he
continually evaded me until dark, when I abandoned the pursuit, making
up my mind that I should inevitably lose him, and be obliged to perform
the rest of my journey on foot. He had led me a chase of half a mile
or more, when I left him busily grazing, and returned to my little
solitary bivouac, and laid myself on my bear-skin and went to sleep.

“In the middle of the night I waked, whilst I was lying on my back,
and on half opening my eyes, I was instantly shocked to the soul by
the huge figure, as I thought, of an Indian, standing over me, and in
the very act of taking my scalp! The chill of horror that paralyzed me
for the first moment, held me still till I saw that there was no need
of moving--that my faithful horse Charley had ‘played shy’ till he
had ‘filled his belly,’ and had then moved up, from feelings of pure
affection, or from instinctive fear, or possibly from a due share of
both, and taken his position with his fore feet at the edge of my bed,
with his head hanging directly over me, while he was standing, fast
asleep!

“My nerves, which had been most violently shocked, were soon quieted,
and I fell asleep, and so continued until sunrise in the morning, when
I waked, and beheld my faithful servant at some considerable distance,
busily at work picking up his breakfast amongst the cane-brake, along
the banks of the creek. I went as busily at work preparing my own,
which was eaten; and after it, I had another half hour of fruitless
endeavors to catch Charley, whilst he seemed as mindful of mischief as
on the evening before, and continually tantalized me by turning round
and round, and keeping out of my reach.

“I recollected the conclusive evidence of his attachment and
dependence, which he had voluntarily given in the night, and I thought
I would try them in another way; so I packed up my things, and slung
the saddle on my back, and taking my gun in my hand, I started on my
route. After I had advanced a quarter of a mile, I looked back, and saw
him standing, with his head and tail very high, looking alternately at
me and at the spot where I had been encamped and left a little fire
burning.

“In this condition he stood and surveyed the prairies around for a
while, as I continued on. He at length walked with a hurried step to
the spot, and seeing everything gone, began to neigh very violently,
and at last started off the fullest speed, and overtook me, passing
within a few paces of me, and wheeling about at a few rods distance in
front of me, trembling like an aspen leaf.

“I called him by his familiar name, and walked up to him with the
bridle in my hand, which I put over his head, as he held it down for
me, and the saddle on his back, as he actually stooped to receive it.
I was soon arranged, and on his back, when he started off upon his
course, as if he was well contented and pleased, like his rider, with
the manœuvre which had brought us together again, and afforded us
mutual relief from our awkward positions. Though this alarming freak of
Charley’s passed off and terminated so satisfactorily, yet I thought
such rather dangerous ones to play, and I took good care, after that
night, to keep him under my strict authority; resolving to avoid
further tricks and experiments, till we got to the land of cultivated
fields and steady habits.”




[Illustration]


                              The Kitchen.


The art of managing the kitchen is what every wife should thoroughly
understand; and all those girls, who have any chance of becoming wives,
should be careful to complete this important part of their education.
Even those who are rich, and who can afford to hire people to perform
the work of the kitchen, should still understand it, for the following
reasons:

In the first place, if the lady of the house knows how work ought to
be done, she is competent to direct her assistants; she knows _what_
they should do, and _how_ they should do it. If they fail, she can be
just in bestowing the degree of censure, which is truly merited. If,
on the other hand, she is ignorant, she is as likely to find fault for
what is well done, as for what is ill done. A lady who is ignorant on
the subject of household duties, is very apt to be unreasonable in the
direction of her helpers: they therefore learn to despise, and perhaps
to deceive her; thus making themselves and their mistress very unhappy.
In this way things pass for a time; but they go on from bad to worse,
till they are beyond endurance, and the lady’s help leaves her.

In this way, owing to the ignorance of the lady, many a household is
rendered miserable, many a home is a scene of disorder and confusion.
It is in part owing to this ignorance, and the want of judgment
and discretion that attend it, that we hear of so much changing of
servants, and so much trouble with them, in families. The truth is,
that servants are human beings; they are rational creatures, and
have their rights; when they are ill treated or find themselves
uncomfortable, they will change their condition. It is a blessed thing,
that, in our country, even those who are in humble circumstances are
independent, and need not submit to oppression, even in a kitchen. They
are as much entitled to have their feelings duly considered, as any
others. If they are honest and faithful, they are as well entitled to
respect as others; and it is a pleasing thought, that, when they do not
thus obtain their rights and privileges, they can go away, and seek a
place where they may find them.

Now ignorance of the duties of the kitchen, on the part of a lady,
implies ignorance of the proper way of treating her servants; and it
frequently happens that the servant is more wise, more reasonable,
more respectable, in the sight of God and man, than the ignorant lady
of the house. As ignorance of household duties is thus degrading and
hurtful--bringing contempt upon the subject of it, and misery to all
around--I beseech all the black-eyed and blue-eyed little lasses, who
pretend to be the friends of Robert Merry, to beware of it.

I know that some young ladies fancy that it is degrading thus to work
in the kitchen. Alas, what miserable delusion! Degrading to do that
which contributes to the comfort of home, that which makes a family
happy, that which enables a wife to discharge her duties well and
wisely! Oh, do not let any of my readers indulge such folly! It is
never degrading to do our duty--but it is degrading to despise it.
Even if a person is so rich as to render labor unnecessary, yet it
is impossible to enjoy even riches without some toil, some industry;
and when my young friends grow up, if I should live so long, I hope
to see those who are girls now, industrious, skilful housewives then.
If they can reign well over the little kingdom of the kitchen, I am
sure they will preside successfully over the parlor. One thing should
be remembered--and it is this: _home is seldom happy where housewife
duties are neglected_; _home is seldom miserable where they are wisely
discharged_!




                 The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                           of Thomas Trotter.


                              CHAPTER XIX.

  _Visit to Herculaneum.--Singular position of that
     city.--Account of the manuscripts discovered there.--Visit
     to Pompeii, and description of the curiosities of that
     place._


No traveller can visit this region without being attracted to those
remarkable places, Herculaneum and Pompeii, two Roman cities, which, as
every reader of history well knows, were overwhelmed by an eruption of
Vesuvius in the year 79, and, after lying buried, totally forgotten,
for seventeen hundred years, were accidentally discovered about a
century ago, by digging a well.

I first visited Herculaneum, which is nearest to Naples. This city
lies seventy or eighty feet under ground, and the towns of Portici
and Resina are built over it. I went down a dark passage with steps,
like the descent into some enormous dungeon, till I reached an open
space resembling a cavern, very wide and lofty, but as dark and dismal
a spot as one would desire to visit. On examining the side of this
great chamber by the light of torches, we could discover the stone
walls and other masonry of the structure, all showing it to be an
ancient theatre. In this place were originally found three fine marble
statues, which are now to be seen in the museum at Naples. Round about
the building are various dark passages and galleries dug through the
hard earth; but the whole city of Herculaneum lies at such a depth
below the surface, that very little of it besides the theatre has been
explored, on account of the labor and expense attending the operation.
The city was overwhelmed first by a shower of ashes, and then by a
torrent of hot water. The ashes and water have hardened into a compact
mass, which, after a consolidation of seventeen hundred years, is found
very difficult to dig through.

There is very little to be seen in Herculaneum; but it causes the
strangest sensations to stand in that gloomy subterranean theatre,
once enlivened by the bustling throngs and noisy gayety of a city
populace. Now all is silent and dreary, and no sound falls upon the
ear save the echoing footstep of a lonely visiter, or the rumbling of
a carriage-wheel overhead! It is not probable that the city will ever
be laid open to the light of day, as this could hardly be done without
serious injury to the territory above it.

The most remarkable objects hitherto found here have been the
manuscripts. These were rolls of papyrus, but so completely charred
by the hot ashes, that they could not be handled without danger of
crumbling to pieces. By very delicate management, however, assisted
by machinery, a series of these have been unrolled. They contained a
treatise, in the Greek language, on music, by Philodemas. Most of the
others that have been examined are also in Greek; but no writings of
any great intrinsic value have yet come to light.

A few miles further along the shore of the Bay of Naples brought me
to Pompeii. This city was buried under a shower of ashes, but was
not covered so deep as Herculaneum; and as no town was built over it
after the catastrophe, there has been no difficulty in excavating it.
About a third part has now been opened, and the work is still going
on. The excavated parts are not subterranean, as at Herculaneum, but
completely uncovered to the sky; so that the visible portion of the
city presents the appearance of a succession of deserted streets and
roofless houses, as if a violent storm of wind had suddenly blown away
the house-tops and the inhabitants with them. Before coming to the gate
of the city, I passed through long lines of tombs;--the grave-yards of
the Romans being always outside the city walls. Many of these tombs
were adorned with beautiful sculptures in marble; and the interiors
were painted with pictures of gladiators fighting, and other subjects.
Just before reaching the gate, I saw a niche in the wall, which served
as a sentry-box for the soldier who stood sentry at the gate. It is a
most striking proof of the strictness of military discipline among the
Romans, that the skeleton of this sentinel was found on the spot:--the
terrible convulsion which destroyed the city could not drive him from
his post, and he remained faithful to his trust to the last moment of
his life!

The main street, on entering, is about as wide as Washington street,
with sidewalks two feet high. The buildings are mostly of brick, and
commonly not more than one story high. The main street is full of
shops, with the names of the shopkeepers coarsely painted over the
doors. There is a baker’s shop, which contained a great many loaves of
bread, rather _overdone_. The loaves are stamped with the baker’s name.
The shop also contained a hand-mill, which shows that the labor of
grinding was also done by the baker. In one of the liquor-shops you may
see on the stone counter the marks of the glasses which were thumped
down by _hard_ drinkers. I went into the cellar of one of the houses,
where I found the wine-jars left standing just as they were in 79;
they were dry, of course. Some of the houses had upper chambers, but
without windows. The large rooms, dining-halls, parlors, &c., have the
walls painted with landscapes, flowers, drapery, and figures like our
paper-hangings. Many of these are of great beauty; and in all of them
we are struck with wonder to observe the freshness and brilliancy of
the coloring, which, after a lapse of 1700 years, appears as bright as
the day it was laid on. These paintings are executed upon plaster, and
the composition either of the paint or stucco appears to contain borax,
which is known to be one of the most indestructible of all substances.
The prevailing colors are bright red and yellow.

A great many of these paintings have been cut out of the walls and
carried to Naples, where they may be seen at the museum. This indeed
is the fact with regard to almost all the movable articles that have
been found at Pompeii. In the gateway of a yard to one of the houses is
a bolt in the pavement, to which a dog was chained, and on the stone
is sculptured the words, _Cave Canem_--“Beware of the dog!” In another
part is an apothecary’s shop, which contained a great number of glass
bottles and phials, with knives, lancets, and other instruments of
surgery. These latter are not of steel, but bronze; and it is singular
that hardly any other metal than bronze has ever been found here, which
shows either the scarcity of iron at that period, or a great want of
skill in working it.

Many of the halls and courts are adorned with splendid mosaic
pavements, and other ornamental stone-work. There is an immense
building, containing a great number of apartments, used for a public
bath. Some of these apartments were heated by flues passing between
the walls;--a device which was formerly thought to be an invention of
modern days. But there are many things at Pompeii which show ingenuity
equal, and sometimes superior, to that of our own age. I was struck
with a very simple contrivance for making a door swing to, without
springs or weights, which I have never seen imitated anywhere.

The public buildings at Pompeii are numerous and striking, but cannot
be properly described without drawings. At the door of the theatre was
found one of the tickets of ivory, with the number of the box marked
upon it. On the walls of the houses may still be seen the theatrical
announcements, such as with us are pasted up at the corners of the
streets. Those at Pompeii are written with a brush on a ground of
stucco, and were washed off as often as the bill was changed. The last
one stood a little longer than the writer expected. Pliny tells us the
people were in the theatre when the eruption broke out.

It is impossible to specify half the curious and interesting objects
to be seen here without writing a volume. Temples, theatres,
amphitheatres, porticoes, fountains, arches, tombs, and the private
dwellings of thousands of men, who appear to have left them but
yesterday, all make a strange and most exciting impression on the
feelings. You almost expect the owners of the houses to step back and
ask your business there. It is curious to observe that the objects
which, in their own day, were the most trivial and unimportant, are now
precisely those which are beheld with the greatest interest. We cannot
pass without curious attention the cart-ruts in the streets, or the
charcoal scrawlings made by idle boys upon the walls, or the names of
Mr. A, B, and C, who lived in this, that, and the other house. There is
a place where a mason was at work, putting on mortar; he had just laid
on a trowel-full, and was drawing a stroke to smooth it down, when the
alarm of the eruption was given, and he left his work and ran. There
stand the stone and mortar to this day, with the mark of the unfinished
stroke! He would have made all smooth in one second more--but 1700
years have passed, and it is not done yet. An hundred volumes written
on the uncertainty of human purpose could not make the fact half so
striking as this little incident!


                              CHAPTER XX.

  _Journey towards Rome.--Vineyards.--The olive
     season.--Beautiful scene at Mola di Gaeta.--A shepherd
     among the mountains.--The robbers of Fondi.--The Pontine
     marshes.--Velletri.--The nightingale.--First sight of Rome._


On the first day of April I set out for Rome. For ten or fifteen
miles beyond Naples, the country appeared to be nothing but one
great vineyard. The vines are not propped by poles, as I found them
in Sicily, but are trained to poplar trees. I passed many wells by
the roadside, furnished with water-wheels turned by oxen: these are
used for irrigating the fields in summer, from which I judged that
the country often suffers from drought. All along the road were
guard-houses with gens-d’armes at regular intervals, a security against
robbers, according to the design; but we generally found these valiant
fellows fast asleep! We might have stolen their muskets and made them
all prisoners before they were well awake. The roads in this quarter
are covered with a fine white dust, which in the unclouded season of
midsummer must have a bad effect upon the eyes. The great number of
blind people we saw, confirmed the impression. About noon we reached
Capua, famous for having once been the most luxurious city in the
world, but now a decayed town, where everybody seems to be fast asleep.
Beyond this place the road began to run among the hills. At night we
stopped at the village of St. Agatha, where we found a tolerably good
inn. We set out early next morning, and passed through fields covered
with olive trees. The peasants whom we met had sprigs of olive stuck
in their hats. This was the olive season, and we saw the women and
children picking up the fruit under the trees. When the olives are
ripe, they turn black and drop from the trees. The oil is squeezed from
them by a common press. The olives used for pickling are taken from the
tree before they are ripe.

At noon we arrived at Mola di Gaeta, one of the most delightful
spots I ever beheld. It stands on the sea-shore, and is skirted by
a range of lofty hills covered with orange groves. The trees were
laden with fruit as bright as gold. The fresh green foliage, the
clear sky, the blue sea, and the white towers of Gaeta which appear
on a promontory stretching out into the ocean, all combine to form a
most enchanting prospect. I do not wonder that Cicero chose this spot
for his country-seat; here they showed us the spot where, according
to Plutarch, he was killed. Further on we continued to find the same
abundance of olive trees: this appears to be a great oil district. A
range of rocky mountains at a distance seemed to consist of nothing but
naked crags; but the plains and low hills are under good cultivation.
The soil in most parts is very rich, and the country wants nothing
but a good government and an industrious people, to make the kingdom
of Naples one of the most flourishing territories on the face of the
earth. In the afternoon we traversed a steep, narrow mountain pass,
and entered upon a wild, rugged country. I got out of the carriage and
trudged along on foot, for the road was so hilly that I could keep
ahead of the horses. The country exhibited quite a solitude; there was
neither house nor human being to be seen for miles. Suddenly the notes
of a wild kind of music fell on my ear, and looking down a rocky glen,
I discovered a shepherd tending his flock, and piping on a reed in the
true Arcadian style. It was the first genuine spectacle of pastoral
life that I had ever seen, and I halted some minutes to take a view
of him. Very pretty poems have been written about pastoral manners,
in which shepherds and shepherdesses make fine romantic figures. The
sight of a real shepherd, however, is enough to dissipate all the
romance of this subject. This fellow wore the true pastoral dress,
jacket and leggins of sheepskin, with the wool outside!--a more ragged,
scarecrow-looking object never met my eyes. I would give a round sum of
money to get one of these Neapolitan shepherds to show himself in the
streets of Boston. An Indian sachem would be nothing in comparison to
him.

The country continued wild and broken till we reached Fondi, a town
among the mountains, once notorious for its robberies. These were
carried on so openly and to such an extent, that the government were
obliged to surround the town with troops, and threaten to batter
every house to the ground with cannon, unless the leaders of the
banditti were given up. Since these fellows have been hanged, and the
roads guarded with soldiers, travelling has been pretty safe. But
nothing except force prevents the inhabitants of Fondi from resuming
their old habits of robbery. I never saw so villanous-looking a set
of ragamuffins anywhere else. Every man and boy in the town has
the genuine countenance of a cut-throat; and the women do not look
much better. We stopped here just long enough to get our passports
examined; but that was long enough. Though the people are not allowed
to rob, they almost make up for it in begging; for their impudence
and obstinacy in this business nearly amount to violence. The whole
population were either crowding around us, begging, or lying in crowds
about the church steps, lazily sunning themselves. I longed to stir up
the louts, and set them to work. From laziness to begging, and from
begging to robbery, is a regular and almost inevitable progress.

The road beyond Fondi ran along the shores, and in the afternoon we
reached the territory of the Pope. The first sight we saw here was a
herd of buffaloes in a field. These animals are tame, and used the same
as oxen. They are not like the buffalo, or, more properly, _bison_ of
the western prairies, but a distinct species of quadruped. At night we
reached Terracina, the first town in the papal dominions. It stands
on the seashore, at the foot of a lofty, precipitous rock. During the
night the wind was high, and drove a heavy surf upon the beach. A
bright moonlight made a stroll along the shore very pleasant. In the
morning the wind had gone down, and we recommenced our journey. Here
we entered upon the famous Pontine marshes, over which the road passes
nearly thirty miles in a straight line, and a great part of the way
bordered by trees. These marshes consist of swampy and boggy tracts,
with lagoons of water and patches of dry pasture-land interspersed here
and there. Herds of buffaloes and black swine were roaming about in the
dry spots, and the lagoons were covered with flocks of wild ducks and
other waterfowl; but not a human being or a house was to be seen. These
marshes breed so pestilential an air in summer, that the neighborhood
is uninhabitable. They are bordered by a range of mountains on one
side, and on the other by the Mediterranean.

There were no thick woods anywhere to be seen; a few scattered cork
and ilex trees were all that met the eye. The mountains were bare to
their very summits. The country, after passing the marshes, became
very beautiful, and as we approached the town of Velletri we beheld
the most enchanting landscapes. Here, for the first time, I heard the
nightingale. He sings in the most lively and voluble strain, and is
well worthy of his great reputation among the feathered songsters;
but there is no American bird whom he resembles in tone or manner.
We stopped for the night at Velletri, which stands on a commanding
eminence, with an almost boundless prospect toward the south. On the
other side, you look down a deep valley and up the side of a mountain
beyond, covered with verdant fields, gardens, vineyards, and every
variety of cultivation.

Rome was now but twenty-four Italian or eighteen English miles distant.
The morning broke delightfully, and my impatience to see the great
capital of the world was at such a height, that I would not wait for
the carriage, but set out on foot. Long strings of wagons were coming
from Rome, having left that city late the preceding night. It was
amusing to notice that the drivers were nearly all fast asleep. The
horses were eating all the way, each one having a bundle of hay tied
to the head of the shaft in such a manner that he could help himself.
The road over which I was passing was the celebrated Appian way, and
is paved neatly and durably with square stones laid diamond-wise. As
the day drew on, I met the country people going to their work. The
women have a curious head-dress, consisting of a square fold of cloth,
starched stiff and laid flat on the top of the head, often fastened
with a silver pin as big as a kitchen skewer.

Two or three more small towns on the road could not induce me to
slacken my pace towards the great object of my curiosity. At length,
about the middle of the forenoon, as I ascended a steep hill, I caught
sight of a lofty dome at a distance, which I instantly knew for St.
Peter’s! Rome indeed was before me!--a sight which no man can behold
for the first time without emotions impossible to describe. I stopped
involuntarily. A wide plain extended from the foot of the eminence on
which I stood to the walls of Rome. Long lines of aqueducts, ruined
towers, and broken masses of walls and other architecture, chequered
the surface of the plain; and the whole exhibited a striking spectacle
of ruin and desolation. This was the Campagna di Roma, which, in the
day of its prosperity, was covered with houses and gardens, the suburbs
of the great city. Now, everything is still, solitary and lifeless.
As I approached the city, I saw nothing around me but fields without
fences, overgrown with brambles; not a house nor a garden, nor a
human being, except here and there a ragged shepherd watching his
sheep, which were browsing among the ruins! Nearer the city, I passed
occasionally a field of wheat, and now and then a house; but hardly
any people were to be seen, and nothing of the hurry, life and bustle
which indicate the neighborhood of a populous city. This spectacle of
solitude and desolation continued even after passing the gates of Rome;
for half the territory within the walls is an utter waste.




RATTLESNAKES.--Two men, Egbert Galusha and Reuben Davis, residing in
the town of Dresden, on the east side of Lake George, recently killed,
in three days, on the east side of Tongue Mountain, in the town of
Bolton, _eleven hundred and four rattlesnakes_! They were confined to
rocks and uninhabited places. Some of the reptiles were of an enormous
size, having from six to twenty rattles. They were killed for their oil
or grease, which is said to be very valuable. We will turn out Warren
county against the world for rattlesnakes!--_Glenns’ Falls Clarion._




[Illustration]


                           Knights Templars.


About seven or eight hundred years ago, it was the custom of
Christians, in various parts of the world, to go to the city of
Jerusalem, to say prayers and perform penances, thinking that they
benefited their souls thereby. Jerusalem belonged to the Turks then,
as it does now; and it frequently happened that these Christians were
ill-treated by the inhabitants, who despised and hated them.

This ill-treatment roused the people of Europe to vengeance, and
vast armies went to take Jerusalem from the Turks, whom they called
infidels. There were several of these wonderful expeditions, called
_Crusades_, during the tenth, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, in
which several millions of people lost their lives. Jerusalem was taken
from the Turks, but they got it back again after a short time.

It was about the period of the crusades that _Knight-Errantry_ took its
rise. The knights-errant, or wandering knights, rode on fine horses,
with spears and swords; and when they met each other they went to
battle, often for the fun of it. They pretended to go about to relieve
the distressed and to punish injustice: and there was need enough of
this--for, in that age of the world, there was a great deal of cruelty
and oppression. Sometimes these knights really performed very noble and
brave actions. The stories of their adventures, preserved in ancient
books, are very interesting.

The order of Knights Templars was formed at Jerusalem, by seven
gentlemen, about the year 1120. They professed to devote themselves
to the service of God, and actually set about punishing robbers
and thieves who troubled the Christians who went on pilgrimages to
Jerusalem. They increased in numbers, and had apartments assigned them
near Solomon’s Temple, whence they were called _Templars_. After a
time, the Templars were numerous in Europe, where they grew very rich
and powerful. At last they were accused of high crimes; and, in the
fourteenth century, the order was suppressed.




                      PETER PARLEY’S NEW STORIES.


                                No. IV.

                          The Garden of Peace.


There are few persons who do precisely as they ought to do. It is very
seldom that any one, even for a single day, discharges every duty that
rests upon him, at the same time avoiding everything that is wrong.
There is usually something neglected, delayed, or postponed, that ought
to be done to-day. There is usually some thought entertained, some
feeling indulged, some deed committed, that is sinful. If any person
doubts this, let him make the experiment; let him watch every thought
and action for a single day, and he will be very likely to perceive
that what we say is true--that all fall far short of perfect obedience
to the rule of right.

And yet, if a person can once make up his mind to do right, it is
the surest way to obtain happiness. The manner in which this may be
accomplished, and the pleasant consequences that follow, I shall
endeavor to show by an allegory, which will, at the same time, exhibit
the evils that proceed from an habitual and determined neglect of duty.

In an ancient city of the East, two youths chanced to be passing a
beautiful garden. It was enclosed by a lofty trellis, which prevented
their entering the place; but, through its openings, they could
perceive that it was a most enchanting spot. It was not a place where
kitchen vegetables are produced, but it was embellished by every object
of nature and art that could give beauty to the landscape. There were
groves of lofty trees, with winding avenues between them. There were
green lawns, the grass of which seemed like velvet. There were groups
of shrubs, many of them in bloom, and scattering delicious fragrance
upon the atmosphere.

Between these pleasing objects there were fountains sending their
silvery showers into the air; and a stream of water, clear as crystal,
wound with gentle murmurs through the place. The charms of this lovely
scene were greatly heightened by the delicious music of birds, the hum
of bees, and the echoes of many youthful and happy voices.

The two young men gazed upon the landscape with intense interest; but
as they could only see a portion of it through the trellis, they looked
out for some gate by which they might enter the garden. At a little
distance, they perceived an arch, and they went to the spot, supposing
that they should find an entrance here. There was, indeed, a gate; but,
behold, it was locked, and they found it impossible to gain admittance!

While they were considering what course they should adopt, they
perceived an inscription upon the arch above, which ran as follows:

   “Ne’er till to-morrow’s light delay
    What may as well be done to-day;
    Ne’er do the thing you’d wish undone
    Viewed by to-morrow’s rising sun.
    Observe these rules a single year,
    And you may freely enter here.”

The two youths were much struck by these lines; and, before they
parted, both had agreed to make the experiment and try to live
according to the inscription. They were not only anxious to gain
admittance to the beautiful garden, but the idea of adopting a plan
like that proposed had something of novelty in it; and this is always
pleasing to the ardent heart of the young.

I need not tell the details of their progress in their trial. Both
found the task they had undertaken much more difficult than they at
first imagined. To their surprise, they found that following this rule
required an almost total change of their modes of life; and this taught
them, what they had not felt before, that a very large part of their
lives--a very large share of their thoughts, feelings and actions--were
wrong, though they were considered virtuous young men by the society in
which they lived.

After a few weeks, the younger of the two, finding that the scheme put
too many restraints upon his tastes, abandoned the trial. The other
persevered, and, at the end of the year, presented himself at the
arched gateway of the garden.

To his great joy, he was instantly admitted; and if the place pleased
him when seen dimly through the trellis, it appeared far more lovely,
now that he could actually tread its pathways, breathe its balmy air,
and mingle intimately with the scenes around. One thing delighted,
yet surprised him--which was this: it now seemed _easy_ for him to
do right; nay, to do right, instead of requiring self-denial and a
sacrifice of his tastes and wishes, seemed to him to be _a matter of
course_, and the pleasantest thing he could do.

While he was thinking of this, a person came near, and the two fell
into conversation. After a little while, the youth told his companion
what he was thinking of, and asked him to account for his feelings.
“This place,” said the other, “is the _Garden of Peace_. It is the
abode of those who have adopted God’s will as the rule of their lives.
It is a happy home provided for those who have conquered selfishness;
those who have learned to put aside their passions and do their duty.
At first, it is difficult to do this; for, in early life, we adopt
wrong courses, and habit renders them easy. These habits become our
masters, and it is hard to break away from them. But if we triumph
over these habits, and if we adopt others, of a virtuous kind, then it
is easy to follow them; and the peace that flows from virtuous habits
is beyond the power of words to express. This lovely garden is but a
picture of the heart that is firmly established in the ways of virtue.
Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace.”

While the companions were thus conversing, and as they were passing
near the gateway, the youth saw on the other side the friend who had
resolved to follow the inscription, but who had given over the trial.
Upon this, the companion of the youth said, “Behold the young man who
could not conquer himself! How miserable is he in comparison with
yourself! What is it makes the difference? You are in the _Garden of
Peace_; he is excluded from it. This tall gateway is a barrier that he
cannot pass; this is the barrier, interposed by human vices and human
passions, which separates mankind from that peace, of which we are all
capable. Whoever can conquer himself, and has resolved, firmly, that
he will do it, has found the key of that gate, and he may freely enter
here. If he cannot do that, he must continue to be an outcast from the
_Garden of Peace_!”




[Illustration]


                              The Banana.


The banana tree is a kind of palm, found in hot climates. It is common
in South America, and we frequently see the fruit in our markets. When
this is cut in slices, dried in the sun, and pounded, it produces a
mealy substance that answers the purpose of bread. The banana is also
eaten without cooking, when ripe, and is esteemed very delicious.
The Spaniards always cut the fruit lengthwise, for they have a
superstitious dread of cutting it across, because the pieces then have
a resemblance to the cross on which Christ was crucified.

The fruit of the banana tree is almost as large as a cucumber; the
leaves are five or six feet long and a foot wide.




ECONOMY.--As a proof of domestic economy in France, it may be stated
that a short time back, in the commune of Bugey, in the Saone-et-Loire,
a man buried his wife in an old clock-case to save the expense of
a coffin, in defiance of the remonstrances of the neighbors and a
clergyman.




[Illustration]


                      Comparative Size of Animals.


This engraving represents several well-known animals, and exhibits them
in just proportion to one another. The elephant is the largest, and the
rat is the smallest, in the picture. The camelopard, or giraffe, is the
tallest--for while the elephant is only about nine or ten feet high,
the giraffe is seventeen.

It is well to be able to carry in the memory an accurate idea of the
comparative size of quadrupeds; and, therefore, I ask my young reader
to run over the picture with me. The elephant, with his curling trunk
and long tusks, takes the lead; and he is six times as large as a
horse. Next comes the rhinoceros, with a horn on his nose, and a skin
that makes him look as if he had a harness on.

Next comes the hippopotamus--a fellow that loves the mud--and a stupid
creature he seems to be. Then comes the tall giraffe, with ears
resembling horns, and standing up very straight for a four-legged
creature. The horse, one of the most graceful of animals, is next. Then
comes the lion--then the tiger--then the stag--then the sheep--then
the deer--then the antelope--then the wolf--then the dog--then the
jackal--then the fox--then the wild-cat--then the rabbit--then, last
and least, the rat.




                          Merry’s Adventures.


                             CHAPTER XVIII.


We are told that the wandering Arabs, after the day’s march over the
desert which they love to inhabit, gather in groups at night and amuse
each other by telling tales. It always seemed to me that a story
under these circumstances would be more interesting than if told in
the house, by the quiet fireside; for the feelings and fancy are apt
to be excited when there is nothing but the heavens above us and the
wide landscape around us. Certain I am that Mat Olmsted’s story of the
Chippewa Chief and his bride Meena, seemed far more interesting from
the fact that it was related in the woods, by the side of a watch-fire.
It must be understood that my friend was no scholar; and, though I have
mended his language as to the grammar, I have not added to its point
or significance. His Yankee phrases and tone gave additional force to
his narrative; and, owing to this and the circumstances under which he
told his tale, it made such an impression on my mind, that I remember
it better than anything else which has lain so long in memory.

I slept pretty well during the night, though I waked up several times,
and saw Mat with one eye open, at my side. Feeling that I had a
faithful sentinel to keep guard, I fell back into my repose. The sun
rose at last. It was a beautiful frosty morning, and the black and
gray squirrels were enlivening the woods with their merry gambols. I
should gladly have stayed in the place for a long time, and really
began to feel that I should like to turn Indian and make the forest my
dwelling-place. But this was momentary: we soon began our march, and
entering the high road, proceeded on our way to Albany.

I have not time or space to tell all the little adventures we met
with--all the good jokes Mat uttered, or the smart speeches he made.
I must hurry on in my story, for I am afraid that, if I do not, my
readers will think it like the old woman’s stocking--the more she knit,
the further she got from the end of it.

We reached Albany in a few days, and finding a sloop about departing
for New York, we concluded to take passage in her and go to that city.
This was a little out of our way, but we did not mind that. The captain
of the vessel was a Dutchman, and his name was Dyke. He was a short,
stout, broad-shouldered man, and his pantaloons were made somewhat like
petticoats hitched up between his legs. He had a pipe in his mouth
nearly the whole time; and such clouds of smoke as he did send forth!
Puff, puff, puff! Mat Olmsted called him Captain Volcano, more than
half the time. However, he was a good sailor, and he managed the sloop
very well.

Beside Mat and myself, there was a young man on board, who had been
collecting furs from the Indians, and was now proceeding to sell them
at New York. He was a pleasant fellow, and such lots of stories as
he and Mat and the Dutch captain told, I never heard before. I could
fill a book with them; but I shall only give a sample from each of the
narrators.

One moonlight evening, as we were gliding down the Hudson river, its
broad bosom seeming like a sea of silver, we were all seated on the
deck of the vessel, the captain, as usual, puffing at his pipe as if he
was carrying on a manufactory of clouds, and was paid by the hogshead.
For some time there was a dead silence; when at last the captain took
his pipe from his mouth, and gravely remarked that his father was the
bravest man that ever lived.

“How so?” says Matthew.

“Look there,” said Captain Dyke, pointing to a little island in the
river, which we were then passing. “That island,” he continued, “was
once the resort of Captain Kid, the famous pirate, who had a fine
ship in which he sailed over the world, and, robbing every vessel he
met of its money, collected a vast deal of gold and silver. After a
long voyage, he used to sail up this river and bury his money on this
island. When I was a boy, there was a hut still standing there, which
was said to have been built by Kid himself.

“There were a great many wild stories told about this hut; for it was
said that the captain and his crew used to hold their revels there.
Long after the famous freebooter was hung, and his companions were
dead, it was maintained that strange noises were heard in the hut, and
several persons who had peeped in at night declared that they had seen
Kid there in the midst of his jolly sailors, all of them drinking,
singing, and telling wild tales of the sea.

“Now my father, as I said, was a brave man, and he offered to sleep in
the hut one night for a bottle of brandy. This banter was accepted, and
my father was put over to the island in a boat and left to himself. He
had taken care to have the bottle of brandy with him. He repaired to
the hut, and sat himself down upon a sailor’s chest which chanced to be
there.

“There was no furniture in the room, save a rough table which stood in
the centre, and an old-fashioned high-backed chair. My father placed
the bottle on the table, and which, by the way, was one of your deep
craft, with a long neck, and holding somewhere about half a gallon.

“After sitting nearly an hour upon the chest, all the while looking
at the bottle, which glimmered in the moonlight that stole between
the rafters of the hut, my father laid himself down on the floor and
tried to go to sleep. He had not lain long, however, before the bottle
slid gently off the table, and then began to lengthen, till it grew
up as tall as a woman. Pretty soon it assumed the shape of one of my
father’s sweethearts, and beckoned to him to come and kiss her! With
this request he complied, of course, and then they fell to dancing in a
very merry style. As they were whirling round and round, the old chair
began to bob about, and at the same moment the rickety table rocked to
and fro, then whirled round and performed a pirouette upon one of its
legs. A moment after, these two joined hand in hand with my father and
his sweetheart, and round and round they flew. Everything went on like
a regular cotillon. It was back to back, cross over, right and left,
chassez, and balance to partners! My father was in great spirits, and
he performed the double shuffle to admiration. The old table did the
same, the high-backed chair followed, and Miss Bottle beat them all.
Such pigeon-wings as she executed never were seen before! The whole
party caught the spirit of the moment, and it now seemed to be a strife
to see which would surpass the rest in feats of grace and agility.

“My father had seen many a frolic, but never such a one as that;
and, what was remarkable, the dance seemed constantly to increase in
quickness and merriment. The top of the table looked like the jolly
face of a Dutchman, the mouth stretched wide, and the eyes goggling
with laughter. The old chair seemed to nod and wink with elvish mirth;
and the maiden, who all the time appeared to have a queer resemblance
to a bottle, frisked and flirted the gayest of the party. On went
the dance, until my father was entirely out of breath; but there
was no cessation to the sport. There seemed to be an old fiddler
standing in one corner, but nothing save two eyes and his elbow were
distinctly visible. The latter flew more rapidly every moment, the
music quickened; and the dancers kept time. For seven hours my father
performed his part in the dance, until, at last, he reeled, and,
falling forward, knocked the table, the chair, and the bottle all into
a heap. The vision immediately vanished, and soon after there was a
rapping at the door. The people had come over to the island, for it was
now morning. They found my father in a swoon, lying across the table,
the chair crushed, and the bottle broken in a hundred fragments, which
lay scattered on the floor.”

“A strange story that,” says Matthew, as the Dutchman paused; “but I
wish to ask one question. Was there any liquor upon the floor where the
bottle was broken?”

“Not a drop,” said the Dutchman; “and that’s a good proof that old
Nick himself was there to drink the liquor.”

“No, no,” said Matthew, significantly; “it only proves that your
father kissed Miss Bottle a little too often; so he got drunk and had
the nightmare, and all this scene was a vision of his brain! This
proves that your father could drink two quarts of brandy in a single
night. I had an uncle who performed a greater feat than that in the
revolutionary war, for he captured a British officer with a sausage!”

“Indeed!” said the captain and the fur-trader both at once; “let us
hear the story.”

“Well,” said Matthew; “it happened thus. At one time during the war, as
you all know, Washington was situated with his little army at Tappan,
near the North river, while Sir Harry Clinton, the British commander,
with his troops, were at New York. The space between the two armies
was called the Neutral Ground, and it was chiefly occupied by a set of
people called Cow-boys. These fellows went back and forth, trading with
both parties, and cheating everybody, as they could get a chance.

“Now my uncle, whose name was Darby, was a Cow-boy by profession, but
he was a patriot in disguise, as you shall hear. One cold winter’s
night he was trudging along over the road with a bag of sausages on his
back, going to sell them to General Putnam, whose quarters were at the
distance of three or four miles. As he was walking along over a lonely
part of the road, it being a little after sunset and already growing
dark, he heard a horse’s gallop at no great distance. He was at the
bottom of a hill, and in the midst of a thick wood. Looking to the top
of the hill, he saw a man on horseback, who now began gently to come
down the descent. My uncle was not only made for a patriot, but also
for a great general. Believing that the man on horseback was a British
officer, the idea suddenly entered his head that he would capture him,
if it should appear that he was unarmed. Accordingly, he thrust his
hand hastily into his wallet, took out one of the frozen sausages,
crooked it in the shape of a pistol, and stood still in the middle of
the road. The stranger soon approached, and my uncle Darby called out,
‘Who goes there?’ ‘You must first tell me who you are!’ said the person
on horseback. ‘That’s as we can agree,’ said my uncle; ‘for it takes
two to make a bargain in these parts.’ All this time, he was looking
very sharp to see if the man had any weapons about him, and perceiving
that he was unarmed, he sprang upon him like a tiger, seized the horse
by the bridle, and thrust the muzzle of the seeming pistol in the face
of the rider.

“‘Dismount, or I’ll blow your brains out!’ said Darby. My uncle had a
voice of thunder, and the astonished traveller expected every moment
to be shot through the body. It was no time for parley; so the man
dismounted, and my uncle, putting his foot in the stirrup, sprung to
the saddle in an instant. ‘Now,’ said he, ‘my pretty fellow, you must
go and see old Put. To the right about face, forward, march!’ The man
hesitated, but my uncle pretended to cock his pistol, and pointed it at
the man’s breast. This settled the question, and the poor fellow began
doggedly to ascend the hill. Following him close behind, and keeping
his weapon in a threatening attitude, he conducted the man along the
road, and in the space of about an hour ushered him into the presence
of General Putnam. On examination, he proved to be a British sergeant,
who was out upon a frolic, and, wishing to pass as an American, had
left his weapons behind. The story made a vast deal of fun in the camp,
and my uncle acquired great renown for his exploit. But patriotism
is often rewarded with ingratitude. My uncle received the sergeant’s
horse, it is true, as a recompense, but he was called ‘_Sassage Darby_’
during the remainder of his life.”

When Matthew had done, the captain turned to the fur-trader, and said,
“We have each of us told our story; it is now your turn to tell one.”
“Well,” said the young man in reply; “you have related an adventure of
your father; our friend Matthew has told one of his uncle; I will now
relate one of myself.”

“When I was a boy, I read Robinson Crusoe, and so I had a great fancy
for going to sea. Nothing would do, but I must be a sailor. My father
and mother were both opposed to it; and, finding it impossible to
obtain their consent, I resolved to run away. Getting together a little
money, I packed up my clothes, and one night set off for New London in
Connecticut, a distance of about twenty miles from where I lived. I
there entered on board a schooner bound for Boston, which sailed the
next day. There were but five persons on board,--the captain, his two
sons, one sixteen and the other seventeen years old,--an old sailor,
and myself.

“It was the beginning of winter, but the weather was uncommonly fine,
and in a short time we were out upon the sea. We scudded along with
a light wind for a couple of days, when there was a sudden change of
weather. It first blew from the southeast, and rained smartly. I was
a little sea-sick, but still able to keep upon the deck. The storm
increased, and the wind shifting to the northeast, it began to snow.
At the same time it grew cold, and in a very short space everything
about the vessel was sheeted with ice and snow. She became perfectly
unmanageable, and was now drifting before the gale towards the island
of Nantucket, which was at our lee. We put out our anchor, but it was
not of sufficient length to reach the bottom.

“Believing that she must inevitably go ashore, the captain loosed his
boat, and getting into it himself, directed us to follow him. His
two sons obeyed; but the old sailor, conceiving that the boat must
be swamped in the raging sea, chose to continue in the vessel and
persuaded me to remain with him. The captain departed, and proceeded
toward the shore. But it was now evening, and we soon lost sight of him.

“We continued to drift along for a couple of hours, when the anchor
suddenly took effect, and we rode out the night in safety. In the
morning, the storm had abated, but everything was so covered with ice
that it was impossible for us to get up a sail. In this condition we
remained for four days, when a spell of milder weather set in, and we
were able to get the little schooner under way. In about a week we
reached Boston, where we learned the fate of the captain and his two
sons. He reached the shore in safety, but at the distance of nearly
three miles from any house. Both of his sons were chilled with the
intense cold, and the younger was in a short time unable to walk.
Yielding to his fate, the poor fellow lay down upon the beach and
begged his father to leave him to die, as the only means of saving his
own life and that of his brother. The father would not listen to this.
So he took the young man upon his back, and proceeded on his way. He
had not gone more than half a mile, when the elder son sunk to the
earth, incapable of proceeding farther.

“The storm still continued to rage, and for a moment the old man gave
way to despair; but soon recovering, he set forward, with the younger
son upon his back. Having proceeded a quarter of a mile, he laid him
down upon the beach, and returned to the elder boy, whom he found
almost in a state of insensibility. Taking him upon his shoulders,
he carried him to the spot where he had left his younger son. What
was his agony to discover that the boy was cold and lifeless! He now
proceeded with the one upon his back, but in a short time his foot
faltered, and he fell to the earth. There was no way, but to leave
his children, and reach the house, if possible, for aid. Faint and
exhausted, he proceeded with a staggering step, and when at last he
reached the house, his mind was so bewildered, that he could scarcely
tell his piteous tale. He said enough, however, to give the people some
intimation of the truth, and two men immediately set out to scour the
beach. They were not long in discovering the bodies of the two boys,
who were covered with the spray of the sea, thickly frozen to their
garments. Everything was done for them that kindness could suggest, and
all had the happiness of soon discovering signs of life. Gradually,
both recovered, and the anguish of the father gave way to joy. In
four days they were all able to leave the place, and soon after our
arrival with the little schooner they came on board. I had, however,
seen enough of the sea, and resolved in my heart never to trust myself
upon its treacherous bosom again. I made my way back to my home; and,
thoroughly penitent for my disobedience, resolved never again to
disobey my parents; for during the storm, and especially that fearful
night when the old sailor and myself were alone in the vessel, the
thought of my misconduct weighed heavily upon my heart, and took away
from me the power of providing against the danger that beset me.”

As the young man finished his story, the captain puffed forth an
enormous quantity of smoke, and the rest of our party retired to bed!




[Illustration]


                    Misitra and the Ancient Sparta.


Misitra is a considerable town in Greece, and situated in the province
of Laconia. It occupies the slope of a hill, and, as you approach
it, has an imposing aspect. You would think it a very large and
splendid capital; but as you enter it, the illusion vanishes, and you
find yourself in narrow, winding, and dirty streets, where no fine
buildings, ancient or modern, meet the eye.

At the distance of a few miles are the ruins of ancient Sparta, the
capital of the Lacedemonians, a brave, stern, warlike people, who
adopted the laws of Lycurgus, and formed a great contrast to the gay,
polished, fickle Athenians. But, alas! no monuments of the Spartans
remain on the site of their ancient capital, and the place is only
marked by the remains of Roman edifices, erected after the Spartans
were subjected to the Roman yoke!




                            Absence of Mind.


The following cases of absence of mind are furnished by the newspapers:

A short time since, a person engaged a butcher to come the next morning
and kill a hog for him. The butcher told him to have the water boiled
early, and he would attend. In the morning he came, asked if the water
was boiled, and being answered affirmatively, killed the hog, and
brought him to his scalding position. He then ordered the good man of
the house to bring out the water, which he did by bringing out cold
water. This surprised the butcher.

“Where,” said he, “is your boiling water?”

“Why, here!--Molly and I _boiled it last night_! Oh, now I know!--you
can’t scald hogs without the water is hot!”

Exit the man of the knife, in a rage!--_N. O. Pic._

       *       *       *       *       *

On Sunday morning, between the hours of one and two o’clock, as
Inspector Donnigan, of the police, was going his rounds, he observed a
man, stripped to his shirt, standing in a short, narrow, and uncovered
passage in Denmark street, London. On approaching him, and asking what
he was doing there, the man replied that he was getting into bed; and
at the time he shook from head to foot with the cold, which was very
intense.

Donnigan asked him if he was aware he was in the street. He replied
he was not, and that he fancied he was by his bed-side, and said his
clothes were somewhere about. The officer, after searching for some
time, discovered an excellent suit of clothes and a silk cravat on
the sill of a window about thirty yards off, with shoes and stockings
underneath, and a hat close by.

The cold had by this time brought the man to his perfect senses, and,
by the advice of the inspector, he put on his clothes, and, thanking
him for his attention, proceeded homewards!

A few years ago, Inspector Norman, belonging to the same division,
while going his rounds, had his attention directed to some wagons which
were placed in Black Lion-yard, Whitechapel, by a loud snoring.

He procured a light, and on proceeding to the spot, he found an Irish
gentleman fast asleep between the shafts of a wagon, with his clothes
off to his shirt, and apparently as comfortable as if reposing on a bed
of down. His clothes were carefully placed over one of the shafts, and
on the top of them rested his pocket-book, containing nearly £800 in
bank notes, and in his trowsers pockets a quantity of gold and silver,
beside a valuable gold watch, &c. He was at once aroused and taken
care of, and the preservation of his property was considered almost
miraculous, as, in the immediate neighborhood in which he was found,
were located some of the most expert thieves in Europe.--_London paper._




                             The Star Fish.


Did you ever stand on the rocky shore of the sea and notice the star
fishes that come floating along? Many of them appear like pieces of
jelly, drifting with the tide, without life, and without the power
of motion. But they are all capable of moving from place to place,
and shoot out their arms in every direction. Some of them have five
rays, as in the picture; this kind are called _five-fingered Jack_.
These star fishes have very ravenous appetites, and are very expert in
gratifying them. They grasp prawns, shrimps, worms, and insects that
come in their way; and, soft and pulpy as they seem, woe to the poor
creature that they get hold of! One thing is very curious, and that
is that they devour shells of considerable size, which are crushed to
pieces in their stomachs!

[Illustration]

Not only are the star fishes of different forms, but they are of
different hues also: some are striped, some are red, and some green. In
fine weather, they are seen in the water, spread out, fishing for their
meal. Some have long, fibrous arms, which stretch forth to a distance,
and with them they pull in their prey. If you take one of those
creatures and put him on the shore, he becomes a mass of offensive
liquid, like water, in about twenty-four hours.

[Illustration]

This picture represents one of these curious creatures, called
_Medusa_. The kinds, as I have said, are numerous, and in some seas
they are found in myriads. The most curious property of these strange
fishes is, that they give out a light at night, which often makes the
waves very brilliant. If you ever go to sea, you will notice this light
in the track of the vessel, almost seeming as if the water were on fire.




                           WHERE IS THY HOME?

   “Where is thy home, thou lonely man?”
      I asked a pilgrim gray,
    Who came, with furrowed brow, and wan,
      Slow musing on his way.
    He paused, and with a solemn mien,
      Upturned his holy eyes,--
    “The land I seek thou ne’er hast seen,--
      _My_ home is in the skies!”
    O! blest--thrice blest! the heart must be
      To whom such thoughts are given,
    That walks from worldly fetters free,--
      Its only home in heaven!




[Illustration]


                               Sea-Weed.


Every portion of the earth seems covered with vegetation, except now
and then some sandy desert. Even the rocks are covered with mosses;
and we have heard of little red plants, that take root so thickly in
snow-flakes, as to make a fall of snow seem like a shower of blood.

The bottom of the sea, too, is sown with myriads of plants. These are
of many forms and many hues, but mostly of a green color: it is owing
to the plants beneath the surface that the sea has such a verdant
tinge. In some tropical portions of the sea, the marine plants are so
thick as to obstruct the passage of ships; and some species are said to
grow seven hundred feet in length!




                  Inquisitive Jack and his Aunt Piper.


There was once a little boy who had neither father nor mother, but he
had an excellent aunt, and she supplied the place of parents. Her name
was Piper, and a very good woman she was. The boy’s name was John;
but, as he was always asking questions, he at length got the name of
Inquisitive Jack.

He was perpetually teasing his aunt to tell him about the sun, or the
moon,--to explain to him why the fire burned, or where the rain came
from, or something else of the kind. His aunt, being unmarried, and
having little else to do, used to sit down for hours together, and
answer little Jack’s inquiries.

One winter’s day, they were sitting by a pleasant fire, and Jack had
been reading in a book of poetry. After a while, he laid down the book,
and asked his aunt why some things were told in poetry and some in
prose. To this the good lady replied as follows.

“I must tell you, in the first place, my boy, that prose is the
language of common speech, such as I am now talking to you. But there
are certain thoughts and feelings that are too fine and beautiful for
prose. If these were expressed in a common way, their beauty would be
lost. I will try to make you understand this by a story.

“There were once some flowers growing in a garden, but they were mixed
with other plants, such as peas, beans, potatoes, beets, and other
things. These had, therefore, a common appearance, and no one noticed
their beauty.

“At length, the gardener took up these flowers, and set them out in
a nice bed of earth, which he had prepared for them. This situation
permitted their bright colors and fair forms to be seen, and they
therefore attracted the attention of every person who passed by.

“Everybody admired them; and those who overlooked them as common things
when planted in a kitchen garden, were ready to acknowledge their
beauty, and praise their fragrance, when they were flourishing in a
flower-garden.

“Thus you perceive that I compare fine thoughts to flowers; however
beautiful they may be, they would strike us less, and please us
less, if they were presented in a common way. They want a situation
appropriate to them, and then we shall perceive and feel their full
beauty.

“Poetry, then, consists of beautiful thoughts in beautiful language,
and may be compared to a bed of flowers, with graceful forms, bright
colors, and sweet fragrance. Prose consists of common thoughts,
expressed in common language, and may be compared to a garden filled
with things that are useful rather than beautiful, such as beets,
potatoes, and cabbages.”--_Second Reader._




                      A word to my Correspondents.


I beg my young friends who favor me with their letters to understand
that I receive them with great pleasure, even though I do not find an
opportunity to put them all in print. I give my thanks to Christopher
Columbus; to J. A. H----, of Medford, and others, who have taken into
their heads to send me puzzles; but as I have given a great supply of
these the last month, I must pass them by, at least for the present.

The following letter contains a suggestion that I shall certainly
comply with. The idea is a very good one.

     MR. ROBERT MERRY:

     I have just learned to read, and I wish you would put some
     little stories in your Museum, such as I can understand.
     My sister Jane reads it, and she likes it very much, but
     it has too many long words for me. Won’t you put in two or
     three pages for me, every month? I shall then like you very
     much.
                                                 LUCY A----.


                                    _Washington, March 23, 1842._
     DEAR MR. MERRY:

     My mother has just commenced taking your Magazine for me,
     and I like it _very much_. The March number was very long
     in coming, but when it did come it was very interesting.
     Every number that I get, I always look for Philip Brusque
     and the Siberian Sable-Hunter. I was glad to find them both
     in this number. I hope that the story of Philip Brusque
     will not long be discontinued, it is so interesting. The
     puzzles, with some help, I found out; and I set my wits to
     work and made one. Perhaps you will think it worth putting
     in the Museum; so here it is. I am composed of 14 letters.
     My 4th, 5th, 1st, 2d, is an article much used in winter.
     My 11th, 1st, 13th, 14th, 8th, an ancient poet. My 6th,
     7th, 10th, 11th, 8th, the worst of passions. My 3d, 6th,
     10th, 12th, a celebrated authoress. My 9th, 3d, 1st, 6th, a
     purifier. My whole, our nation’s scourge.

                                  ANOTHER BLACK-EYED FRIEND.


     MR. ROBERT MERRY:

     The following puzzle is from three subscribers for Merry’s
     Museum for 1842, and it will oblige them to see it in the
     May number.
                                                    H. T. C.
                                                    E. J. S.
                                                    J. W. C.

                      I am a word of 13 letters.

     My 3d, 12th, 13th, 5th, 12th, and 9th, is the name of one of
        the ex-presidents of the United States.
     My 1st, 8th, 13th, and 9th, is a name common with the female
        sex.
     My 4th, 5th, 12th, and 13th, is the name of a metal.
     My 7th, 9th, 6th, and 2d, is the name of another.
     My 11th, 10th, 9th, and 2d, is a common thing with boys in
        winter.
     My 6th, 4th, and 5th, is one of the elements.
     My whole is the name of a great warrior.

I am quite pleased with the following, and should be happy to hear from
Bertha very often.


                                CHARADE.

     My first’s the end of him whose wife
     Was turned one day to salt;
     And doubtless, if the truth must out,
     My fourth’s the end of malt.
     My second, if you will believe it,
     Essential is to rest;
     My third,--and you can well conceive it,--
     Is that which you love best.
     My fifth--my last--’tis found in heaven--
     ’Tis found, alas! in hell;
     And though not in an oyster met,
     It lives in every shell.
     Already hath my humble name
     In these brief lines been set;
     But modest merit’s overlooked,
     And you don’t see me yet!
     I am the greatest earthly good,--
     The only path to glory,--
     Come, gentle reader, guess my name,
     And keep me e’er before thee!--BERTHA.

The letter from J. A. is very gratifying, so I give it an insertion.


                               _Petersburgh, Va., March 2, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     I have just begun to take your Museum, and I like it very
     much. I think you tell stories very much as Peter Parley
     did. I like Parley’s books so much that I called my little
     dog Peter Parley. He died some time ago, and now I am going
     to get another, and I intend to call it Robert Merry. I
     hope you won’t be offended at this, for we always call dogs
     after famous people. I think the best of your stories is
     the Sable-Hunter, but I really wish you would go on with it
     a little faster.
                                                JAMES A----.

The following is inserted, not because it is a very famous specimen of
poetry but because it is written by quite a young person, and shows a
very tender feeling

                           ON A DEAD RABBIT.

    Once upon a time,
    When I was in my prime,
    I had a rabbit white as milk,
    And its hair was soft as silk.

    One morn I went to feed it,--
    There was no rabbit there--
    And long I hunted after it,
    Looking everywhere.

    One day, when I was wandering,
    Something met my eye,
    It was my little rabbit,
    Hung on a tree close by.

    But oh! I can’t relate it--
    That pretty one was dead;
    And sadly did I bury it,
    In a lonely, narrow bed!




                    “FAR AWAY”--THE BLUEBIRD’S SONG.

            THE WORDS AND MUSIC COMPOSED FOR MERRY’S MUSEUM.

[Illustration: Music]

    I dwelt in climes where flowers bloom,
    And know no chill, no wintry tomb;
    A joyous land, where one might stay;
    But home, sweet home was far away--
    But home, sweet home, was far a-way.

    I sat upon the topmost bough
    At peep of dawn, as I do now,
    And tried to sing a cheerful lay--
    But no--’twas ever “far away!”

    I loved that land of fruits and flowers,
    Where spring and summer twine their bowers,
    And gentle zephyrs round them play--
    But my birth-tree was far away!

    Far north, where I was born and bred,
    My winged thoughts were ever fled;
    And, spurning joys that round me lay,
    I sighed for pleasures far away!

    Gay birds around sang many a song,
    And cheerful notes rang loud and long--
    But oh, my heart tuned every lay
    To plaintive airs of “far away!”

    The brook came laughing down the dell,
    Yet sad to me its joyous swell;
    And though its chime made others gay,
    I only thought of “far away!”

    And now, returned, how dear the hours,
    Though chill the wind and bare the bowers;
    Yet this is home; and that sad lay
    I sing no more of--“far away!”




                            MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME III.--No. 6.




[Illustration: _A lady listening to the notes of a harp._]


                         The sense of Hearing.


The sense of hearing lies in the ear, the organs of which are contrived
with admirable skill and ingenuity. The air is capable of being moved
so as to produce a rapid shaking or vibration. Such a movement of the
air is made by the explosion of a gun, by the human voice, &c. Thus
vibration of the air with the perception of it, is what we call sound.

Now at the bottom of a winding cavity in the ear is a delicate organ
called the drum, which is affected by every motion of the air, however
slight; and which, by means of nerves, conveys to the brain the
perception of such motion. It is by this means that we hear distant
as well as near sounds, and often know what is going on even beyond
the reach of sight. Hearing, then, is only perceiving vibrations or
quick motions of the air, and sound is only such vibration, with the
perception of it.

The delicacy and perfection of the mechanism of the ear are so great,
that by its power we not only are able to distinguish the vibrations
of the air, caused by the voice of one person, from those produced by
that of another, but even to distinguish the vibrations, produced by
one string of a musical instrument from those of another. It is owing
to the perfection of this mechanism that we are able to distinguish
musical notes, to judge of the distance of sounds, to discriminate
between the several songs of the orchard and the grove.

Most quadrupeds have long ears, which they can move forward and back
with great ease, so as to distinguish with quickness and accuracy
the species of sounds, and the nature and situation of the animals
or objects which produce them. If you notice a cat or dog, or even a
horse, you will observe that the ear is very active, seeking to gather
information as to what is going on around. The ears of the hare and
rabbit are peculiarly fitted to the use of such timid creatures.

We observe that children seem often inattentive to sounds, and that
they are very fond of noise. The reason is this: the bones of their
ears are soft, and therefore not sonorous; accordingly, their sense
of hearing is dull. When they appear inattentive, they do not hear;
yet the exercise of the sense is pleasant, and therefore loud noises
delight them. For this reason it is that they usually speak loud, and,
when several of them are together, they seem to be much gratified with
making an uproar.

The sense of hearing is not only of the greatest use to us in the
serious business or life, but it is the source of an infinite number of
pleasures. What gratification we sometimes enjoy at hearing the voice
of a dear friend! What enjoyment we derive from music! Beside all this,
language, which is the great vehicle of thought, is communicated by the
ear. It is true that after they are formed we commit words to paper;
but these are only signs of sounds previously formed. Without hearing
we could have no speech, and all would be dumb; without speech there
could be no writing, no books. How vastly, then, is the circle of our
knowledge and our pleasures enlarged by this sense, and how does the
goodness and the wisdom of the Creator appear in bestowing upon his
creatures such a wonderful and beneficent gift!




                            “Fresh Flowers.”


This is the pleasant title of a pleasant book, which a kind friend
has sent me. There is a resemblance between bright thoughts and
bright blossoms, between the world of poetry and the world of roses,
and honeysuckles, and lilacs, and lilies: and therefore the title of
this book is not only pretty, but appropriate. Let any one read the
following, and he will see that such a book may well bear the title of
“Fresh Flowers.”

                       A TALK AMONG THE FLOWERS.

   “Do flowers talk?” said Caroline;
                  “I never hear
                   Voices from mine.
    Mamma, you said the flowers told
    Wondrous things, both new and old.”

    “Sweet voices come from every flower,
                   That blooms in garden,
                   Wood or bower;
    Sweet, silent voices, Caroline:
    Come then and listen, daughter mine.”

   “I will to you a story tell,
                   And you must mind
                   The moral well;
    ’T will teach you a bright lesson, child,
    From garden flowers, and blossoms wild.”


Not far from the borders of a dark wood, was a bright and
cheerful-looking garden. Flowers were there, of every hue and form,
growing and rejoicing beneath the beams of the summer’s sun.

“Ah, how happy we are!” said the marigold to the larkspur.

“Here we bloom and soar upward almost to the very sun,” said a family
of sun-flowers.

“Yes, and climb as high as the sky,” cried a convolvolus and jasmine,
who had wound themselves round a tall princess-feather.

“How brilliant and stately we are,” said the proud dahlia. “We are
admired far more than those pale flowers that grow in yonder wood.”

“I pity the poor faded things,” whispered a bright coreopsis.

“I look down upon them,” said a fierce tiger-lily.

“The sun loves the garden flowers best,” said a pansy of great beauty,
to some sweet mignionette; “let us be glad that our home is in this
bright place.”

“I will ring a peal for very happiness,” replied a gay Canterbury bell;
“for how could we exist in the gloom of that forest?”

“Let us be merry and glad that we are not wood flowers,” shouted they
all, with a musical laugh that rung through the wood and made the
wild-flowers, wonder.

A bright golden-rod, that grew on the edge of the forest, with his
friend the aster, heard this conversation, and felt the injustice of
it. Gracefully bowing his yellow plumes, he exclaimed, “Indeed, you do
not know us; our life is the happiest in the world. In the deep woods,
sheltered from the storm and heat, by the towering trees that soar
above us like guardian angels, we live in peace and beauty. The sun
does not always bathe us in a flood of light as he does the garden
flowers, but he darts his beams through green boughs, and they come to
us in tenfold beauty, scattered in a golden shower; and in the still
night, the stars look down between the tops of the tall trees, and gaze
silently and lovingly upon us.”

The wood flowers heard the silvery tones of the golden-rod with glee,
as he recounted their blessed sources of delight.

“We have music too,” said he, “such as never floats through garden
airs. We listen to the wind, as it sighs through the pines, and waves
the bowery branches of the oak and maple; for each tree is a separate
harp, that gives forth its own sweet melodies.”

Then all the flowers that grew by the brook said, “Hear the music of
the waters, as they dash along over the rocks, and look on them as they
reflect the sunlight upon us, and make us bright and beautiful.”

And the little mosses called out from the shades, “O let us always grow
in the greenwood, and live in its shadows, and delight in its sweet
voices.”

Then the ferns waved joyfully, and the clematis clung round the elder
in a close embrace; and they blessed themselves that they lived amid
the lights and shades of the forest.

Then spoke the “lilies of the field” to the little blue-eyed grass,
that was looking up into the sky: “How merry are we in the meadows,
where grows all that is greenest and freshest. Happiness pervades and
fills the universe. It is above us with the birds and the clouds,
around us with every flower and green leaf and blade of grass. Let man
take a lesson from our kingdom and be wise; for all here are _happiest_
in the place allotted to them by their Creator.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The following contains a very beautiful thought, and it is expressed
with a simplicity that reminds us of Dr. Watts’ songs for children.

                        GOOD NIGHT, LITTLE STAR.

    Good night, little star;
    I will go to my bed,
    And leave you to burn,
    While I lay down my head
    On my pillow to sleep,
    Till the morning light;
    Then you will be fading,
    And I shall be bright.

We make one more quotation, and take leave of this little book,
recommending it to all our young readers, who will find it at all the
bookstores.

                     WHAT IS IT MAKES ME HAPPIEST?

    What is it makes me happiest?
      Is it my last new play?
    Is it my bounding ball, or hoop
      I follow every day?

    Is it my puzzles or my blocks?
      My pleasant _solitaire_?
    My dolls, my kitten, or my books,
      My flowers fresh and fair?

    What is it makes me happiest?
      It is not one of these;
    Yet they are treasures dear to me,
      And never fail to please.

    O, it is looks and tones of love,
      From those I love the best,
    That follow me _when I do right_;
      These make me happiest!




[Illustration]


                                 June.


June is the first of the summer months, and it is, in our climate, the
brightest and pleasantest of the year. The poet Thomson describes it as
the season when

    ------------------Heaven descends
    In universal bounty, shedding herbs,
    And fruits, and flowers in Nature’s ample lap.

It is said that Juno, the goddess, who was wife of Jupiter, in the
fantastic religion of the ancients, claimed June as her month, and it
is said, therefore, to have been named after her. Now, though the story
of Jupiter and Juno is mainly a fiction, there is perhaps some truth
in it. Very likely some old king had a headstrong wife, who tormented
him very much. After many years, the poets began to write verses about
them, and called one a god and the other a goddess. Thus, no doubt, it
was, that the people learnt to believe in them as divine beings. Still,
according to all accounts, Juno was a pretty selfish kind of a person,
and it is very likely that, if she took a notion to have a month, or a
year, to herself, she would have teased Jupiter till he had given it
to her. Thus it may seem very likely that June is named after Juno, as
being her month.

But there is another story about the name of this favorite month. Some
writers say that it comes from a Latin word, _junioribus_, as if it was
the month of the young. Whether this was the origin of the name or not,
we believe it is the favorite season of children. The two girls, and
even the little dog, at the beginning of this article, seem to think
that everything is made for them--the sunshine, the green grass, the
blushing flowers. How happy is that period of life, when everything
gives pleasure! How happy is childhood, the June of life, when the
heart is as bright as the season, and the mind as full of flowers as
the meadow. Sweet June--blest childhood--farewell!




[Illustration: _Mexicans of the present day._]


   Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c., of the Indians of America.


                             CHAPTER XVII.

    _Personal appearance of the Mexicans.--Dress.--Houses.--Floating
       gardens.--Hunting.--Commerce.--Music and  dancing.--Games.--
       Painting._


In appearance the Mexican Indians much resemble the other aborigines
of America. They are tall and well made, with bright black eyes, high
cheek-bones, and thick, coarse, black hair, which they commonly wear
long. Their skin is of an olive color. They are very active, but not so
strong as most Europeans; so that, whenever the Spaniards attempted to
run a race with them, they were sure to be beaten; but in wrestling,
they were generally the victors.

The Mexicans are, by nature, of a silent and serious disposition, and
seldom allow their emotions to appear in their countenances; while as
a nation they are cruel in their wars and their punishments, and very
superstitious in matters of religion. They are extremely generous, but
do not always appear grateful for favors. According to some, the reason
of their apparent want of gratitude is this: the Indians say, “If you
give me this, it is because you have no need of it yourself; and as
for me, I never part with that which I think is necessary to me.” This
also accounts for their great liberality; for, as their wants are few,
and they never think of hoarding, they can always give away everything
they receive, without feeling as though they conferred a favor.

We have said before, that, at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards,
the Mexican nation was the most civilized of all in North America.
They had large cities, splendid temples, fine statues and paintings, a
regular government, and a method of writing by pictures. Indeed, they
were nearly equal to the Chinese of the present day, whom they much
resembled. Since the conquest, they have altered greatly, and not much
for the better. They have lost many arts which they once possessed, and
as they have been taught few others to supply their place, they must be
sunk in the grossest ignorance. We intend to give a short account of
them as they were before the Spanish invasion.

[Illustration]

The dress of the Mexicans was very simple. The men wore commonly only
a large girdle or zone tied about their middle, and a cloak or mantle
fastened round the shoulders. The women wore a square piece of cloth,
which was wrapped around them, and descended to the middle of the
leg. Over this, they wore a short gown, or vest, without sleeves. The
cloth used by the rich was made of the finest cotton, embroidered with
figures of animals or flowers.

The Mexicans were very fond of finery, and took great delight
in adorning their persons with jewels and other ornaments. They
wore ear-rings, pendants at the under lip, and some even in the
nose--necklaces, and bracelets for the hands and arms. Many of these
jewels were beautifully wrought of pearls, emeralds, and other precious
stones, set in gold.

The houses of the common people were mere huts, built of reeds or
unburnt bricks, and thatched with straw. They had commonly but one
room, in which the whole family, with all the animals belonging to
it, were huddled together. The dwellings of the higher classes were
built of stone and lime. They were generally of two stories, and
had many chambers. The roofs were flat, with terraces, on which the
inhabitants could enjoy the cool evening air, after the parching heat
of the day in those torrid regions. So great was the honesty of
the people, that they had no doors to their houses; but considered
themselves sufficiently secure with only a screen of reeds hung
before the entrance; and through this no one would dare to pass
without permission. The palaces of their kings were of stone, and
so magnificent, that Cortez could hardly find words to express his
admiration. One of them was so large that all his army, consisting of
several thousand men, was conveniently quartered in it.

The Mexican historians say that while the Aztecs were only an
insignificant tribe, living on the borders of the lake, having no land
to cultivate, they were obliged to take whatever fare the marshes round
the lake produced. Thus they learned to eat roots of marsh-plants,
frogs, snakes, and other reptiles, and a sort of scum which they found
floating on the water. They retained their relish for this wretched
food in the season of their greatest plenty.

[Illustration]

They made their bread of maize or Indian corn, in the following manner.
They first boiled it with a little lime, to make it soft, and then
ground it on a smooth, hollow stone. They next kneaded it up with a
little water, and made it into flat round cakes, like pancakes; these
they baked on large flat stones, as they were ignorant of the use of
iron. The bread is said to have been very palatable.

Although the Mexicans, at first, had very little land of their own to
cultivate, they discovered a very ingenious method of supplying this
want. They platted and tied together branches of willows and other
plants which are light and strong, and upon these they laid a covering
of earth about a foot deep. They thus had a little floating field,
about eight rods long and three wide, upon which they raised all kinds
of herbs, and especially flowers, of which the Mexicans were extremely
fond. Whenever the owner of the garden wished to change his situation,
either to get rid of a troublesome neighbor, or to be nearer his
family, he got into a little vessel, to which the garden was attached,
and dragged it after him to the desired spot.

The Mexicans had a method of hunting on a grand scale, which was
also practised by the Peruvians of South America. A great number of
men collected together, and formed an immense circle, enclosing some
forest in which the animals to be hunted were very numerous. They
then gradually diminished the circle, driving the animals before them
towards the centre, and taking care that none escaped through the
line. By this means, they killed vast numbers of wild beasts every year.

The commerce of Mexico was principally carried on by travelling
merchants, who journeyed from town to town, carrying their wares with
them. They commonly travelled in companies, like the caravans of the
East, for security, and each one bore in his hand a smooth black stick,
which they said was the image of their god, under whose protection they
hoped to accomplish their journey in safety. Every five days, markets
or fairs were held in all the chief cities of Mexico, to which these
travelling merchants repaired from all parts of the kingdom, to sell or
exchange their merchandise. For money, they used the chocolate berry,
which they put up in small sacks, and, for greater purchases, gold dust
enclosed in quills.

[Illustration]

The musical instruments of the Mexicans were few and simple. They had
a drum, made very much like those used by us in our armies, but much
longer. It was set up on end, on the ground, and beat with the fingers.
Much art and practice were required to play upon it properly. They had
also another long, round instrument, made entirely of wood, and hollow
within. It had two small slits made on one side, between which the
player struck with two drum-sticks. It gave a deep, melancholy sound,
like those of our bass drums.

The Mexicans had several dances, which they used on different
occasions; some of them were very graceful and pleasing. But the
grand dance, which was performed on all occasions of great national
festivity, was the most singular. They placed the musicians in the
centre; the aged nobles were in a circle around them, in single file;
by the side of these was placed another circle of the younger nobles,
and next others of lower rank. They then began to dance in a circle,
those near the centre very slowly, but those who were on the outside
very fast, because they were obliged to keep up with those within. The
music now struck up a livelier tune, the singing became more animated
and joyful, and the dancers whirled in a swifter round. The outermost
circle moved so rapidly that they hardly seemed to touch the ground.
Thus they continued, until they were exhausted by their efforts, when a
new set of dancers took their places. It is related that, while Cortez
was absent from the city after his first entry, the nobles of the
court, asked permission from Alverado, whom he had left in his place,
to amuse their captive monarch by performing before him with this
dance. This was granted. The nobles dressed themselves in the richest
ornaments and began the dance; but when they were thoroughly wearied by
the motion, the treacherous Spaniards, unable to resist their desire
for obtaining the costly jewels of the Mexicans, suddenly fell upon
them, and massacred them all. This barbarous act was the cause of the
subsequent misfortunes of the Spaniards; for the natives, driven to
fury by the loss of their beloved chiefs, rose upon their murderers,
and expelled them from the city, as we have before related.

The greatest and most celebrated of all the Mexican games was that
called the Flyers. They first sought out the loftiest tree in the
forest, stripped it of its branches and bark, and set it up in some
public square. On the top they fixed a sort of movable cap or cylinder,
from which hung a square frame, made of four planks. Between the cap
and frame they fastened four strong ropes, long enough to reach to the
ground, passing through four holes in the planks. These ropes they
twisted round the tree, until their ends were nearly up to the frame.
Four men, who were called the flyers, disguised like eagles, herons,
and other birds, ascended the tree by means of a rope which was laced
about it from top to bottom, and took hold of the ends of the rope. The
force with which they swung off from the frame caused it to turn round,
and as it turned, the ropes which were twisted around the tree began to
unroll, and of course became longer at every revolution. All this time
the wooden cap continued to turn round, being fastened to the frame;
but, nevertheless, a man kept dancing upon it, waving a flag or beating
a little drum, as unconcerned, as though a single false step would not
dash him to instant destruction. When the ropes were so far untwisted
that they almost reached the ground, some other actors, who had mounted
on the frame, threw themselves off, and slid down along the ropes to
the earth, amid the applause of the spectators.

The Mexicans did not paint, like other nations, merely for the purpose
of preserving the form of persons or things which must soon pass away,
or of affording pleasure by the representation of the beautiful, the
grand, or the terrific. Their painting was their writing. By means of
this art they represented their history, their religious rites, their
laws, and everything which they deemed worthy of being recorded for the
instruction of their descendants. This manner of writing was, to be
sure, very imperfect, but it answered all the purposes to which it was
applied. They wrote on paper which they made of the bark or leaves of
certain plants. Had all the paintings of the Mexicans been preserved,
we should have had a complete history of the nation, from the earliest
period to the arrival of the Spaniards. But the zeal of the Catholic
priests was the cause of the destruction of almost all these valuable
records. Suspecting that they contained the idolatrous precepts of the
Mexican religion, they thought that they could best promote the cause
of the true religion by destroying all the writings of the natives.
Accordingly, they collected them with the greatest diligence, and burnt
them in the public square, to the great grief of the Mexicans.

The way in which they painted proper names was rather curious, and
showed at least some talent for punning. All Mexican names have some
meaning; and therefore they had only to paint the things which are
signified by the name, and join them to the figure of a man, or a
man’s head. Thus the name of their second king was Chimalpopora, which
means a _smoking shield_. To represent it, therefore, they painted a
shield with smoke issuing from it. In like manner, if we had to express
the name of Churchill, or Crowninshield, we should paint a church on a
hill, or a shield with a crown in the middle.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

But the Mexicans had another sort of paintings, if so they may be
called, formed entirely by means of feathers, selected from the
plumage of the most beautiful birds. The art consisted in disposing
the feathers so as to form a picture, exact in the nicest shade. They
were fastened firmly on the canvass with glue. When any work of this
sort was to be undertaken, several artists collected together, and
each took his share of the design. They labored with the utmost care
and diligence, sometimes spending a whole day in choosing and placing
properly a single feather. When all the parts were finished, they
brought them together, and united them, so as to form a picture of
wonderful beauty. The colors were brighter than any that art could
produce, and the feathers, as they were turned to the light, glittered
with surpassing splendor. It is said that Mexican artists have been
able to imitate exactly, by means of feathers, some of the best
productions of the European painters.


                             CHAPTER XVIII.

  _Religion.--Marriages and funerals.--Government.--War.--Medicine
     and surgery.--General character and probable destiny of the
     Mexican Indians._


The religion of the Mexicans was cruel, like themselves. They believed
in a vast number of gods, who presided over every part of the world.
There was the god of the air, a god of the day and night, another of
games and sports, &c. They also worshipped the sun and moon. But the
deity whom the Mexicans most venerated was Mexitli, the god of war;
their city was named after him, and in his honor the great temple, of
which we have given some account in a former chapter, was erected.
Besides this, there were a great many other temples dedicated to the
worship of their numberless deities. It is said that there were no less
than two thousand such buildings in the city of Mexico.

But the place where the worship of the gods was most cultivated, was
the city of Cholula, a few miles to the southeast of Mexico. Here was
the famous pyramid of Cholula, to which pilgrims repaired from all
parts of the empire. It was built of bricks and clay, and on the top
was a small temple, with the image of a god, and an altar on which
sacrifices were offered to him. The idol was burned by the Spaniards,
and the temple thrown down; but the pyramid still remains, though much
decayed. At a distance it looks like a little mountain.

As the gods of the Mexicans were so many in number, they must have had
a multitude of priests to perform the holy rites which were necessary
to gain their favor. There are supposed to have been no less than a
million in the whole empire. But they did not attend only to religious
duties. It was their office to educate the young, to appoint festivals,
and to take care of the picture-writings. They possessed nearly all the
learning of the nation, and composed all the painted books. The chief
priest was elected from the highest nobles, and it was necessary he
should be a man of unspotted character and great learning.

The sacrifices of the Mexicans were of the most horrible kind. The
victims which they offered were human beings. All prisoners taken in
war, criminals, and sometimes children, were sacrificed to their bloody
deities. The wretched victim was laid upon the altar, and while five
men were employed in holding him, the high priest with a sharp knife
made a deep gash in his breast, and tore out his heart, yet warm and
beating, and held it up in his bloody hand before the face of his god!
They had another method of sacrificing, equally bloody, though not so
revolting. It resembled very much the gladiatorial contests of the
Romans. Two of the bravest prisoners of war were armed with a sword
and shield, and compelled to fight on a stage in view of a crowd of
spectators. When one was slain, another was put in his place, and so
on, until the required number had been sacrificed. When any one proved
five times victorious, his life was spared, and he was declared free,
amid the applause of the spectators.

When a young man had arrived at a proper age to marry, a suitable wife
was singled out for him, and the astrologers were consulted to know
whether the match would be prosperous. If they returned a favorable
answer, the parents of the bride, after giving her a good deal of
good advice, carried her in a litter to the house of the bridegroom,
accompanied by a crowd of friends with music and torches. The parents
of the bridegroom stood at the door, ready to receive them. The couple
were seated on a beautiful mat, and were united by tying the corners of
their garments together. After this simple ceremony they were declared
husband and wife. A feast was set before the company, after which a
dance in the court-yard of the house, lively conversation, and good
wishes on the part of the guests, closed the scene.

Funerals were performed with great solemnity. When a man died, four old
men were chosen to have the direction of the funeral rites. They first
sprinkled his head with water, and then clothed the body in a dress
corresponding to his profession or character in life. If he had been a
soldier, they dressed him in the habit of _Mexitli_, the god of war;
if a merchant, in the dress of the god of merchants; if a drunkard, in
that of the god of wine; and so on. The body was then laid on a funeral
pile, and near it a jar of water for him to drink on his journey, and a
little dog to lead him. They then set fire to the pile. When the body
was consumed, they collected the ashes into a vase, into which they put
a little gem, saying that it would serve him for a heart in the next
world. They buried this vase in a deep pit, and mourned for the dead
eighty days.

The Mexicans believed that after death the souls of those that died
in battle went to the palace of the sun; a place of endless delight,
where they spent four years in the enjoyment of all the pleasures
that this glorious deity had provided for this favored class. After
this, they supposed that these happy spirits went to animate clouds,
and birds of beautiful feathers and sweet song; but thus always at
liberty to rise again to heaven or descend to the earth, carolling
songs of praise to their glorious benefactor. The souls of children,
and of those who died of wounds, went to a paradise beneath the earth,
the residence of the god of water. Here, in cool retreats they passed
their hours in calm and placid enjoyment, undisturbed by the cares and
vexations of the world. For those who died of other diseases, a place
of utter darkness was set apart. The spirits sent hither suffered no
punishment, and received no pleasure; they were as though they had
ceased to exist. With such a creed, it is no wonder that the Mexicans
became a nation of warriors.

The government of the Mexicans was a pure despotism; the power of the
monarch was absolute. When one king died, another was immediately
elected by the nobles, from the royal family, to fill his place. After
the new king had been solemnly installed, and had taken an oath to
govern according to the religion and laws of his ancestors, he made an
expedition to obtain prisoners to sacrifice at his coronation. A reign
thus barbarously commenced could not long be peaceable. In fact, the
Mexican kings were always engaged in fighting with their enemies or in
oppressing their subjects.

The laws which they made were very severe. Almost all crimes were
punished with death. Young persons who were guilty of getting drunk
were put to death; but the nobles in a much more cruel manner than the
common people; for they said the former sinned more in not setting a
good example. But old men, after they had arrived at the age of seventy
years, were allowed to drink as much as they pleased; for they said
that it was a pity to deprive them of this pleasure, when it could
do them no harm. Slanderers were punished by having a part of their
lip cut off, and sometimes also of their ears, to show the danger of
speaking or listening to evil.

We have before said that the Mexicans were a nation of warriors. They
believed that all who died in battle enjoyed the greatest happiness
hereafter, and therefore the prospect of such a death had nothing
terrible in it.

The armor which the soldiers wore to defend themselves from the weapons
of the enemy, consisted of a thick coat of cotton, which covered the
body and part of the legs and arms; a helmet or headpiece, made to
imitate the head of a tiger, in order to inspire terror into their
enemies; and a shield made of strong canes interwoven with thick cotton
threads.

[Illustration]

The weapons of attack were bows and arrows, slings, spears, and swords.
All these, except the last, were very much like those used in our
armies at the present day. The sword of the Mexicans was very different
from that used by the soldiers of our modern times.

The standards of the Mexicans were formed of gold and beautiful
feathers; each company had its particular standard, which they
preserved with great care. But the grand ensign of the empire was an
object of especial veneration; when this was lost, all hope of victory
was given up, and the soldiers threw down their arms and fled. We have
already told how Cortez took advantage of this feeling in the natives,
and thus saved his little army.

Since the people of Anahuac were so often engaged in war, it seems
natural that they should have a good knowledge of medicine and surgery.
This, however, was not the case. The remedies of their physicians
consisted mostly of a few simple medicines obtained from herbs. They
understood the art of blood-letting, and used for the purpose sharp
lancets made of a sort of flint. But their grand specific for all
kinds of sickness was the vapor-bath. It was built of unburnt bricks,
very much in the form of a dome. It was about six feet high and thirty
round. At one side was an entrance, large enough to allow a man to
enter by creeping on his hands and knees. Opposite to the entrance was
a small furnace, which was joined to the bath by a kind of soft stone,
easily heated. When a person was about to take the bath, a fire was
kindled in the furnace, by which the soft stones were made hot. Then,
taking off all his clothes except his girdle, he entered, and threw
water on the heated stones. A cloud of steam at once filled the bath,
and the patient stretched himself on a mat or cushion, which was spread
in the centre of the room, to enjoy the soft and copious perspiration
into which he was instantly thrown. This vapor-bath often proved an
effectual remedy for some of their most obstinate diseases.

We have now given a short account of the history, manners and customs
of the ancient Mexicans. Their character you can easily estimate, from
what we have told you concerning them. You must not imagine, however,
that, like the Indians of some parts of the United States, they are
entirely extinct. Though much reduced by the cruelty and oppression
of their conquerors, yet they still form much the largest class of
inhabitants in the Mexican republic. Perhaps the long period of their
slavery and degradation has been intended by a just Providence as
a punishment for their own cruelty toward their conquered enemies.
But, now that they have been declared free citizens of a great and
independent republic, with the same rights and privileges as their
former masters, we may hope that the night of their humiliation is
passed, and that a brighter day is about to dawn on the minds of the
poor degraded Mexicans, than ever shone even on the first glorious
years of the reign of Montezuma.




                            House-Building.


What a strange thing it would be if we had no houses to live in, and
were forced to sleep on the tops of trees, in caves, or among the
clefts and crannies of rocks and mountains! Many ages ago, mankind,
then in a savage state, were obliged to make use of such wild retreats;
they had not learned to _build houses_; and were, in this respect, not
so well off as the birds, which, you know, mostly manage to build a
nice warm nest, in which they bring up their young. The first houses
were, in all probability, cut out of the sides of crags or banks; after
this it was found, perhaps, more advantageous to build them of branches
of trees, set up on end, and leaning together in a point at the top;
movable houses were also made of the skins of beasts, stretched over a
pole of a similar form. These were the earliest tents; but how long ago
it is since the eastern nations, who were the first inhabitants of this
earth, had such kinds of habitations, is not known.

We know that, at the present day, all savage nations have rude houses.
The Icelanders build them of snow, as seen in pictures; and the Indians
of America, as well as the savages of the South Sea islands, of the
wilds of Africa and New Holland, form their huts in the rudest manner.
We know, also, that the Irish _mud cabins_, and the Scotch _hovels_,
and some of the English _cottages_, are not a great deal better than
the huts of savages.

But, if you look at the buildings in our towns and cities, you will
find them to be very different from the rude hut, wigwam, or snowhouse;
you will observe that they are much larger, and of far greater beauty.

It is of some interest for us to inquire how houses are _built_, and
about the materials of which they are _made_; and, lastly, of the
different styles of architecture: for houses and temples were built of
different forms in different ages, and are now very different in _Asia_
from what they are in _Europe_ and _America_.

Houses have _walls_, _roofs_, _doors_, _chimneys_, _rooms_, _passages_,
_stairs_, _floors_, _closets_, _sinks_, _cellars_, _pantries_,
_kitchens_.

The _roof_ of a house is the top of it, and is built aslant, so that
when it rains the water may run off. A frame-work of wood is made,
which is first covered with boards, and afterwards with shingles or
slates.

The _walls_ of a house are made either of bricks or stones, laid one on
the top of the other, and joined together by cement or mortar, or of
wood.

The _chimneys_ proceed from the fireplace to the top of the house,
and come out through the roof, above which they are carried up several
feet; on their top is often an earthen pot, called a chimney-pot. The
use of a chimney is to carry off the smoke. Chimneys have not been
thought of above a thousand years; before this time the smoke used to
go out at a hole in the roof. This is the case now in the worst of
Scotch and Irish cabins.

The _doors_ of houses are made of _pine_ or _oak_, and sometimes of
_mahogany_; they swing on _hinges_, and have _locks_ and _catches_ to
fasten them. Their use is to keep the cold out, and to connect one room
with another, or the house with the street.

The _rooms_ of houses are of various kinds. The houses of very poor
people serve them for parlor and kitchen, and bed-room, which is very
unhealthy. The house of a tradesman generally consists of a shop, a
back parlor, a drawing-room, and several bed-rooms, with kitchen and
cellar.

The houses of people who are rich consist of a great variety of
apartments:--a saloon, a hall, a picture-gallery, a large dining-room,
library, dressing rooms, breakfast-rooms, and many others. The house,
or dwelling, of a king, a prince, is called a _palace_, which is
generally very large, and contains many other apartments, fitted up in
the most splendid manner.

The _passages_ in a house lead from one room to another; the stairs
lead to the bed-chambers, or other upper apartments; the floors of the
rooms are generally made of pine or oak. The former are usually covered
with painted canvass called _oil-cloth_, and the latter with _carpet_.

The _cellar_ of a house is generally under ground, and is used for
keeping coals, wood, beer, and wine in. _Closets_ are for the purpose
of placing clothes and linen in security; the _pantry_ and _larder_ are
for provisions of various kinds; and the _kitchen_ is a place to cook
our food in.




                       Edwin, the Rabbit-Fancier.


“Edwin was a very tender-hearted boy, and very eager about a thing when
he took it into his head; but his enthusiasm very often left him just
at the time it ought to have remained with him. Thus he never pursued
any study or amusement for any length of time with profit to himself,
and often fell into very grievous errors.

“‘Oh! dear mamma,’ said he one day to his mother, ‘I do wish so that
I had something for a pet; there is Charles Jones has a sweet little
bird, and cousin James has a squirrel. I should so like something for a
pet. Do, mamma, buy me something--a Guinea pig, or a couple of pigeons,
or a rabbit. Oh! I saw such a beautiful white rabbit yesterday!

“‘Ay, my dear,’ said his mamma, ‘I am afraid you would soon grow tired
of your rabbit, as you did of your gun, and bow and arrow, and ship,
and rocking-horse.’

“‘Oh, but a rabbit is quite different, mamma; you can love a rabbit,
you know, and coax it, and feed it, and make it happy. I should go
out early in the morning, and pick some nice clover for it, and
some thistle, and dandelion, and marsh-mallows. I know how to feed
rabbits--I have learned all about it. I must not give them too much
green stuff, but some nice bran and oats; and then I could make a
little trough for it to eat from, you know; and--and--’

“I am sure, my dear, it would be too much trouble to you; rabbits
require a great deal of care and attention, and you so soon get
tired of anything you take up, that I fear it would soon suffer from
neglect.’

“‘I am sure I should never _neglect_ it, mamma; and, if you will give
me a shilling, I can buy a beauty--a real white French rabbit, with red
eyes, and a coat like swansdown. Do, dear mamma, give me a shilling.’

“‘No, my dear,’ said she, ‘I really must refuse you.’

“Now, although Edwin was a little boy, he said to himself, ‘I know it
is only because mamma wishes to save her money; ’tis not because she
really thinks I shall neglect the rabbit, but because she does not like
to part with her money.’--He thought himself very cunning; did he not?

“So Edwin began to pout and whine, and to tease his mamma, being
determined to let her have no peace.

“‘You know, mamma,’ said he, ‘I shall be so fond of it; I will make it
a house; and then I could cut down some grass, and dry it, and make hay
for it to lie upon; and I could sow some oats for it in my garden; I
should not want anything else to amuse me all the year round.’

“Whether to humor Edwin, or to teach him a lesson, I will not say,
but his mamma gave him a shilling, and off he ran, and purchased the
milk-white, red-eyed rabbit.

“Joyful enough was he when he brought it home: he paraded it round the
house, showed it to every member of the family, housemaid, gardener,
footman, and cook; and everybody praised the rabbit, and said it was a
most beautiful creature.

“The next morning Edwin rose betimes, and began to look for wood to
build his rabbit-hutch. He procured saw, nails, and hammer; and at last
found some old planks, and began to saw them, and cut them, and chisel
and plane, till his little arms ached again.

“He had soon cut two or three pieces of board up, but to no purpose;
one was too short, and another too long; a third had a knot in it;
and a fourth was spoiled in splitting. Vexed with his want of success,
Edwin said, ‘I shall not make him a house to-night--he must be content
with being fastened in the coal-hole to-night--he will have plenty of
room to run about.’

“So Bunny was put into the coal-hole with a handful of cabbage-leaves,
and told to make himself happy till the morning; and, as it happened to
be a holiday, Edwin went to amuse himself by letting off fireworks.

“In the morning Edwin went to the coal-hole to look after Bunny. There
it was, sure enough; but instead of its being a beautiful white rabbit,
by hopping about among the coals it had become almost as black as the
coals themselves.

“‘Well, I never!’ said the little boy--‘what a dirty little thing it
is;’ and so he tried to catch it; but Bunny, not liking to be caught,
led the youngster a fine dance in the coal-hole, and at last he fell
over a large lump of coal, and dirtied his clean frill and white apron.

“It was difficult to say which was the dirtiest of the two, Edwin or
his rabbit. The little boy, however, being quite out of patience, made
no further effort, but shut the coal-hole door, and in great trouble
ran to the nursery-maid to put him into cleaner trim. He did not go
again into the place where the rabbit was that day, and so the poor
thing was kept without food, for Edwin totally forgot he had not fed
his pet.

“However, the next day he again repaired to the place, and, having
caught Bunny, took it into the stable-yard, and put it into an
unoccupied pig-sty. The first intention of making a house was quite
given up, and Edwin began to think his rabbit a great plague; he,
however, gave it some _more cabbage-leaves_, and left it.

“The fact was, Edwin was getting tired of his rabbit; he, however,
bought it a few oats, and gave it a little hay. He went out for a few
mornings and gathered a little clover, but in less than a week this was
thought to be a great deal of trouble; besides which, the rabbit seemed
lame, and did not look so pretty as it did at first.

“At last, Edwin quite forgot his rabbit for two days, and when he went
to look at it he was surprised to find it lying on its side. He called,
Bunny, Bunny. The poor thing looked at him, and seemed pleased to see
him, for its long ears moved as if it was.

“Edwin took it up; it seemed to have lost the use of its hind legs; it
squeaked when it was touched; and so the little boy laid it down again.
He felt it all over--it was very thin, and seemed half starved.

“Edwin now ran and got a saucer-full of oats, and placed it beside
the poor thing; he also ran to the next field, and plucked some nice
sow-thistle, and gave it to eat. Bunny looked grateful, and tried to
eat, but could not.

“Edwin, in placing his hand down by its side, felt the beatings of its
heart; it went beat, beat, beat--throb, throb, throb, quicker than a
watch; and every now and then its head twitched, and the skin of its
jaw drew up, as if it were in great pain.

“And yet the poor animal seemed glad to have some one by its side, and
rubbed its nose against Edwin’s hand; and then it panted again, and its
eyes grew dim: it was dying. Poor little Edwin now began to cry.

“‘Oh! my poor dear, dear, dear Bunny,’ said he, ‘what shall I do to
make you well?--oh! what would I give? Oh! I have killed you, for I
know I have. Oh! my poor dear Bunny--let me kiss you, dear Bunny.’ Here
the little fellow stooped down to kiss his rabbit. Just at that moment
it gave a struggle--in the next it was dead.

“Edwin’s eyes were full of tears, and when he could see through them,
and found out what had happened, he broke out into loud sobs and cries,
till he roused the whole house. ‘Oh! my dear rabbit--oh! I have killed
my rabbit--oh! what shall I do?’ he uttered in deepest grief.

“‘Ay,’ said his mamma, who was called to the spot by his outcries; ‘I
feared it would be thus:--who would think a house-bred rabbit could
live in a damp pig-sty? The poor thing has been destroyed by _neglect_.’

“‘Oh, yes, dear mamma, do not scold me; I know I have been very
naughty. Oh, I do love my dear rabbit;--I love it more now it is dead
than I did when it was alive;--but is it really dead, mamma?--no; is
it?--it is quite warm, and may get well again,--say it will, there’s a
dear, dear mother;’ and then he cried again.

“The rabbit was, however, dead; and had caught its death in the way
Edwin’s mamma supposed, by being ill fed, and kept in a damp place, by
thoughtless, if not cruel _neglect_.

“Edwin was overcome with grief,--but it was now too late. Sad was
the next night to him, for something told him he had been cruel to
that which he had promised to love. He got no sleep; and early in the
morning he arose, and went to the place where his pet was laid.

“He wept all the next day; and, in the evening, he dug a grave in his
own little garden, close by the side of a young rose tree. Then he
wrapped the body in some nice hay, and laid it in its narrow cell, and
placed rose-leaves upon it, and covered it gently with the earth;--and
his heart was like to burst when he heaped the mould over it, and he
was forced to pause in his task by the full gushing of his tears.

“‘My child,’ said his mamma, who watched him at his sorrowful task, ‘if
you had taken half the trouble for Bunny, when alive, as you do now he
is dead, he would have been alive now.’

“‘Yes, yes, dear mamma,--I know--I know; but do tell me, pray do,--will
not rabbits go to heaven? Is there not some place where they can be
happy? I hope my poor dear Bunny may;’--and here the little fellow
sobbed again.

“‘Give me a kiss, my dear boy,’ said his mamma; ‘come, leave this
spot;’ and so she led him gently away from the rabbit’s grave.”




                          Merry’s Adventures.


                              CHAPTER XIX.


The next morning was fair, and we glided rapidly down the river. The
banks on each side were hilly, and presented several small towns to our
view. At length we noticed on the western border a tall blue mountain,
which seemed to rise up like a vast thundercloud. This I was told was
called the Kattskill. It consists of many peaks, with deep ravines, and
beautiful waterfalls between them. The scenery among these mountains
is so wild and interesting that many people visit them every year.
Opposite to these mountains is the city of Hudson. We stopped there
about an hour. I found it quite a small place then, but now it has
seven thousand inhabitants.

Having taken on board three or four persons, with a quantity of butter,
cheese, and other articles for New York, we departed and proceeded
down the river. The scenery was still very beautiful. The river wound
between tall mountains, which came down to the water’s edge, and seemed
sometimes to encircle it, so as to make it appear like a lake. But,
as we proceeded, the vast mountains appeared to recede, and open a
passage for us. Frequently we passed close to the shore, and I could
not but admire the wonderful beauty of the trees that clothed the
sides of the mountain. It was autumn, you remember, and the leaves
were of many colors; some were yellow, some red, some purple, and some
green. There was something sad about all this; for we knew that these
bright hues are but the signs of coming death. We knew that this coat
of many colors which is thrown over the mountain, making it appear so
gay, is but a gaudy mantle that will soon give place to the winter
winding-sheet of snow. But still, even though the woods in autumn may
be a little melancholy, I do not like them the less for that. As I
passed along the mountain slopes, catching glimpses between the trees
into the valleys, or far away between the tops of the peaks, seeming to
float in a sea of azure, I felt as if I could make the woods my home
forever!

The next day we passed by a lofty cliff, called West Point, where old
Fort Putnam is situated, and where there is now an academy in which
young men receive a military education. This was a famous place in the
revolutionary war. Here was the scene of Benedict Arnold’s treachery.
He was entrusted with the command of this fort by Washington, who had
great confidence in him; but Arnold was a bad man, and he secretly
agreed to give up the fort to the British, if they would pay him a
large sum of money, and give him a command in their army. Major André,
a British officer, came up the river from New York, and met Arnold one
night to arrange the scheme.

On his return, André was taken by some Americans, and brought before
Washington. He was tried as a spy, and, being convicted, was sentenced
to death, this being according to the usages of war. André was a fine
young officer, and Washington wished very much to save his life. But
this he could not accomplish consistently with his duty to his country.

André was confined at a house in the town of Bedford, next to Salem,
and my friend Mat Olmsted recollected perfectly well to have seen him
there. He described him as a tall young man, with blue eyes, his hair
powdered white, and wearing a red coat. Matthew told me a great many
stories about him. He said all the people were very sorry to have him
executed. When he passed along between the files of soldiers to the
scaffold, there was scarcely an individual who did not weep. Tears even
rolled down the rugged cheeks of the soldiers, who had been accustomed
to scenes of battle and bloodshed.

André alone seemed firm and collected. He walked erect, and such was
his presence of mind when he ascended the scaffold, that happening to
soil his coat by pressing against one of the posts, he calmly took out
his handkerchief and brushed the dust away. This was a kind of sign and
illustration of his life and character. Though he was a spy, he did not
die dishonored; but the dignity of his bearing brushed away the soil
upon the soldier, and he perished amid the regrets of those whom war
had made his enemies, leaving behind him thousands of hearts to mourn
his untimely fate.

The day after we passed West Point we saw something coming up the
river, paddling through the water, and smoking away at a great rate.
Mat said it must be a Dutchman, and a cousin to our Captain Volcano;
but we were told it was a steamboat! I had heard of such a thing, but
had never seen one. There had been a good deal said in the newspapers
about one Robert Fulton, who was trying to make vessels go by fire and
water, instead of wind. Most people thought Fulton either crazy or a
fool, to attempt so hopeless a task. He was laughed at and ridiculed,
particularly by that class of people who think themselves the wisest,
and who imagine that the only way to live is to make money and keep it.

But Fulton was a great man, whose mind was above all this littleness.
So, letting the world make itself merry at his expense, he went
calmly and patiently on. If he met with a difficulty he labored till
he overcame it; sneers, scoffs, gibes, could not turn him from his
purpose. He persevered, and at last he triumphed. The engine began to
turn the crank, the wheels went round, the paddles took hold of the
wave, the boat moved forward, and steam navigation was accomplished!

This was the greatest invention of modern times. I am speaking of
what happened in 1808, only thirty-four years ago. There are now
many thousand steamboats throughout the world. The great rivers are
navigated by them, and even the Atlantic is now traversed by steam
power. The journey of a week is at present but the trip of a day--a
voyage of two months is but the passage of a fortnight. This very
Hudson river, upon which Fulton achieved his noble invention, before
but a pathway for a few straggling vessels, is now the thoroughfare of
millions. It is a literal fact that millions of persons pass up and
down this river every year, where before only a few hundred annually
performed the trip. Before, it was often a fortnight’s work to get
a vessel from New York to Albany; now a steamboat with five hundred
passengers will accomplish it in twelve hours!

Such are the mighty results, proceeding from one man’s labors. Let us
all reflect a moment upon this. What a great blessing is a great man
who devotes himself to the good of his country! How ought such a man to
be honored! How paltry, how base is that littleness of soul which leads
some persons to run down the great and the good--the public benefactor!

Let the story of Fulton teach us all another lesson, which is
this--When we feel that we are right in our devotion to any cause, let
not the scoffs of the world move us. Even though there may be dark
days, when we seem given up to ridicule by the world around; when even
friends desert us, and poverty besets us, and slander assails us, and
sorrow and gloom seem gathering around our path, let us look to the
beautiful example of Fulton and be comforted. Let us say to ourselves,
“Fulton persevered, and we will persevere. Fulton met with difficulties
and suffered from poverty; but he met them patiently, and at last he
triumphed.” Let us imitate his steadfastness, and gather confidence
from his success.

The little steamboat approached us rapidly. Never in my life have I
felt a deeper excitement than at that moment! All the people on board
our little sloop were leaning over the side, straining their eyes to
watch this wonder of the water. On she came, cutting the current and
seeming like a thing of life, moving by her own power. She came nearer
and more near. I have seen other steamboats since; those that were ten
times as large; but never one that touched my imagination like that. We
passed close to her side. There was a tall, slender man standing upon
her deck. His face was dark, and careworn; his eye black, deep-set,
and sparkling; his hair black and curling--though perchance a little
grizzled. It was Robert Fulton! His name was spoken by our captain, and
instantly a cheer broke from every man on board our little vessel.
“Fulton! Fulton!” was the cry; and the name was echoed a hundred times
among the hills. This was a bright spot in my life. I shall never
forget it--I could not tell my feelings then--I cannot express them
now. I have often thought of this scene: the image of Fulton, calm,
thoughtful and modest in that day of triumph, always comes back as
distinctly to my memory, as when he stood before me then. It has not
been to me a barren incident; for in my humble career, I too have
had difficulties, cares, sorrows; and I have drawn comfort, I trust
composure, from his example. The humblest plant may extract beams from
the sun--and Robert Merry would say to his readers, that he, poor as he
is, humble as he is, has a sort of feeling that Robert Fulton, though
dead and departed, comes to cheer him in his lonely journey through
life. Often, in some dark hour, has his image broke in upon him like a
ray of light; thus converting gloom into sunshine. I know that this may
seem to be a mere fancy, yet there is reason in it, or, if not, there
is comfort in it.

In a day or two after meeting the steamboat, we arrived at the city
of New York. Nearly ten years had elapsed since I had left it. I
recollected very little of it. It was indeed like a new place to me
at first. I felt as if I had never seen it before, until, after a day
or two, it became familiar to me as if I had once seen it in a dream.
Though it was then a great city, New York was much smaller than it is
now. It had not more than one fourth part as many inhabitants.

Nothing of importance occurred here, and after three days, Matthew and
I entered a sloop and sailed to Norwalk, in Connecticut. Having landed,
we immediately set out on foot for Salem, which is a distance of about
twenty miles. I had now been gone a month, and was exceedingly anxious
to get home. I had a great desire to see my uncle; for although I had
not much intercourse with him when at home, still he was always kind
to me, and I was so accustomed to his good-humored face, that I seemed
solitary and homesick without it.

As I began to approach the village, my heart beat quick at the idea of
getting home, of meeting my uncle, and seeing my friends and companions
once more. Not a thought of evil fortune crossed my mind. I expected
to see them all well and happy as when I left them. When we reached
the village, it was night. We met no one in the street--all was still
and solitary. We came to the tavern. There was a bright light in the
bar-room, and it looked as cheerful as ever. I was about to enter,
when a dusky figure took hold of my arm and said, “Go not in there.
Come with me.” I perceived in a moment that it was old Sarah of the
mountain. She led me to the front door, and as we passed along, she
said, in a low, but solemn tone, “He is gone, lad, he is gone. There
is trouble for you here. When it is all over, come and see me in the
mountain.”

I was struck with horror, and stood still for a moment. I was alone,
for Matthew had gone into the bar-room. I was convinced that my uncle
was dead. I grew giddy, and the dim objects that were near me seemed
to swim around. I recovered, however, lifted the latch and went in.
The entry was dark, and I was obliged to grope my way to the stairs.
I ascended and approached my uncle’s chamber. It was partly open, and
there was a dim light within. I was about to enter, but paused a moment
at the threshold and looked round. On a low couch lay the lifeless form
of my uncle, and at a little distance sat Raymond, pale as marble, and
wrapped in profound meditation. My step was so light that he did not
hear my approach, but my quick and convulsed breath roused him. He
instantly came to me, but spoke not. Words were indeed vain. Nothing
could break the force of the stern reality. My uncle, my kind-hearted
uncle, my only relative,--he who had been to me as father and mother,
was no more.

I cannot dwell upon the scene, nor could I describe my feelings,
should I attempt it. For nearly an hour my heart was stunned, my mind
bewildered. But tears at length came to my relief, and after a time
I was able to hear from Raymond the sad story of my uncle’s death.
He had died in a fit, cut down without a moment’s warning, and, as I
afterwards learned, in consequence of his intemperate habits.

The funeral took place the next day. I walked in the procession to
the burial ground, but I was so completely overwhelmed with my loss
as scarcely to notice anything around me. But when the coffin was let
down into the ground and the earth was thrown upon it, I felt such a
pang at the idea of being forever separated from my uncle, as almost to
distract me. For a moment, I was on the point of leaping into the grave
and asking to be buried with him; but it was closed, and the procession
moved away. I returned, and I was then alone, without a relative in the
world, so far as I knew.

A few days after these events, an examination of my uncle’s affairs
was made, and it was discovered that his estate was insolvent. Every
dollar of my own property was gone, and I was now a beggar! These facts
were told me by Raymond; they did not, however, immediately make a
deep impression upon me; but I soon learned what it is to be without
parents, without money, and without a home.




                         Who planted the Oaks?


The truth that no animal is created but for some wise purpose, is
beautifully illustrated in the case of the squirrel. It is a singular,
but well authenticated circumstance, that most of those oaks that we
call spontaneous, are planted by this little animal, in which way he
has performed the most essential service to mankind, and particularly
to the inhabitants of Great Britain. It is related in some English
work, that a gentleman walking out one day in the woods belonging to
the Duke of Beaufort, his attention was attracted by a squirrel, which
was on the ground at no great distance from him. He stopped to observe
his motions: in a few moments, the squirrel darted to the top of a
tree, beneath which he had been sitting.

In an instant, he was down again with an acorn in his mouth, and after
digging a small hole, he stooped down and deposited the acorn; then
covering it, he darted up the tree again. In a moment he was down with
another, which he buried in the same manner. This he continued to do,
as long as his observer thought proper to watch him. This industry of
the little animal is directed to the purpose of securing him against
want in winter; and it is probable that his memory is not sufficiently
retentive to enable him to remember the spot in which he had deposited
every acorn. He, no doubt, loses a few every year; these few spring
up, and are destined to supply the place of the parent tree. Thus is
Britain, in some measure, indebted to the industry and bad memory of a
squirrel for her pride, her glory, and her very existence.




A BULL.--A son of Erin once commenced the translation of Cæsar’s
Commentaries thus: “All Gaul is quartered into three halves!”




                 The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                           of Thomas Trotter.


                              CHAPTER XXI.

  _Holy week at Rome.--A Roman tavern.--Strange crowds at St.
     Peter’s.--Description of the church.--The Pope.--The
     Coliseum.--A fox among the ruins.--The Vatican--its
     splendor and immense extent.-- General description
     of the city.--Cheapness of living.--Oddities of the
     tradesmen.--The malaria.--Climate and salubrity of Rome._


This was Holy Week, the season of the most pompous and showy display
of religious ceremonies and festivities at Rome: on which account the
city was full of strangers. People flock to Rome to see these sights,
far and near. English travellers and Roman country people crowded the
streets. All the hotels appeared full to overflowing, and I thought
myself lucky to find at last a snug little tavern on the banks of the
Tiber, with the sign of the _Albergo del Orso_, or the “Bear’s Hotel.”
This was a very good name, for it was not much better than a bear’s
den. The entry was a stable; and the kitchen stood where there should
have been a parlor. I had no choice; so, depositing my trunk in this
same den of the bears till better quarters could be found, I set off
for a ramble through the city.

To a traveller who enters Rome as I did, at the waste end of the city,
where he sees nothing but mouldering walls and heaps of grass-grown
ruins, it is quite a matter of wonder to find, at the other extremity,
such a collection of populous streets and splendid structures. My
first steps were directed to St. Peter’s church, that ornament and
wonder of modern Rome, the most magnificent edifice that the world
ever saw. Vast crowds of people were moving in the same direction,
so that I had no difficulty in going straight to the spot. The near
approach to it is most imposing. An immense circular piazza is in
front, surrounded with rows of columns and adorned with two beautiful
fountains, which are constantly in play, throwing the water up to an
immense height. This grand area, and all the other avenues to the
church, were thronged with a motley population, which seemed to have
flowed thither from the four quarters of the earth. Priests, soldiers,
pilgrims and beggars, in variegated costume and manner, were mingled up
together in picturesque confusion. Cardinals, in red dresses, rolled
along in their gilt coaches, drawn by such fat, sleek, black horses
as we never see on this side of the Atlantic. Capuchin friars, in
dingy brown woollen gowns, tied with bits of bedcord, bare legs and
sandaled feet; friars, of other denominations, in black, white and
gray--shaven crowns, Quaker broad-brims and three-cornered scrapers;
Swiss guardsmen in steel armor; Roman militia in red baize regimentals
and coffee-pot hats; little hump-backed _gobboes_ like the black dwarf;
ragged Roman peasants in straw and oakum spatter-dashes; country
girls in square flat caps and tawdry finery; strapping fellows in red
breeches and cocked hats, who look like major-generals, but are only
livery servants,--all these, and a hundred other varieties impossible
to describe, gave such a diversity and animation to the scene as to
constitute it one of the most striking spectacles in the world.

But all description must fall short of the reality when I attempt to
offer my impressions of the interior of St. Peter’s. The first view, on
entering, overpowers the spectator with magnificence and beauty: but
many days are requisite to see the whole building. It is a mountain of
architecture, and the eye can take in, at once, nothing but a small
fragment. All that human labor and human genius can expend upon a work
of art--painting, sculpture and every other species of ornament--are
here lavished with a richness and profusion characteristic of an
edifice constructed at the expense of the whole Christian world. The
walls glitter with mosaics, costly marbles, gems and gold. The great
dome rises like heaven above your head. The long nave, or central
aisle, stretches out before you an eighth of a mile in length.
Immense arches open on every side, and lead the eye off into recesses
of unknown extent. Everything adds to the general impression of
overpowering grandeur and sublimity. The world will never see another
structure like this!

In the midst of an immense crowd the Pope was brought into church on a
litter, supported on men’s shoulders. A lofty canopy was held over his
head, and on each side of him was carried an enormous fan of ostrich
feathers. He was a little decrepit-looking old man, with a benevolent
expression of countenance. After going through various ceremonies,
he was carried into the balcony in the front of the church, where he
pronounced a blessing on the multitude below, who all fell upon their
knees. At night the church was illuminated, the great dome being
covered with lamps, and looking like a mountain of fire.

On ascending to the roof of the church I almost imagined myself among
the streets below. Long rows of domes extended right and left, which
cannot be seen from below; such is the enormous extent of the building.
Workshops and dwelling-houses were built there for the masons and
carpenters, who find constant employment in repairing damages and
keeping the roof in order. There is even a fountain of water constantly
running here. It is quite a town up in the air. Formerly the dome
suffered much by lightning, but since the erection of lightning-rods
it has never been struck.

Next to St. Peter’s, in interest, is the great ruin of the Coliseum,
that enormous edifice, which could contain 80,000 spectators, besides
the area in the centre where wild beasts were hunted, and where
gladiators killed each other, for the amusement of the Roman populace.
These walls are now overgrown with weeds and flowers, lonely and
desolate. During the day they resound only with the notes of the
birds who nestle among the stones, and in the night you may hear
the owls hooting out of their dark recesses. Travellers visit it by
moonlight, when the spectacle is very solemn and striking. For a great
distance around this building are scattered the ruins of the palaces
of the Roman emperors, triumphal arches, baths, theatres and gigantic
structures, that fill us with amazement in the contemplation of the
ancient splendors of the city. While I sat on a broken column, among
the ruins of Nero’s golden palace, a fox peeped out from a crumbling
arch, and, fixing his sharp eyes on me for a minute, gave a whisk with
his tail and bounded off across a bed of artichokes which a gardener
was cultivating on the Palatine Hill. The poor man complained that he
had lost all his chickens by the depredations of these marauders.

Everybody has heard of the Vatican. This is an immense palace adjoining
St. Peter’s, formerly the residence of the Pope, and now famous for its
pictures and statues. I hardly knew which of the two struck me with the
greater astonishment--St. Peter’s, with its stupendous architecture and
gorgeous embellishments, or the Vatican, with its endless treasures of
art. Gallery, hall and saloon open upon you, one after another, till
there seems literally to be no end of statues, vases and columns of
precious marble and porphyry. Beautiful fountains of water are playing
in the pavilions, and long vistas of sculpture carry the eye a quarter
of a mile in length. The apartments amount to many thousands: the
wonder is that any man ever undertook to count them. All description of
this place seems an utterly vain attempt. It is realizing the dreams of
fairy splendor to wander over it.

After the ceremonies of the Holy Week are over, strangers generally
leave the city, and Rome becomes a quiet place. There is little
traffic or industry here, although the population is nearly double
that of Boston. No rattling of carts over the pavements, no throng of
busy passengers in the streets, give tokens of active business. The
shopkeepers sit idly at their counters, and look as if a customer would
astonish them. Two or three little feluccas lie at a landing-place
in the Tiber, unloading coffee and sugar from Marseilles, and this
is all that looks like commerce. Rome has nothing to export but rags
and _pozzolana_, or volcanic sand, which, mixed with lime, forms the
composition known as Roman cement. At sunset the genteel classes ride
out in their carriages to the gardens in the neighborhood of the city,
and this gives some appearance of life to the place at that time. But
far the greater part of the day the streets are lonely and still. The
shopkeepers close their doors after dinner and go to sleep.

Rome is full of splendid palaces and churches, profusely and
magnificently adorned with pictures, sculptures, precious stones,
gilding, and every other sort of embellishment. The shrines of the
saints are very curious. They are covered all over with votive
offerings from persons who have been sick or have escaped from
accidents. If a man is in danger of drowning, or is run over by a
horse, or gets a bang on the shin, or has a sore finger, he makes a
vow to his favorite saint, and, after his escape or recovery, gives
him a present of a little silver ship, or leg, or finger, which is
stuck up in the church as a memento of the saint’s intercession and
the man’s gratitude. In this manner you may see the walls of a church
covered, for many yards square with silver legs, toes, arms, hands,
fingers, hearts, ears, noses, and nobody knows what else. A traveller
unacquainted with the fact might take them for hieroglyphics. All sorts
of rich offerings are made to these shrines. I have seen the figure of
a saint in a glass case completely covered with gold watches, rings,
bracelets, necklaces, &c. When the saint finds himself so overloaded
with ornaments as to leave no room for any more, he allows himself to
be stripped. The watches and jewels are sold, and the shrine is open
for new presents. It is easy to see how, in a long course of years,
this practice, and others similar, have brought into the treasury
of the church that abundance of wealth which has been lavished upon
the magnificent edifices of this country. The votive offerings above
described are so numerous and constant that the silversmiths have
always for sale, heads, legs, hearts, arms, &c., of all sizes, to
suit the customer as to wealth or devotion. Sometimes the offering is
accompanied with a painting descriptive of the event commemorated; and
you see a portion of the church walls covered with the oddest pictures
in the world. A man is tumbling down a ladder; another is run over by
a carriage; another is knocked on the head with a club; another is
kicked by a horse; another is running for life, with a mad bull at his
heels; another is sick abed, with a most alarming array of doctors and
apothecaries around him, &c.

Fountains are abundant throughout the city: and it is most agreeable,
in the hot weather which prevails here for the greater part of the
year, to hear the murmur and bubbling of the rills and jets of water
which adorn every street. When we consider the enormous sums of money
which the ancient Romans expended upon their aqueducts, and behold the
immense lines of arches that stretch across the country, we cannot be
surprised that the modern city is better supplied with water than any
other place in the world. It is brought from a great distance, as the
water in the neighborhood is very bad. In one of my rambles, a few
miles from the city, I passed a stream running into the Tiber, which
appeared almost as white as milk, and had a strong smell of sulphur.
All the country round here is of volcanic origin; yet there has been no
eruption or appearance of subterranean fire within the memory of man.

Rome is a fine residence for a person with a small income, no business
to do, and the wish to get as much as possible for his money.
House-rent is as low as one can reasonably desire. You may lodge in
a palace with galleries paved with marble and the walls covered with
the finest paintings; for the Roman nobles are poor and proud; they
will not sell their palaces or pictures, even though threatened with
starvation; but they let their best rooms to lodgers, and live in
the garrets. In all Rome I saw but one new house:--a sure sign of
the low value of real estate. The markets are cheap; clothing costs
about half what it does in America. The people have some queer ways
in buying and selling. Many things sell by the pound, which we never
think of putting into scales: apples, cherries, green peas, firewood,
charcoal, &c. I inquired as to a pair of woollen stockings at a shop,
and the goods were weighed before I could be told the price. I bespoke
a pair of boots, and calling one day to see if they were done, I found
the shoemaker at work upon them, but the leather had never been
colored. “Body of Bacchus!” said I--for that is the current Roman
exclamation--“I don’t want yellow boots, Signior Lapstonaccia!” I was
surprised, however, to be told that the Roman cobblers always made the
shoes first and colored the leather afterwards.

The greater part of the _campagna_ or open country about the city is
kept waste by the _malaria_ or unwholesome air of summer. What is
the cause or nature of this noxious vapor, no one has yet been able
to discover. The soil is perfectly dry, and there is no marshy land
or stagnant water in the neighborhood which can impart unhealthy
moisture to the atmosphere. The sky is beautifully clear in almost
every season, and each breeze that blows seems to savor of nothing but
balmy purity. Nevertheless, the country for miles is uninhabitable, and
shows a desolate plain, with a field of wheat here and there, or a few
scattered willow trees and thickets of bramble. Shepherds feed their
flocks among the ruins during the healthy season; but there are no
villages till you come to the hills of Albano, Frascati and Tivoli, in
which neighborhood the Romans have their country seats.

The malaria also infests the city, particularly the ruinous portion.
Strangers seldom pass the summer in Rome on this account, although I
was told there is no danger of sickness for any one who does not go out
at night, and takes care to sleep with the windows shut. The unhealthy
season is from June to September. During the remaining months Rome
is thought to be as healthy as any spot in the world. The winter is
delightful, being mostly like the finest October weather in New England.

I could fill a book with stories about this wonderful place; but the
brief space allotted to me makes it necessary to pass on in my story.




[Illustration]


                              The Deluge.


This event, described in the sixth and seventh chapters of Genesis, is
one of the most wonderful that is recorded in the history of the world.
It was a judgment sent upon the earth by the Almighty, in consequence
of the great wickedness of mankind. His purpose was to destroy not man
only, but the animal tribes, except a pair of each species, so as to
repeople the earth, after having thus set before the world, for all
future time, a fearful warning against disobedience of his commands.

This great catastrophe occurred 1656 years after the creation, and
more than 4000 years ago. We have not only the testimony of the Bible
to assure us that this event actually occurred, but most nations,
particularly those of high antiquity, have either historical records or
traditions of such an occurrence. The account given of it in Genesis is
one of the finest pieces of description that has ever been penned; but
it is very general, and gives us few details, or minute incidents. Yet
the imagination can easily portray many affecting scenes that must have
been witnessed in the fearful overthrow of the great human family.

Noah, who was a good and wise man, was forewarned of the coming
destruction, and, by the command of God, he built an ark, of vast
dimensions, and which cost him the labor of a hundred years. It was
a sort of bark, being shaped somewhat like a chest or trunk. It was
larger than the largest vessels of modern times. It is a large ship
that measures a thousand tons, yet Noah’s ark measured forty-two
thousand tons!

Into this ark Noah collected his family, and a pair of each kind of
bird, each kind of quadruped, and each kind of reptile. Under the
guidance of the Almighty, this vessel and its numerous inhabitants
floated safely on the water for a whole year. Here they were fed, and
here the lion was made to lie down with the kid. When, at last, the
waters had subsided, and the ark rested upon the land, then they all
came forth.

This story of Noah and his family is not only interesting as a
wonderful piece of history, but it conveys to us an important lesson.
It teaches us that wisdom is imparted to the children of God, which
is not enjoyed by the wicked; that there is an ark of safety provided
for the true believer, while the scoffer is left to work out his own
destruction.




ANECDOTE.--On Saturday last, says the Philadelphia North American, Lord
Morpeth visited the Philadelphia Alms-House, Blockley. Considerable
anxiety was manifested among the inmates to obtain a sight of the
distinguished stranger. After he had departed, a little boy, the son
of Mr. S----, who was present, remarked to his mother that “he did not
know that there were two Lords--he thought there was but one, who lived
up in the sky.”




                       A Page for Little Readers.


One of my young black-eyed friends, who has just learned to read, has
asked me to give some simple stories, in the fashion of Peter Parley. I
have promised to comply with this, and therefore give two pieces from
“PARLEY’S PICTURE BOOK,” a little volume full of pictures and stories,
which may be found in the bookstores.

[Illustration]

                             BOYS AT PLAY.


Here are three boys at play. Each boy has a hoop, which he strikes with
a stick, and it rolls along. It is very pleasant to roll a hoop. If you
strike it hard, it flies along very fast, and you must run with all
your might to catch it.

You must take care not to drive your hoop among horses. I once knew a
little boy playing with his hoop in a street. A horse was coming along,
but the boy was looking at his hoop, and he did not see the horse. His
hoop rolled close to the horse’s fore feet, and the boy ran after it.

The horse was going fast, and he struck the boy with his foot. The boy
fell dawn, and the horse stepped on his leg. The poor boy’s leg was
broken, and it was many weeks before he got well.




[Illustration]


                          THE GIRL AND KITTEN.

   “Come, pretty Kit, come, learn to read;
    Here with me sit; you must indeed.
    Not know your letters! fie, fie! for shame!
    The book I’ll hold; come! spell your name!
    Now try to say K I T, Kit;
    For you may play where you think fit,
    Upon the bed, or on the tree,
    When you have said your A B C.”
    ’T was snug and warm in Mary’s lap,
    So pussy thought she’d take a nap.
    She went to sleep,--the lazy elf!
    And Mary read the book herself.
    She learned to read, she learned to spell,
    And said her lesson very well.
    And now, my little reader, say,
    If you from books will turn away,
    And be like Kit, an idle thing,--
    Now catch a mouse, now twirl a string;
    Or will you learn to read and spell,
    And say your lessons very well?




                              Varieties.


MUSICAL DIALOGUE.--“_Major_,” said a _minor_ to an elderly gentleman,
“I must say your speech to-day was very _flat_.” “That,” said the
major, “is very _sharp for a minor_.”

       *       *       *       *       *

SINGULAR, NOT PLURAL.--The mayor of a small town in England, thinking
that the word _clause_ was in the plural number, always talked of the
last _claw_ of parliament.

       *       *       *       *       *

A DUTCHMAN.--A Dutchman was seen one day bidding an extraordinary price
for an alarm clock, and gave as a reason, “Dat ash he loffd to rise
early, he had nothing to do but bull the string, and he could wake
himself.”

       *       *       *       *       *

LONG BILLS.--Gentlemen of the medical profession in London are said to
be called _snipes_, from the unconscionable length of their bills.

       *       *       *       *       *

POETRY AND PROSE.--“I say, Pomp, wat be de diffrence ’ween _poetry_ and
de wat you call _plank verse_?”

“Why, I gib you something, Sip, I think will be lustratious of de
subject:

   ‘Go down to mill-dam
    And fall down slam’--

dat be _poetry_; but

   ‘Go down to mill-dam,
    And fall down whapp’--

dat be _blank verse_.”

       *       *       *       *       *

GOOD.--“Bill, lend us your knife.” “Can’t; haven’t got any; besides,
want to use it myself.”

       *       *       *       *       *

WIT.--Three gentlemen meeting to sup at a hotel, one of them wished for
partridges. A brace was accordingly brought, and set upon the table,
which he accordingly began to carve. He deliberately took one of them
upon his own plate, leaving the other one for his two friends. “Hold!”
cried one of them; “that is not fair!” “Perfectly fair, I think,” said
the gentleman; “there is one for _you_ two, and here is one for _me_
too.”




                         To my Correspondents.


Almost every person has some trouble, real or imaginary. I have seen
a story of a philosopher who travelled over the world in search of a
person who was perfectly happy. He visited the halls of the rich and
the hovels of the poor, and everywhere found each individual afflicted
with some rooted sorrow, care, or vexation. At last, as he was about
giving up the search in despair, he fell in with a shepherd who
seemed perfectly free from every evil. He had a pleasing wife, lovely
children, a competent support, and good health. What could he desire
beside?

“Nothing--nothing,” said the philosopher; but when he asked the
shepherd if he was happy--“Alas! alas!” said the man; “I am far from
it. There is a black sheep in my flock that is forever running off and
leading the rest astray. While I am awake, that black sheep is the
torment of my life; and when asleep, it disturbs my dreams!”

It is said that Sir Walter Scott was talking on this subject, one day,
with some gentlemen--he contending that no one was perfectly happy,
and they maintaining the reverse--when a half-witted fellow, whom they
knew, came up. It was agreed to settle the question by appealing to
him.

“Good day to ye, Sawney!” said Sir Walter. “Good day,” said Sawney, in
reply. “Well now, Sawney,” said Sir Walter, “how does the world use
you?”

“Well--well, your honor.”

“Have ye plenty to eat?”

“Yes.”

“And to drink?”

“Yes.”

“Good clothes?”

“Yes.”

“Then you have nothing to trouble you?”

“No--nothing but the bubly Jock,” (a cock-turkey.)

“Ah, what of the bubly Jock?”

“Oh, he is always running after me; night or day, asleep or awake, I
can always see him--gobble, gobble!”

“There!” said Sir Walter to the gentlemen; “the decision is in
my favor. This poor simpleton, though he is provided with every
comfort, is still beset by a tormentor. It matters not that it is
invisible--that it exists only in his fancy--it is to him a real bubly
Jock, and as truly disturbs his peace as if it were a thing of flesh,
and strutted forth in feathers.”

And now I must tell of my troubles. Perhaps you will laugh--but one
thing that frequently makes me very fidgety, is an itching in the great
toe of my wooden leg! If you think this nonsense, just ask any old
soldier who has lost a limb, and he will tell you, if it is a foot or a
hand, that he has all the sensations of heat or cold in the fingers or
toes of the absent member, just as distinctly as if it was in its place
and as sound as ever. This is no joke--it is a reality that you can
easily verify.

Well, now, it seems to me that my lost foot is really where it used to
be; and the worst of it is this, that, when it itches, I can’t scratch
it! It does no good to apply my fingers to the wooden stick, you know;
this only reminds me of my misfortune, and brings on a fit of the
blues. But there is one thing to be considered--there is medicine, if a
person will seek it, for almost all diseases, whether real or fanciful;
and, thanks to my young friends who write me letters, I find these
very letters a pretty certain cure for the fidgets which I spoke of.
When I sit down to read them, and find them full of kind and pleasant
feelings, I readily forget the cares, the vexations--the dark weather
of life, that beset even such a humble career as mine.

So much for the introduction--and now to business.

The following letter is very welcome. Can Harriet venture to tell us
who the author of this capital riddle really is?


                                       _Newport, March 28, 1842._
     FRIEND MERRY:

     In looking over, a few days since, some old papers
     belonging to my father, I found the following riddle. My
     father informs me that it was written many years ago, by
     a school-boy of his, then about fifteen years old, and
     who now occupies a prominent place in the literary and
     scientific world. If you think it will serve to amuse
     your many black-eyed and blue-eyed readers, you will, by
     giving it a place in the Museum, much oblige a blue-eyed
     subscriber to, and a constant reader of, your valuable and
     interesting Magazine.
                                                         HARRIET.

                               RIDDLE.

     Take a word that’s much used,--’tis a masculine name,
     That backward or forward doth spell just the same;
     Then a verb used for dodging--a right it will claim
     That backward or forward it spells just the same;
     The form of an adjective, none can exclaim
     That backward or forward it spells not the same;
     Then a chief Turkish officer’s title or name,
     That backward or forward doth spell just the same;
     The name of a liquor, its friends all will claim
     That backward or forward is still just the same;
     Then a word used for jest, or doth triumph proclaim,

     That backward or forward still spells just the same;
     Then a verb in the imperfect, which also doth claim
     That backward or forward it spells just the same;
     The name of a place which geographers fame,
     That backward or forward doth still spell the same;
     Then a very queer word, ’t is a Spanish ship’s name,
     That backward or forward doth spell just the same;
     Then a verb that’s well known, I refer to the same,
     That, backward or forward spelt, makes but one name;
     Then a name that is given to many a dame
     That backward or forward still spells just the same.

     A Set of initials the above will afford--
     R-Ove through them in order, they form a droll word.
     I L-eave you to solve it--’t will cure a disease;
     De-Velop the riddle--’t will set you at ease.
     D-Espair not, but hope; ’t is easily guessed:
     L-Ike etching on copper in gay colors dressed,
     E-Tch it down on your hearts, and there let it rest.


                          _Elizabeth Town, N. J., April 9, 1842._
     DEAR SIR:

     Though perhaps not so young as the generality of your
     admiring readers, I am confident that there can be none
     who are more delighted than myself with your works, and
     particularly your Museum, which is now being published. Of
     course, I was the more pleased when I noticed the addition
     of a “puzzle column,” of which I am decidedly fond. I have
     solved with correctness all the puzzles that have appeared
     in your Museum, with the exception of Puzzle No. 5 in
     the April number, which so far passes my comprehension,
     that, after repeated endeavors after its solution, I have
     flattered myself that it is a hoax; but if it is not, I
     must confess it is the hardest puzzle I have seen for some
     time. Are not the following correct answers to the April
     puzzles?--No. 1, “Mother.” No. 2, “Charles Dickens.” No.
     3, “Boston and Worcester Railroad.” No. 4, “Prince de
     Joinville;” and Master Bare-Head’s, “Massachusetts.” I
     forward you an original puzzle, for which I do not profess
     any very extraordinary difficulty.


                      I am a name of 23 letters.

     My 5th, 21st, 7th, 10th, 22d, is a Russian noble.
     My 17th, 18th, 20th, 20th, 12th, 2d, is a valuable metal.
     My 1st, 10th, 15th, 16th, is a legal writing.
     My 4th, 14th, 13th, 17th, 12th, is a pleasant amusement.
     My 11th, 3d, 8th, is seen whenever it is not invisible.
     My 2d, 12th, 21st, 4th, 12th, 2d, is what if all men were,
       the world would be happier.
     My 19th, 12th, 7th, 7th, 23d, 9th, 19th, 6th, 9th, 12th,
       6th, 19th, is the title of a justly celebrated periodical.
     My 22d, 3d, 9th, 9th, 14th, 6th, is a street where my whole
       is found.

     If you think the above worthy a place, you can publish it.
     You may hear from me again soon. My sheet is full, so I
     have but to subscribe myself,

                          Very respectfully,
                                                         W. F. W.


                                       _Saturday, April 8, 1842._
     DEAR SIR:

     I have taken the liberty to send you this puzzle, which I
     suppose almost any of your readers can unravel.

                      I am a name of 13 letters.

     My 1st, 5th, 6th, 4th, and 2d, is a girl’s name.
     My 3d, 5th, 10th, and 11th, is what every bird has.
     My 9th, 6th, 4th, 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th, is what
       physicians often use.
     My 3d, 4th, 3d, and 5th, is a number.
     My 11th, 5th, and 3d, is also a number.
     My 13th, 8th, and 1st, is a color.
     My whole is the name of a distinguished orator and
       statesman.

     From a constant reader, who signs himself,

                         Respectfully yours,
                                                     ALEXIS.


     DEAR MR. MERRY:

     I have been trying my hand at puzzles since the reception
     of the April number of the Museum. I have guessed out No.
     4, as you will see below.
                                                      SARAH.


             ANSWER TO PUZZLE NO. 4, IN THE APRIL NUMBER
                            OF THE MUSEUM.

    The first, the “_mechanic_,” I doubt not a bit,
    Is the _joiner_, well known by rustic and cit;
    The second, a word highly prized by us all,
    For all would be _loved_, whether great, whether small;
    The third, Mr. Puzzler, a _pin_, I should _guess_,
    For fastening a plank, or a fair lady’s dress;

    The fourth--let me see; I’ll think in a trice--
    I have it at last! it is very fine _rice_;
    The fifth, it is said, “_is French for a city_,”--
    Now that must be _ville_--how exceedingly pretty!
    The sixth, and the last, it seems very clear,
    Will never spell _Yankee_, but p-e-e-r.
                         Prince de Joinville.


                                       _Gloucester, April, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     I have found out the answers to the puzzles in the April
     number, as follows: 1st puzzle, the answer is, Mother; 2d,
     Charles Dickens; 3d, Boston and Worcester Railroad; 4th,
     Prince de Joinville; 5th, ----; 6th, Massachusetts. And
     now, Mr. Merry, I take the liberty to send you one, which,
     if you think worthy, I should like to have you publish in
     your Magazine, and oblige

                        YOUR BLUE-EYED FRIEND,
                                                    F. W. C.


                    I am a sentence of 11 letters.

     My 6th, 4th, 7th, and 8th, is a fruit.
     My 1st, 10th, 7th, and 3d, is used for fuel.
     My 11th, 2d, 9th, and 9th, is a loud screech.
     My 2d, 7th, and 3d, is what every one does.
     My 9th, 4th, 7th, and 1st, is a long stride.
     My 1st and 7th is an abbreviation for father.
     My 3d, 7th, 6th, 10th, and 8th, is a small light.
     My 4th, 7th, 5th, and 9th, is a person of rank.
     My whole has written many interesting books.


     DEAR SIR:

     My little daughter has handed me the following puzzle to
     send to you for your next number, which please insert, and
     oblige
                                                    A SUBSCRIBER.


     My 8th, 2d, 9th, 19th, 24th, 4th, was a celebrated English
       poet.
     My 3d, 26th, 14th, 16th, 27th, is one of the elements.
     My 21st, 11th, 6th, 7th, 26th, 8th, exists only in
       imagination.
     My 14th, 9th, 10th, 5th, 19th, is a gaudy flower.
     My 4th, 11th, 20th, 13th, 17th, 16th, 26th, 9th, was a Swiss
       philosopher.
     My 19th, 1st, 5th, 22d, is various in form and expression.
     My 9th, 15th, 28th, 26th, 14th, is an article of extensive
       commerce.
     My 12th, 13th, 9th, 4th, 19th, 24th, 27th, was strikingly
        exemplified in
     My 4th, 7th, 8th, 1st, 26th, 4th, 6th, 14th, 1st, 16th,
       14th, 15th, 5th, 4th, 6th.
     My 19th, 26th, 19th, 26th, 3d, is a foreign production.
     My 14th, 16th, 23d, 10th, was a famous archer.
     My 13th, 14th, 26th, 14th, 9th, 16th, is pale and
       motionless.
     My 24th, 26th, 25th, 18th, 23d, is much used in one of the
       polite arts.
     My 6th, 2d, 13th, 14th, 14th, 1st, 2d, 9th, 26th, 8th, 8th,
       2d, 22d, 6th, asks your opinion of my whole.


                                   _Philadelphia, April 6, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     You will pardon the liberty that one of your juvenile
     admirers has taken, by sending you a puzzle for your
     invaluable Museum. The subject is one that you are very
     familiar with, and as I have but just made it my subject,
     perhaps full justice may not have been done to its
     character. I have at least tried to make the best of it.

                                                  ELIZABETH.


                     I am composed of 9 letters.

     My 4th, 8th, 6th, is the retreat of a wild beast.
     My 9th, 2d, 4th, is the name of the Creator.
     My 4th, 2d, 5th, is a female deer.
     My 6th, 8th, 4th, is a nickname for a boy.
     My 3d, 2d, 8th, is what cloth is made from.
     My 1st, 3d, 5th, is a scripture denunciation.
     My 7th, 5th, 9th, is a part of the human frame.
     My 9th, 2d, 9th, is a record kept by seamen.
     My 2d, 4th, 8th, is a piece of poetry.
     My 4th, 3d, 6th, is a Spanish title.
     My 4th, 2d, 9th, is a sagacious animal.
     My 9th, 8th, 7th, 6th, is a romantic spot.
     My 6th, 3d, 4th, is where Adam’s first son went and dwelt.
     My 7th, 8th, 6th, 4th, is an act of friendship.
     My 4th, 3d, 1st, 6th, is an article of commerce.
     My 9th, 3d, 1st, 6th, is a female dress.
     My 9th, 2d, 1st, 8th, 6th, is a Scottish name for a small
       flower.
     My 8th, 4th, 5th, 6th, is the first spot inhabited by human
      beings.
     My 9th, 3d, 2d, 4th, is what all people should be.
     My whole is what my friend Robert Merry has found very useful
       to himself in moving through the world.


                                          _Utica, April 9, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     I am a subscriber to your Museum and have been very much
     pleased with it. I write to let you know that I wish very
     much to have you continue the story of Philip Brusque. I
     wish to know whether the people lived contented under the
     government of M. Bonfils, and if they ever got away from the
     island. I live at Utica, and was much pleased with the
     account of your visit to this place thirty-five years ago.

                       FROM A BLUE-EYED FRIEND,
                                           SAMUEL L********.


     DEAR MR. MERRY:

     If it is not too much trouble, I should like to know what
     became of Brusque, and if Mr. Bonfils made a good king.
     With some assistance, I have found out the answers to three
     of those puzzles which were in the last Magazine. The first
     is MOTHER, the second CHARLES DICKENS, and the fourth
     PRINCE DE JOINVILLE.

     If the following be worthy a place in your Magazine, by
     inserting it you will oblige
                                        A NEW HAMPSHIRE BOY.


                      I am a name of 11 letters.

     My 10th, 11th, 8th, is a useful grain. My 3d, 4th, 8th, is
       an industrious insect.
     My 1st, 2d, 7th, 4th, is an ancient city.
     My 6th, 2d, 5th, 11th, is a name often given to a royalist
       in the Revolution.
     My 9th, 2d, 3d, 3d, 4th, 5th, is a bad man.
     My whole, Mr. Merry, you know better than I do.

       *       *       *       *       *

I offer my best thanks for the letters from the following friends:
“One of your blue-eyed readers in New York;” “A little subscriber in
Canandaigua,” whom I shall always be happy to hear from; E. D. H----s,
of Saugus; C. W., of Millbury; C. A. S. and L. B. S., of Sandwich; L.
W----e, and W. B. W----e; and “A Subscriber.”

S. L.’s letter about the postage, dated Utica, April 22, was duly
received.

H. E. M. thinks that Puzzle No. 5, in the April number, is either a
hoax, or that the solution is NANTUCKET. We think it is a little of
both: that is, that our friend who sent it to us intended it for
Nantucket; but about that time it was “all fools day,” and the unlucky
types of the printer seem to have made a very good puzzle, as sent to
us, into “an April fool.”




                            ROBERT MERRY’S
                            
                               MUSEUM.


                              EDITED BY
                           S. G. GOODRICH,
                   AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY’S TALES.


                              VOLUME IV.


                               BOSTON:
                       BRADBURY, SODEN, & CO.,
        NO. 10 SCHOOL STREET, AND 127 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK.
                                1842.




                        CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

                       JULY TO DECEMBER, 1842.


          The Sense of Taste,                                 1

          The Siberian Sable-Hunter,   2, 50, 88, 109, 146, 166

          Hay-Making,                                         8

          Limby Lumpy,                                        9

          Lime,                                              11

          The Voyages, Travels and Experiences of
          Thomas Trotter,                  12, 58, 92, 136, 170

          Similes,                                           16
                
          Proverbs and Sayings of the Chinese,               16

          Indians of America,                   17, 38, 72, 141

          Ruins of Babylon,                                  24

          Adam and Eve,                                      25

          Merry’s Adventures,         26, 34, 66, 104, 132, 161

          Gaza,                                              29

          Knights Templars and other orders of Knighthood,   30

          A Page for Little Readers,                         30

          Bob O’Linkum’s Song to the Mower,                  32

          The Sense of Touch,                                33

          That thing I cannot do,                            45

          Skeleton of a Bird,                                47

          A Tragedy in the Woods,                            48

          Frogs,                                             49

          Walled Cities,                                     55

          Bells,                                             55

          A Mother’s Affection,                              56

          To Correspondents,                            63, 128

          Puzzles,                                      64, 128

          Seeing,                                            65

          The Stock-Dove, &c.,                               79

          Story of Philip Brusque,                 80, 151, 181

          Ingenious Contrivances of Nature,                  84

          Don’t be too Positive,                             86

          A Melancholy Event,                                96

          Sketches of Bible Scenes,                          97
            Bethesda,                                        97
            Jerusalem,                                       98
            Valley of Jehoshaphat,                          102
            Joppa or Jaffa,                                 103
            Mount Carmel,                                   104
            Ruins of Jericho as they now appear,            129
            Askelon,                                        130
            Bethlehem,                                      131

          The Hippopotamus,                                 107

          The Flying Dragon,                                108

          The Snail,                                        108

          Varieties,                              126, 160, 187

          Rivers,                                           135

          Boy and Bird,                                     135

          Gall Insects,                                     140

          Anecdote of the Natives of Porto Rico,            143

          Winter Sport,                                     144

          Clouds,                                           144

          The Orang-Outang,                                 145

          Field Teachers,                                   154

          Life and Character of Alexander the Great,        157

          Discovery of the Mines of Potosi,                 165

          Wild Geese,                                       169

          The Two Friends,                                  175

          The Selfish Boy,                                  177

          Story of Little Dick and the Giant,               178

          The Flowers,                                      179

          Christmas,                                        180

          Winter is coming,                                 182

          Liberty,                                          183

          Dress and other matters in France, in
            the time of Henry IV.,                          185

          The Last Leaf of Autumn,                          186

          Reflections,                                      188


    Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1842, by S. G.
        GOODRICH, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of
                             Massachusetts.




[Illustration: KNIGHTS TEMPLARS.]




                           MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                          VOLUME IV.--No. 1.


[Illustration]

                         The Sense of Taste.


The tongue, which has so much to do with talking, has a good deal to
do with tasting. It is indeed one of the chief instruments by which
the sensation of taste is experienced. The palate is also another
organ of importance in the perception of taste.

The tongue is always moistened with saliva, which instantly dissolves
the surface of anything that is put into the mouth. Some portion of
the particles being taken upon the tongue, this latter is pressed
against the roof of the mouth, thus bringing them in contact with the
nerves which coat the surface of the mouth and palate. It is by means
of these nerves that the qualities of substances are perceived and the
sensation which we call taste is excited.

It will be perceived that the saliva of the mouth is one great cause
of all taste. When the tongue is rendered dry by disease, or any other
circumstance, the sense of taste is either imperfect or lost. The
pressure of the tongue against the surface of the mouth seems also to
be important in producing the sense of taste; for if you put anything
into your mouth, and hold it open, the sensation is hardly produced.
It is from the effect of this pressure that the act of chewing and
swallowing gives us so much pleasure.

There is a great difference in people, as to the degree of perfection
in which they possess this sense; for in some, it is very blunt, while
in others, it is very acute. There is a difference also as to the
things that people like. Some are fond of cheese, and others cannot
endure it. The Esquimaux are delighted with the flavor of blubber oil;
the Indians of Guiana feast upon monkeys; the negroes of south-western
Africa are fond of baked dogs; the Chinese eat rats, lizards and
puppies; the French rank snails and frogs among their nicest tit-bits;
yet all these things are revolting to us.

This diversity arises chiefly from custom and habit; for originally
our perceptions are, no doubt, nearly the same. It is certainly so
with animals; for every horse and every ox, in a natural state, eats
or rejects the same species of food.

The word taste is frequently used in what is called a metaphorical
sense, for the purpose of expressing the feelings of the mind. A
person who loves poetry is said to have a taste for poetry; by which
is meant that he has a mind which feels and appreciates the qualities
of poetry, just as the tongue feels or appreciates the qualities of
food.

It is in the same sense that we say, a person has a taste for
painting, or music, or any other art. When we say a person has fine
taste, we mean that his mental perceptions are very acute.




                      The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                             CHAPTER IX.


Agreeably to their plan, the sable-hunters continued at the hut,
following the game, day after day, with the greatest ardor. The forest
proved to be very extensive, stretching out for miles upon both sides
of a little river that flowed into the Lena. It was the depth of
winter, and snow fell almost every day; yet they were seldom prevented
from going forth by the weather. They were very successful in their
hunting, and a day seldom passed in which they did not bring home some
game. They killed several bears and wolves, and a great number of
sables, ermines, martens, squirrels and lynxes.

In all their expeditions, Alexis was among the most active,
persevering, and skilful of the party. It was a great object in
obtaining the finer furs, to kill the animals without breaking the
skin of the body. In this art, Alexis excelled; for he could shoot
with such precision, as to bring down his game, by putting only a
single shot through the head. But he was of an ardent temper, and
sometimes his zeal led him into danger. One day, being at a distance
from his party, he saw a silver fox, and he pursued him for several
hours, entirely forgetting that he was separated from his friends, and
wandering to a great distance, amid the mazes of the woods.

At last, in pursuing the fox, he entered a wild and rocky dell, where
perpendicular cliffs, fringed by cedars and hemlocks, frowned over the
glen. Plunging into the place, which seemed like a vast cavern, he
soon came near the object of his pursuit, and brought him to the
ground. Before he had time to pick up his game, he saw a couple of
sables peering through a crevice in a decayed oak that had rooted
itself in the rocks above. Loading his gun, he fired, and the animals
immediately disappeared within the cavity. Believing that they were
killed, he clambered up the steep face of the precipice with great
labor and no little danger. At length, he reached the foot of the tree
which leaned from the cliff, over the dark valley beneath. Immediately
he began to ascend it, hardly observing, in his eagerness, that it was
rotten to the very root, and trembled throughout its whole extent, as
he ascended.

Up he went, heedless of all but the game, until he reached the
crevice, where two sables, of the largest kind, lay dead. He took them
out, and, for the first time, looked beneath. He was touched with a
momentary thrill of fear as he gazed down and perceived the gulf that
yawned beneath him. At the same moment, he heard a crackling at the
roots of the tree, and perceived a descending motion in the limbs to
which he clung. He now knew that he was falling, and that, with the
vast mass, he must descend into the valley beneath. The moment was
almost too awful for thought: yet his mind turned to his father and
sister, with a feeling of farewell, and a prayer to Heaven for his
soul. How swift is the wing of thought in the moment of peril! He felt
himself rushing downward through the air; he closed his eyes; there
was a horrid crash in his ears, and he knew no more. The sound of the
falling oak rung through the glen, and in the space of a few minutes
the figure of a man, clothed in furs, was seen emerging from one of
the caverns, at a little distance. He approached the spot where Alexis
had fallen; but at first nothing was to be seen save the trunk of the
tree, now completely imbedded in the snow. The man was about to turn
away, when he saw the fox lying at a little distance, and then
remarked one of the sables, also buried in the snow. Perceiving that
the animal was warm, as if just killed, he looked around for the
hunter. Not seeing him, the truth seemed at once to flash upon his
mind; and he began to dig in the snow beneath the trunk of the tree.
Throwing off his bear-skin coat and a huge wolf-skin cap, and seizing
upon a broken limb of the tree, he labored with prodigious strength
and zeal. A large excavation was soon made, and pretty soon he found
the cap of Alexis. This increased his zeal, and he continued to dig
with unabated ardor for more than an hour. Buried at the depth of
eight feet in the snow, he found the young man, and with great labor
took him out from the place in which he was imbedded, and which, but
for this timely aid, had been his grave. The surface of the snow was
so hard as to bear the man’s weight, provided as he was with the
huntsman’s broad-soled shoes of skins. Still it was with great
difficulty that he could carry Alexis forward. He, however, succeeded
in bearing him to his cave. Here he had the satisfaction of soon
finding that the youth was still alive; that he was indeed only
stunned, and otherwise entirely unhurt. He soon awoke from his
insensibility, and looking around, inquired where he was. “You are
safe,” said the stranger, “and in my castle, where no one will come to
molest you. You are safe; and now tell me your name.”

For a moment, Alexis was bewildered, and could not recollect his name,
but after a little time, he said falteringly, “Pultova,--my name is
Alexis Pultova.”

“Pultova!” said the stranger, with great interest; “are you of
Warsaw--the son of Paul Pultova?”

“I am,” was the reply.

“Yes,” said the other, “you are, I see by your resemblance, you are
the son of my noble friend, General Pultova. And what brought you
here?”

“I am a hunter,” said Alexis.

“Alas, alas,” said the man, “and so it is with the brave, and the
noble, and the chivalrous sons of poor stricken Poland: scattered over
this desolate region of winter--this wild and lone Siberia--banished,
forgotten, save only to be pursued, crushed by the vengeful heel of
power. Oh God! O Heaven! how long will thy justice permit such cruelty
toward those whose only crime is, that they loved their country too
well?” Saying these words, the stranger’s bosom heaved convulsively,
the tears fell fast down his cheeks, and, as if ashamed of his
emotion, he rushed out of the cavern.

Alexis was greatly moved, yet his curiosity was excited, and he began
to look around to ascertain what all this might mean. He now, for the
first time, recollected his fall from the tree. He perceived that he
was in a lofty cavern, in which he saw a bed made of skins, a gun, and
various other trappings belonging to a hunter. He justly concluded
that he had been rescued by the stranger; and when he returned, as he
did in a few minutes, he poured out his grateful thanks to him for
saving his life.

The two now fell into conversation: and Alexis heard the details of
his own rescue, as well as the story of the hunter. He was a Polish
nobleman, who had taken part in the struggle for liberty, and who had
also shared in the doom of those patriots who survived the issue.
While they were conversing, they thought they heard sounds without,
and going to the mouth of the cave, they perceived voices in the glen.
Alexis soon recognised the piercing tones of Linsk, and immediately
answered him. The old hunter, with his two sons, soon came up, and
there was a hearty shaking of hands all round. The whole story was
soon told, and the hunters were invited by the stranger into the cave.

The evening was now approaching, and Linsk, with his party, being
pressed to spend the night at the cave, cheerfully accepted the
request. A fire was soon kindled, a haunch of fat bear’s meat was
roasted, and the company sat down to their meal. There was for a time
a good deal of hilarity; for, even in comfortless situations, a sense
of deliverance from peril breaks into the heart, scattering with its
brief sunshine the gloom that is around. So it was with the hunters,
in the bosom of that dark cavern, and in that scene and season of
winter; the laugh, the joke, and the story passed from one to the
other. Even the stern and stony brow of the stranger relaxed at some
of the droll remarks and odd phrases of Linsk, and unconsciously he
became interested in the passing scene.

When Linsk had done ample justice to the meal, he hitched back a
little from the circle which sat around, and, wiping his greasy lips
and hands, using the sleeve of his wolf-skin coat instead of a
pocket-handkerchief, he said, “Well, master Alexis, this jump of
yours, from the top of a mountain into the middle of a valley, beats
all the capers of that kind which I ever heard of; but as to your
going eight feet into the snow, that’s nothing. I once knew a fellow
who spent a winter at Kamschatka, and he says that the snow falls
there to such a depth as sometimes to cover up houses. He told one
thumping story of what happened to himself.”

“What was it?--tell it,” was uttered by several voices. Thus invited,
Linsk proceeded to relate the following tale.

“The man I spoke of was one of your short, tough little runts, and
very like a weasel--hard to catch, hard to kill, and worth very little
when you’ve got him. I forget now what it was led him off to such a
wild place as Kamschatka; but I believe it was because he was of a
restless make, and so, being always moving, he finally got to the end
of the world. Nor was this restlessness his only peculiarity--he was
one of those people to whom something odd is always happening; for you
know that there are folks to whom ill-luck sticks just as natural as a
burr to a bear’s jacket.

“Well, Nurly Nutt--for that was the young fellow’s name--found himself
one winter at Kamschatka. It was far to the north, where the sun goes
down for six months at a time, and brandy freezes as hard as a stone.
However, the people find a way to melt the brandy; and, by the rays of
the moon, or the northern lights, which make it almost as light as
day, they have their frolics, as well as other people.

“It chanced to be a hard winter, and the snow was very deep. However,
the people tackled up their dogs, hitched them to their sledges, and
cantered away over the snow like so many witches. Nurly was a great
hand at a frolic, especially if the girls were of the mess; and he
went on at such a rate as to become quite a favorite with the softer
sex. But it so happened, that, just as the girls became eager to catch
Nurly, he wouldn’t be caught, you know--a thing that’s very
disobliging, though it’s very much the way of the world.

“There was one black-eyed girl that particularly liked our little
hero; and he liked her well enough, but still he wouldn’t come to the
point of making her an offer of his heart. Well, they went on flirting
and frolicking for some time, and a great many moonlight rides they
had over the snow-crust. Well, one night they were out with a party,
skimming over the vast plain, when they came to a steep ridge, and the
leader of the train of sledges must needs go over it. It was hard work
for the dogs, but they scrabbled up one after another.

“Now Nurly and his little lass were behind all the rest, and, for some
reason of their own, they were a good deal behind. However, they
ascended the hill; but, as luck would have it, just as they got to the
top, the sledge slipped aside, and tipped the pair over. The sledge
went on, and all the more swiftly that the dogs had a lighter load;
but down the hillside went Nurly and the girl, her arms around him, as
if she had been a bear and he a cub. At last they came to the bottom
with a terrible thump, the crust broke through, and in a moment they
were precipitated down some five and twenty feet! Both were stunned;
but soon recovering, they looked around. What was their amazement to
find themselves in a street, and before a little church! Just by their
side was an image of the Virgin!

“‘What can it mean?’ said Nurly.

“‘It is a warning!’ said the lass.

“‘And what must we do?’ said the other.

“‘Why, Nurly, don’t you understand?’ replied the girl.

“‘I’ll be hanged if I do,’ said the youth.

“‘Shall I tell you?’ said the girl.

“‘Certainly,’ said he.

“‘Well, Nurly,’ replied the lass, ‘we have been a good deal together,
and we like each other very well, and yet we go on, and nothing comes
of it. We dance and ride, and ride and dance, and still nothing comes
of it. Well, one night we go forth in the sledge; the train passes on;
it courses over a hill. They all go safely. You and I alone meet with
a miracle. We are hurled to the valley--we descend into a new world; a
church is before us--we are alone--saving the presence of the blessed
Virgin, and she smiles upon us.’ The girl hesitated.

“‘Go on,’ said Nurly.

“‘Well--the Virgin smiles--and here is a church--’

“‘Well, and what of it--pray what does it all mean?’ said the fellow.

“‘You are as stupid as a block!’ said the lass, weeping.

“‘I can’t help it,’ said Nurly Nutt.

“‘You can help it--you must help it!’ replied the girl, smartly. ‘We
must make a vow. Take my hand and say after me.’ He now obeyed.

“‘We do here take a most holy vow, before the blessed Virgin, and at
the door of the church, that we will love each other till death, and,
as soon as we can find a priest, that we will mutually pledge our vows
as man and wife, forever: and so may Heaven help us.’

“‘Whew!’ said Nurly; but at the same time he kissed his betrothed.

“They then began to look around. They saw a passage leading to some
houses. They passed along, and there found a village all buried
beneath the snow. There were paths dug out along the streets and from
house to house. Here the people dwelt, as if nothing had happened.
They had herds of deer, and plenty of bear’s meat; and thus they lived
till spring came to melt away the snow, and deliver them from their
prison. Nurly and his little wife stayed in the village till spring,
and then went to their friends. They had been given up as lost;--so
there was great rejoicing when they got back. Nurly was laughed at a
little for the advantage taken of his ignorance and surprise by the
lass of the black eyes; but he was still content, for she made him a
good little wife. He brought her all the way to Okotsk, and settled
there. It was at that place I saw him, and heard the story. It sounds
queer--but I believe it true.”

When Linsk had done, the stranger made some remarks, alluding to his
own history. Linsk, in a very respectful manner, begged him to state
the adventures of which he spoke, and the man went on as follows:--

“I am a native of Poland. You see me here, clothed in skins, and a
mere hunter like yourselves. I am but a man, and a very poor one,
though the noblest blood of my country flows in my veins. I had a vast
estate, situated almost thirty miles from Warsaw. I there became
acquainted with a Russian princess, and loved her. My love was
returned, and we vowed fidelity to each other for life. The revolution
broke out, and I took an active part in it. My suit had been favored
by the emperor before, but now I was informed that he frowned upon my
hopes and wishes, and that he looked upon me with a special desire of
vengeance. Twice was I assailed by ruffians in the streets of Warsaw,
hired to take my life. In battle, I was repeatedly set upon by men,
who had been offered large rewards if they would kill or capture me;
but I escaped all these dangers.

“The princess whom I loved was in the Russian camp. I was one of a
party who broke in, by a desperate assault, and surrounded the house
where she dwelt. We took her captive, and carried her to Warsaw. She
was offended, and would not see me. She contrived her escape; but I
was near her all the time, even during her flight. As we were about to
part, I made myself known to her, and asked her forgiveness. She wept,
and leaned on my breast.

“Warsaw had that day fallen; the hopes of liberty had perished; Poland
was conquered; the emperor was master over the lives and fortunes of
the people, and too well did we know his cruel nature to have any
other hope than that of the gallows, the dungeon, or Siberia.

“I told these things to the princess. She heard me, and said she would
share my fate. While we were speaking, a close carriage and six horses
came near. It was night, but the moon was shining brightly. I
perceived it to be the carriage of Nicholas, the emperor; but at the
moment I recognised it, it was set upon by four men on horseback, who
rushed out of an adjacent thicket. They were heavily armed, and,
discharging their pistols, killed the postillion and one of the guard.
There were but three of the emperor’s men left, and these would have
been quickly despatched, had I not dashed in, with my two attendants,
to the rescue. One of the robbers was killed, and the others fled.

“Though Nicholas is harsh, he is no coward. He had just leaped from
the carriage, when the ruffians had escaped. He was perfectly cool,
and, turning to me, surveyed me for an instant. He had often seen me
at court, and I think he recognised me. ‘To whom do I owe my safety?’
said he. ‘To a rebel!’ said I; and we parted.

“The carriage passed on. The princess had witnessed the whole scene,
though she had not been observed by the emperor’s party. I returned to
her. She seemed to have changed her mind, and begged me to see her
conducted to the emperor’s camp. ‘You are now safe,’ said she. ‘You
have saved the Czar’s life, and that insures you his forgiveness--his
gratitude. I know him well. In matters of government he is severe; but
in all personal things he is noble and generous. I will plead your
cause, and I know I shall prevail. Your life, your fortune, your
honor, are secure.’

“I adopted her views, though with much anxiety. I conducted her near
to the Russian camp, and she was then taken in safety to the Czar’s
tent. Soon after, she went to St. Petersburgh, since which I have
heard nothing of her. The judgment of the enraged emperor fell like a
thunderbolt upon the insurgents of Poland. The blood of thousands was
shed upon the scaffold. Thousands were shut up in dungeons, never more
to see the light or breathe the air of heaven. Thousands more were
banished to Siberia, and myself among the number. The emperor’s hard
heart knew no mercy. Here I am, and here, alone, am I resolved to
die.”

This story was told with such energy, and with an air so lofty and
stern, as to make all the party afraid to speak. Soon after, the
stranger left the cave for a short time, as if the thoughts excited by
his narrative could not brook the confinement of the cavern. He soon
returned, and all retired to rest. In the morning the hunters took
leave, Alexis bearing with him a rich present of furs from the hermit,
several of them the finest of sables. One of these was carefully
rolled up, and Alexis was instructed in a whisper to see that, if
possible, it should be sent to the princess Lodoiska! At the same
time, he was told never to reveal the name and character of the
stranger whom he had met, and was also requested to enjoin secrecy
upon his companions.

Linsk and his party went back to their hut; and in a few weeks, having
obtained a large amount of rich furs, they took advantage of the
sledges of some Tungusians, going to Yakoutsk, and returned to that
place, making a brisk and rapid journey of several hundred miles in a
few days. Alexis little expected the news which awaited his arrival.




THE following complimentary toast to the ladies was given at a
railroad celebration in Pennsylvania: “Woman--the morning star of our
youth; the day star of our manhood; the evening star of our old age.
God bless our stars!” 




[Illustration]

                             Hay-Making.

No part of the business of farming is more pleasant than hay-making.
It is true, that to mow the grass, and make the hay in the broiling
sun of July, is rather hard work; yet, after all, hay-makers are
usually a cheerful, merry, frolicsome set of people.

There are few sounds more pleasant than those produced by the whetting
of the mower’s scythe. This proceeds from the ideas that are
associated with it. It is then that the summer flowers are in full
bloom; it is then that their sweet perfume is borne upon every breeze;
it is then that the song of the bobolink, the meadow-lark, the oriole,
and the robin, is heard from every bush, and field, and tree.

When, therefore, we hear the ringing of the mower’s scythe, ideas of
the flowers, of their fair forms, and lovely hues, and delicious
fragrance; of the birds, and their joyous minstrelsy, come thronging
into the mind, thus producing very agreeable emotions.

Nor is this all--the hay-making season is a time when children can go
forth to roam in freedom where they will; to chase the butterfly, or
pluck the flowers, or dabble in the brook, or stoop down and drink
from the rivulet, or sit at leisure beneath the cooling shade of the
trees. It is a time when the poor are relieved from the pinches of
Jack Frost; when the young are gay, and the old are cheerful. It is
the time when people saunter forth at evening, and feel that they
might live in the open air,--when the merry laugh is heard in the
village, at sunset; when the notes of the flute steal through the
valley, and many a musical sound comes down from the hill.

Hay-making, then, is a season of many pleasures, and the word brings
to our minds, perhaps, more agreeable associations, than almost any
other. 




                             Limby Lumpy;

                    OR, THE BOY WHO WAS SPOILED BY
                              HIS MAMMA.


Limby Lumpy was the only son of his mamma. His father was called the
“pavier’s assistant;” for he was so large and heavy, that, when he
used to walk through the streets, the men who were ramming the stones
down, with a large wooden rammer, would say, “Please to walk over
these stones, sir.” And then the men would get a rest.

Limby was born on the 1st of April; I do not know how long ago; but,
before he came into the world, such preparations were made! There was
a beautiful cradle; and a bunch of coral, with bells on it; and lots
of little caps; and a fine satin hat; and nice porringers for pap; and
two nurses to take care of him. He was, too, to have a little chaise,
when he grew big enough; after that, he was to have a donkey, and then
a pony. In short, he was to have the moon for a plaything, if it could
be got; and as to the stars, he would have had them, if they had not
been too high to reach.

Limby made a rare to do when he was a little baby. But he never was a
_little_ baby--he was always a big baby; nay, he was a big baby till
the day of his death.

“Baby Big,” his mamma used to call him; he was “a noble baby,” said
his aunt; he was “a sweet baby,” said old Mrs. Tomkins, the nurse; he
was “a dear baby,” said his papa,--and so he was, for he _cost_ a good
deal. He was “a darling baby,” said his aunt, by the mother’s side;
“there never was such a fine child,” said everybody, before the
parents; when they were at another place, they called him “a great,
ugly, fat child.”

We call it polite in this world to say a thing to please people,
although we think exactly the contrary. This is one of the things the
philosopher Democrates, that you may have heard of, would have laughed
at.

Limby was almost as broad as he was long. He had what some people call
an open countenance; that is, one as broad as a full moon. He had what
his mamma called beautiful auburn locks, but what other people said
were carroty;--not before the mother, of course.

Limby had a flattish nose and a widish mouth, and his eyes were a
little out of the right line. Poor little dear, he could not help
that, and, therefore, it was not right to laugh at him.

Everybody, however, laughed to see him eat his pap; for he would not
be fed with the patent silver pap-spoon which his father bought him;
but used to lay himself flat on his back, and seize the pap-boat with
both hands, and never let go of it till its contents were fairly in
his dear little stomach.

So Limby grew bigger and bigger every day, till at last he could
scarcely draw his breath, and was very ill; so his mother sent for
three apothecaries and two physicians, who looked at him,--told his
mamma there were no hopes; the poor child was dying of over-feeding.
The physicians, however, prescribed for him--a dose of castor oil!

His mamma attempted to give him the castor oil; but Limby, although he
liked sugar plums, and cordial, and pap, and sweetbread, and oysters,
and other things nicely dished up, had no fancy for castor oil, and
struggled, and kicked, and fought, every time his nurse or mamma
attempted to give it to him.

“Limby, my darling boy,” said his mamma, “my sweet cherub, my only
dearest, do take the oily poily--there’s a ducky, deary--and it shall
ride in a coachy poachy.”

“Oh! the dear baby,” said the nurse, “take it for nursey. It will take
it for nursey--that it will.”

The nurse had got the oil in a silver medicine-spoon, so contrived,
that if you could get it into the child’s mouth the medicine must go
down. Limby, however, took care that no spoon should go into his
mouth; and, when the nurse tried the experiment for the nineteenth
time, he gave a plunge and a kick, and sent the spoon up to the
ceiling, knocked off nurse’s spectacles, upset the table on which all
the bottles and glasses were, and came down whack on the floor.

His mother picked him up, clasped him to her breast, and almost
smothered him with kisses. “Oh! my dear boy,” said she, “it shan’t
take the nasty oil--it won’t take it, the darling;--naughty nurse to
hurt baby: it shall not take nasty physic;” and then she kissed him
again.

Poor Limby, although only two years old, knew what he was at--he was
trying to get the mastery of his mamma; he felt that he had gained his
point, and gave another kick and a squall, at the same time planting a
blow on his mother’s eye.

“Dear little creature,” said she, “he is in a state of high
convulsions and fever--he will never recover!”

But Limby did recover, and in a few days was running about the house,
and the master of it; there was nobody to be considered, nobody to be
consulted, nobody to be attended to, but Limby Lumpy.

Limby grew up big and strong; he had everything his own way. One day,
when he was at dinner with his father and mother, perched upon an arm
chair, with his silver knife and fork, and silver mug to drink from,
he amused himself by playing drums on his plate with the mug.

“Don’t make that noise, Limby, my dear,” said his father. “Dear little
lamb,” said his mother, “let him amuse himself. Limby have some
pudding?”

“No; Limby no pudding--drum! drum! drum!”

A piece of pudding was, however, put on Limby’s plate, but he kept on
drumming as before. At last he drummed the bottom of the mug into the
soft pudding, to which it stuck, and by which means it was scattered
all over the carpet.

“Limby, my darling!” said his mother; and the servant was called to
wipe Limby’s mug, and pick the pudding up from the floor. Limby would
not have his mug wiped, and floundered about, and upset the castors
and the mustard on the table-cloth.

“Oh! Limby Lumpy;--naughty boy,” said his father.

“Don’t speak so cross to the child;--he is but a child,” said his
mother: “I do not like to hear you speak so cross to the child.”

“I tell you what it is,” said his father, “I think the boy does as he
likes; but I do not want to interfere.”

Limby now sat still, resolving what to do next. He was not hungry,
having been stuffed with a large piece of pound cake about an hour
before dinner; but he wanted something to do, and could not sit still.

Presently a saddle of mutton was brought on the table. When Limby saw
this he set up a crow of delight. “Limby ride,” said he, “Limby ride;”
and rose up in his chair, as if to reach the dish.

“Yes, my ducky, it shall have some mutton,” said his mamma; and
immediately gave him a slice, cut up into small morsels. That was not
it. Limby pushed that unto the floor, and cried out, “Limby on meat!
Limby on meat!”

His mamma could not think what he meant. At last, however, his father
recollected that he had been in the habit of giving him a ride
occasionally, first on his foot, sometimes on the scroll end of the
sofa, at other times on the top of the easy chair. Once he put him on
a dog, and more than once on the saddle; in short, he had been in the
habit of perching him on various things; and now Limby, hearing this
was a _saddle_ of mutton, wanted to take a ride on it.

“Limby on--Limby ride on bone,” said the child, in a whimper.

“Did you _ever hear_?” said the father.

“What an extraordinary child!” said the mother; “how clever to know it
was like a saddle--the little dear. No, no, Limby--grease frock,
Limby!”

But Limby cared nothing about a greasy frock, not he--he was used
enough to that; and therefore roared out more lustily for a ride on
the mutton.

“Did you ever know such a child? What a dear, determined spirit!”

“He is a child of an uncommon mind,” said his mother. “Limby,
dear--Limby, dear--silence! silence!”

The truth was, Limby made such a roaring, that neither father or
mother could get their dinners, and scarcely knew whether they were
eating beef or mutton.

“It is impossible to let him ride on the mutton,” said his father:
“quite impossible!”

“Well, but you might just put him astride the dish, just to satisfy
him; you can take care his legs or clothes do not go into the gravy.”

“Anything for a quiet life,” said the father. “What does Limby
want?--Limby ride?”

“Limby on bone!--Limby on meat!”

“Shall I put him across?” said Mr. Lumpy.

“Just for one moment,” said his mamma: “it won’t hurt the mutton.”

The father rose, and took Limby from his chair, and, with the greatest
caution, held his son’s legs astride, so that they might hang on each
side of the dish without touching it; “just to satisfy him,” as he
said, “that they might dine in quiet,” and was about to withdraw him
from it immediately. But Limby was not to be cheated in that way--he
wished to feel the saddle under him, and accordingly forced himself
down upon it; but feeling it rather warmer than was agreeable,
started, lost his balance, and fell down among the dishes, soused in
melted butter, cauliflower, and gravy--floundering, and kicking, and
screaming, to the detriment of glasses, jugs, dishes, and everything
else on the table.

“My child! my child!” said his mamma; “oh! save my child!”

She snatched him up, and pressed his begreased garments close to the
bosom of her best silk gown.

Neither father nor mother wanted any more dinner after this. As to
Limby, he was as frisky afterwards as if nothing had happened; and,
about half an hour from the time of this disaster, _cried for his
dinner_.--_Martin’s Holiday Book._




                                Lime.


Lime, in combination with the acids, is applied to a great number of
useful purposes. It is employed in making mortar for building; by the
farmer as a manure; also by bleachers, tanners, sugar-bakers, and
others; it is used also in medicine.

_In agriculture_, it is used for its properties of hastening the
dissolution and putrefaction of all animal and vegetable matters, and
of imparting to the soil the powers of imbibing and retaining moisture
necessary for the nourishment and vigorous growth of plants.

_In tanning leather_, it is used to dissolve the gelatinous part of
the skin, and to facilitate the removal of the hair, for which purpose
the hides are immersed in a solution of lime.

_In refining sugar_, it is used to destroy a certain acid, which would
else prevent the crystallization of the sugar.

_In the manufacture of soap_, it is mixed with the alkali, in order to
deprive it of its carbonic acid, to render it caustic, and by this
means fit it to combine with the oil or tallow, which is thereby
converted into soap.

_In the manufacture of glue_, lime is used to prevent its becoming
flexible by the absorption of moisture, and to add to its strength.




                The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                          of Thomas Trotter.


                            CHAPTER XXII.

  _Journey to Florence.--Face of the country.--Narni.--A
     thunder-storm among the Appenines.--Strange method of
     stilling a tempest.--Crossing the mountains.--Spoleto.--The
     Clitumnus.--Foligno.--A town shaken by an earthquake.--
     Perugia.--The battle of Thrasymenus.--Tuscany.--The Italian
     Yankees.--Florence.--Beauty of the city.--Manners of the
     people._

On the morning of the 18th of May, I left Rome for Florence. The
coachman pays all expenses of meals and lodging on the road, which
secures the passengers from the impositions of the innkeepers, who
will generally make the most exorbitant charges when they get a
traveller in their power. My companions were a couple of jolly Italian
priests; a young Frenchman, full of _harum scarum_ liveliness; a grave
old Polander, and a Roman country girl. The sun rose gloriously over
the Appenines as we left the city behind us, and the soft, balmy
breeze of the morning seemed to give life and freshness ‘to
everything. The lofty peaks of the Appenines, however, were covered
with snow. After leaving the desert level of the Campagna, we came to
a delightful country of green meadows, interspersed with fields of
wheat, and long ridges of blue mountains at a distance. People were
mowing in the field: and the patches of wheat were curiously spotted
over with red poppies. Beyond this the country became still more
beautifully picturesque. Several old towers, with crumbling ruins and
grass-grown walls, added to the variety and interest of the landscape.
As we approached the Appenines, the country grew wilder, but
everywhere exhibited a succession of enchanting views. There appeared
little cultivation: the trees were chiefly olive and ilex. The
mountains were covered with trees of a stunted growth.

On the afternoon of the second day we stopped at Narni, a village
standing on a high rocky cliff, overlooking the vale of Terni. From
the window of our inn, as I looked up the valley, I discerned a black
thunder-cloud gathering on the mountains, and advised our driver not
to go forward for the present. Presently the cloud began to roll down
the valley toward us, spreading out its dark folds so as to fill the
whole extent of the vale. I contemplated the approach of this mountain
giant with feelings of sublimity and awe. The air, which at first had
been in a dead calm and burning heat, now began to move, with cool
breezes, which rapidly increased to a furious gale. In the midst of
the tempest I was struck with a noise of what I supposed to be a clap
of thunder, but which exactly resembled the report of a musket.
Presently another, and another, and another, like a running fire of
musketry, caused me to doubt whether it was really thunder. Casting my
eyes up the steep sides of the crag on which the town is built, I saw
muskets popping out and firing from the windows of every house. “What
is the meaning of this?” asked I of a little boy who stood by. “To
break the gale,” he replied. “See how it blows:--in a minute or two
the wind will all go down.” Sure enough, in a few minutes the wind
ceased, and a tremendous shower of rain, with thunder and lightning,
followed; after which the clouds swept off, and all was clear and
serene.

The villagers informed me that this was always done at the approach of
a thunder-cloud; and that their guns never failed to break the storm
and bring down rain. Strange as this may appear, it is easily
explained. The explosion of firearms has the effect of thunder in
giving a shock or electrical impulse to the air, and condensing the
vapor into rain. There is no doubt that many of our dry storms might
be converted into copious showers by the firing of cannon.

Our road now led us among the most savage and rugged portion of the
Appenines. The ascent in many places was so steep that we took oxen at
the country houses to assist our horses in dragging the carriage up
the hills. Our conductor told us of a robbery that, a week before, had
been committed here upon a company of English travellers. We also took
notice of the crosses and piles of stones set up here and there, where
murders had been committed. These would not be thought very
comfortable things to amuse a traveller among the wild and lonely
mountains. Towards night we met a company of malefactors, in chains,
guarded by a file of soldiers. All these things gave a touch of
romance to our travelling. But we passed the time very agreeably. The
priests were saying their prayers and cracking jokes alternately, so
that it was hard to tell whether they were most devout or waggish.
That night we slept at a lonely house up in the mountains. We were not
disturbed by robbers, and I was lulled to sleep by the song of the
nightingales, who made the woods echo with their sweet melody all
night long.

We set out early in the morning, and, descending the mountains, passed
through Spoleto, a city whose romantic situation, with the blue
mountain peaks towering above it, struck me with delight and
admiration. During a short stay here for breakfast, my ghostly
companions carried me off to the house of the bishop, who was greatly
delighted to see a man from the new world. Americans hardly ever take
this city in their route. Beyond Spoleto, we crossed the little stream
of the Clitumnus, famous of old for the clearness of its waters. We
stopped to dine at Foligno, a town which had been shaken by an
earthquake a few months previous. The walls of the houses were twisted
all out of shape, and in many of the streets great beams of wood
extended across from wall to wall, to keep the houses from tumbling
down.

A comical blind fellow, as he called himself, came begging after me in
the streets. I was about to give him some money, but observed he had a
marvellous instinct in stepping over all the puddles that lay in his
way. I asked him how it happened that blind men never wet their feet.
He answered that they could always smell the water. “Yes,” replied I,
“and I can sometimes smell an impostor.” We went on as far as Perugia,
an ancient Etruscan city, standing, as almost all these cities do, on
the top of a hill, and having clean and neatly paved streets. The
walls of this city are three thousand years old. In the morning our
road descended the hills into a beautiful plain. The women were in the
fields, spinning and tending sheep. We came in sight of the lake of
Perugia, the ancient Thrasymenus, and found a thin white fog lying on
the surface of the lake, just as it was on the morning of the terrible
battle, when Hannibal overthrew the Romans with such slaughter that
the rivulet, which flowed through the battle-field, ran with blood. It
thence received the name of _Sanguinetto_, which it bears at this day.

This was the only fog I saw in Italy. Early in the forenoon, it
vanished before the rays of the sun; and as we passed along the shores
of the lake we contemplated with deep interest this fine sheet of
water, diversified by a few little islands and skirted with green
hills. All the scenery was rural, peaceful and soothing; and it was
strange to think that on the verdant banks of this silvery lake, two
mighty armies had once contended for the empire of the world! Beyond
the lake, our path wound up a steep hill, where we stopped at the
custom-house, for here we were to take leave of the Pope’s territory.
While the officers were examining our passports, I read over Livy’s
admirable description of the battle, the field of which lay directly
at my feet. I could almost imagine I saw the furious hosts in actual
conflict. The concluding passage is remarkable.

“Such was the terrible shock of the conflicting hosts, and so absorbed
was every mind in the tumult of the battle, that the great earthquake
of that day, which prostrated many cities in Italy, stopped the course
of rivers, raised the ocean from its depths, and overthrew
mountains,--passed unheeded by a single one of the combatants!”

A few miles brought us into Tuscany; and here we were struck with a
remarkable improvement in the appearance of the people and the face of
the country. The inhabitants are tidily dressed, clean and
industrious. The roads are in excellent repair. The towns and villages
are neat and thriving. The Tuscans, in fact, are the Yankees of Italy,
and their country stands in much the same relation to the rest of the
peninsula, that New England does to the other portion of the United
States. It has a hard, rugged soil, and a comparatively cool climate.
But the inhabitants are industrious, shrewd, inventive and
persevering. They are also remarkable for their civil and obliging
manners. It was a real enjoyment to see their cheerful faces after
being accustomed to the sombre looks and reserved manners of the
Romans.

All along the road were rows of mulberry trees, with vines gracefully
trained in festoons from tree to tree. The hillsides were covered with
olive groves. The oxen in the fields were all white, and curiously
ornamented with headdresses of red tassels. From Castiglione, a little
town on the top of a mountain, I had a most enchanting view of the Val
di Chiana at my feet. It is skirted by lofty mountains and covered
with rich green fields, dotted with innumerable white houses, that
made me think of New England. From this place to Florence, the road
goes constantly up and down hill, with perpetual variations of fine
scenery, rich cornfields, vineyards, and hills crowned with groves of
olive. We were now in the Val d’Arno, and saw additional marks of the
industry of the Tuscan peasantry. All the productive land was under
excellent cultivation, and the country-houses were neat, tidy and
comfortable. I was struck with the peculiar shape of the chimneys,
which are not, as with us, mere square blocks of masonry, but carved
into graceful and picturesque shapes, like the turrets of a castle, so
as to be highly ornamental. Two or three other large towns lay in our
way, but my limits will not allow me here to describe them. The road
led along the Arno, which is here a narrow stream, with high rocky
banks. It is shallow, and little used for navigation above Florence.

This beautiful city is surrounded by lofty hills, covered with
vineyards, olive groves, gardens, country seats and palaces.
Everything around it is beautiful: the landscape is fresh, verdant and
smiling; the buildings are neat and picturesque, and all looks
thriving and comfortable. “Florence the fair” deserves her title. From
the summit of one of the surrounding hills, you look down upon the
white walls of the city, crowned with domes and towers, and trace the
windings of the Arno into the rich green valley below. The interior
does not disappoint these favorable impressions. The houses are all
well built, and the streets neatly paved with flat stones, as smooth
as a floor. This feature is characteristic of all the old Etruscan
cities. Fellows with little donkey carts, brooms and shovels, are
constantly going up and down the streets, picking up every particle of
dust, so that the streets are kept perfectly clean. The smooth
pavements make it impossible for horses to run fast over them, but so
much the better for foot-passengers.

Florence is full of old palaces, with immense thick walls, and heavy,
massive architecture. They are, in fact, so many castles, and were
built in turbulent times, when the city was disturbed by civil wars
and factions, and the nobles intrenched themselves in their castles.
The eaves of the houses project six or eight feet; and during showers
you have little need of an umbrella, as the water shoots from the
roofs into the middle of the street. All the buildings are of stone: a
brick is never seen, except occasionally for a hearth, or in the
tiling of a floor. The fine buildings are for the most part of
_macigno_, a stone much like Quincy granite in color, but not so hard.
The common houses are of rough stone, stuccoed and painted. The Duomo
or cathedral, is cased with panels of black and white marble. It is a
stupendous and imposing edifice, but, though begun five or six hundred
years ago, it is not yet finished. The front, which was designed to be
the most splendid part of the edifice, is a mere plastered wall,
because the builders could not decide upon anything rich enough at
first, and so left it to their posterity to finish.

The Florentines seem never to sleep except from dinner-time to sunset.
All night long they are in the streets, singing and pursuing their
amusements. Midnight is the noisiest portion of the twenty-four hours.
People in the streets, however, are never rude or offensively
boisterous; they are only merry and jovial. Nothing can be more civil
and decorous than their behavior, both out of doors and in. A female,
young or old, may walk the whole length of the city at any hour of the
night without fear of being insulted. There was a great gala during my
stay here, on occasion of the grand duke’s wedding. All the population
was collected at the Cascine, or public gardens, just without the city
gates. The festivities were kept up all night: the trees were hung
with thousands of colored lamps; tables were spread everywhere, and
universal merrymaking and jollity prevailed till the morning light.
During all these diversions I did not witness a single act of rudeness
or impropriety of behavior on the part of any person. No noisy
brawling, drunken revelry, indecent language or impertinent puppyism
of demeanor, such as are too apt to disgrace popular assemblages of
miscellaneous persons in other countries.

Our Leghorn straws come chiefly from Florence. A great part of the
employment of the poorer classes of the city and neighborhood is
braiding straw. There are also many manufacturers of silk here. In the
market you may see, every day, bushels of cocoons brought in by the
country people for sale. There appears, however, to be little
wholesale business done here; most of the traders being small
shopkeepers. Living is cheaper than even at Rome, with the single
exception of house-rent, but that is not extravagant. There is quite
an appearance of wealth here: the number of carriages kept by private
persons is surprising. Almost all have livery servants and footmen,
and you see these great strapping fellows, in regimentals and cocked
hats, with swords at their sides, engaged in the exalted employment of
standing behind a carriage, opening doors and holding ladies’
parasols. The cost of keeping a coach, two horses and a coachman is
about a dollar a day! The common soldier’s pay is about a cent per
day.

I cannot stop to describe the pictures and statuary of this city,
though these are the very things which bring most travellers to
Florence. Even without these attractions the place would be the most
agreeable residence in all Italy. The government is liberal to
foreigners, well knowing that they spend much money here. The
inhabitants are exceedingly civil and obliging, both from native
amiability of disposition, and the wish to keep good customers among
them. In consequence of this, Florence has always a great many
foreigners permanently residing in the city and neighborhood. The
banks of the Arno, above the city, and the hill on the slope of
Fiezoli are covered with elegant villas, many of which are inhabited
by English residents.

It is a common proverb, in allusion to the superior fertility of the
Roman soil over the Tuscan--that the Pope has the flesh of Italy, and
the Grand Duke the bones. The Tuscans are industrious; and the Romans
are lazy. I prefer the bones to the flesh!




QUERE.--A writer on school discipline says that it is impossible to
make boys _smart_ without the use of the rod. What do you think of
_that, my young friends_? 




                               Similes.


“Pray, mother, what are _similes_?”

“They are resemblances, my child; the word simile means a thing that
is like another. We often use them to give clearness and energy to our
ideas. I will tell you some similes in common use, and put into rhyme
so that you may remember them.

    “As proud as a peacock--as round as a pea;
     As blithe as a lark--as brisk as a bee.
     As light as a feather--as sure as a gun;
     As green as the grass--as brown as a bun.
     As rich as a Jew--as warm as toast;
     As cross as two sticks--as deaf as a post.
     As sharp as a needle--as strong as an ox;
     As grave as a judge--as sly as a fox.
     As old as the hills--as straight as a dart;
     As still as the grave--as swift as a hart.
     As solid as marble--as firm as a rock;
     As soft as a plum--as dull as a block.
     As pale as a lily--as blind as a bat;
     As white as a sheet--as black as my hat.
     As yellow as gold--as red as a cherry;
     As wet as water--as brown as a berry.
     As plain as a pikestaff--as big as a house;
     As flat as the table--as sleek as a mouse.
     As tall as the steeple--as round as a cheese;
     As broad as ’tis long--as long as you please.”




                 Proverbs and Sayings of the Chinese.


What is told in the ear is often heard a hundred miles.

Riches come better after poverty, than poverty after riches.

Who aims at excellence will be above mediocrity; who aims at
mediocrity will fall short of it.

Old age and faded flowers, no remedies can revive.

One lash to a good horse; one word to a wise man.

A truly great man never puts away the simplicity of a child.

He who toils with pain, will eat with pleasure.

A wise man forgets old grudges. 




[Illustration: _Pocahontas rescuing Captain Smith._]


   Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c., of the Indians of America.


                             CHAPTER XIX.

  _The Indians in the United States--of Virginia.--Powhattan.--
     Arrival of Captain Smith--taken by the Indians--saved by
     Pocahontas.--Some account of her.--War of the colonists.--
     Indians.--Fate of the latter._

A little more than 200 years ago, all the country which now belongs to
the United States of America, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the
great lakes and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, was inhabited by
a race of savage Indians, who roamed, free and independent, through
the vast forests which then covered the land, and gained a scanty
subsistence, mostly by the arts of hunting and fishing. They were
warlike and cruel, always delighting in blood, and never forgiving an
injury; cunning in their plans against their enemies, and very crafty
in concealing them. But towards their friends they were fair and
honest, always keeping their word when once pledged.

They were not, like the Mexicans, united in one nation, living under
the same sovereign; but they were broken up into a multitude of small
independent tribes, under their own chiefs, and almost always at war
with each other. But in their appearance, their manners and customs,
they were all very much alike. We will, therefore, give a short
history of some of their principal tribes, and then an account of the
manners and customs of the whole.

If we begin at the southern part of North America and go north, we
shall find that the farther we proceed, the Indians will be fewer in
number, and more barbarous and ignorant; at the same time that they
are broken up into many more and smaller tribes. In Mexico, for
instance, we find a great, and, as we may say, civilized nation,
living in large cities, and cultivating the earth for a subsistence.
Farther north, we come to the great southern tribes of the United
States. These are the Cherokees, the Chickasaws, the Creeks, and the
Choctaws.

When the country was first settled by the English, these tribes were
all large and powerful; but now they are greatly reduced by their wars
with their white neighbors, the English and French, and by the vices
introduced, by these: still they comprise several hundred warriors,
and large tracts of land in some of the southern states. These states
naturally dislike to have such large, independent tribes within their
borders, and are also desirous of obtaining the fine land of the
Indians, which is known to contain several valuable gold mines. The
government, therefore, is endeavoring to induce them to remove beyond
the Mississippi, by offering them large sums of money, and a fine
tract of land for their new country.

Many have accordingly removed; but there are some yet unwilling to
leave their farms, their firesides, and the graves of their fathers,
to seek new homes and new fields in a strange and distant land. It
will, perhaps, be better that they should go; for, as long as they
remain where they now are, they must expect to be oppressed and
insulted by their more powerful and more civilized neighbors.

North of these tribes, were the Indians of Virginia. They were called
the _Powhattans_, and were governed by a king of the same name. In his
country, the first English colony in America was settled, in the year
1607, under the direction of Captain John Smith, a bold and sagacious
man. The manner in which the first interview between Smith and
Powhattan took place, was romantic and singular.

Smith had gone out in a boat, with a small number of men, to procure
provisions for the colonists, who were almost starving. After sailing
up the river as far as he was able, he left the boat in the care of
the crew, and went out himself to shoot some game for their supper.
But the men whom he had left with the boat were very careless; they
all left it, and wandered along the shore. On a sudden, the Indians
set upon them, wounded several, and took one man prisoner. This man,
after they had compelled him to inform them which way Smith had gone,
they put to death with cruel tortures.

They then followed after Smith. When he first saw them coming, he
attempted to escape to the boat. The Indians pressed on him; but he
used his firearms so well that he soon laid three dead on the ground,
and compelled the rest to keep so far off that their arrows had little
effect. But unluckily, as he was retreating hastily towards the river,
he suddenly sunk up to his middle in a marsh, whence he found it
impossible to get out. After struggling in the cold mire until he was
almost frozen, he threw away his arms and surrendered.

The savages instantly seized upon him and dragged him out in triumph.
They began at once to make ready to put him to death by torture; but
here his sagacity was a means of saving his life. He took out a round
ivory compass, and showed it to them, explaining by signs, as well as
he could, its properties and use, while the Indians listened and
stared in wondering silence. They looked with curiosity at the needle
which always pointed to the north; but when they attempted to touch
it, and found their fingers stopped by the glass, which they could
feel, but not see, they shouted with amazement. They concluded that
the instrument must be the white man’s god, and that he was a great
medicine, or conjurer; they therefore resolved to carry him to their
king, and know his will in disposing of their wonderful captive.

Accordingly, after leading him in triumph through all the principal
towns, they brought him to a place called Wecowocomoco, where
Powhattan resided. Here Smith was introduced to the royal presence.
Powhattan, a majestic and finely formed savage, sat at the farther end
of the hall, on a seat something like a bedstead, clothed in an ample
robe of raccoon skins, with all the tails hanging over him. Along each
wall of the house sat a row of women, and a row of men in front of
them. When Smith was led in, a female of rank brought him water to
wash his hands, and another a bunch of feathers for a towel. The
chiefs then held a long consultation as to his fate.

The result was against him;--he was condemned to die. Two great stones
were laid before Powhattan, and Smith was compelled to lie down, and
place his head upon them; a huge savage stood ready with a club
uplifted, to dash out his brains,--when Pocahontas, the beloved
daughter of the king, rushed forward, and with tears besought her
father to spare the life of the white man. The royal savage
refused;--the fatal club was about to descend; and the Indian girl, as
a last resource, knelt by the side of Smith, threw her arms around
him, laid her head on his, and declared that she would perish with
him.

The heart of the stern chief relented, and he consented to spare the
victim. Smith was released, and soon after sent home to Jamestown.

From this time, as long as Smith remained in the colony, peace was
kept up between the English and the savages. This was owing, mostly,
to the vast ideas which the natives had been led, by certain fortunate
accidents, to form concerning the power of the colonists, and
especially of Smith. The following is one of them:

A pistol having been stolen, Smith seized upon one of the natives, and
threatened to hang him, if it were not returned. The poor fellow was
shut up in a dungeon, with some victuals and a fire, while his brother
went out to seek for the pistol. In a short time, he returned with it;
but when they went to liberate the poor prisoner, they found that the
smoke of his charcoal fire had spread into the room and nearly
smothered him. As it was, he lay, to all appearance, dead, while his
brother was almost distracted with his loss. Smith, in order to quiet
his grief, promised that if he would behave well and never steal any
more, he would bring his brother to life again. The delighted savage
made all sorts of vows and protestations; and the captain, although he
had hardly any hope of being able to recover the smothered man,
ordered him to be carried to his house; where, by a good use of
various remedies, and a sound sleep by the fire, he was completely
restored to his senses. The next morning, the two Indians departed,
rendered happy by the gift of a small piece of copper, and spread
among their tribe the belief that Captain Smith could make a dead man
live.

A few such lucky events inspired the simple Indians with so great a
fear of the captain, that as long as he remained in the colony, they
continued to be friendly; but soon after he departed for England, the
savages began to harass the settlement; at first they refused to
trade, until the colonists, not receiving their usual supply of corn,
began to suffer from famine; the Indians next attacked and cut off
many stragglers from the colony, and shut up the rest in the town.
They were now threatened with absolute starvation; many died of
hunger; and of six hundred emigrants, only sixty at last remained
alive.

At this critical period, two ships arrived from England, bringing
supplies; they were received by the colonists, as may well be
imagined, with transports of joy. The next thing, of importance, was
to make peace with Powhattan. A good opportunity, as they thought,
soon presented itself. They heard that Pocahontas, was now on a visit
to the wife of a chief, on the banks of the Potomac. They thought that
if they should be able to get possession of the favorite daughter of
the king, he would be willing to redeem her at the greatest ransom.

A small vessel was soon prepared; and Captain Argall ascended the
river to the place where Pocahontas was residing. He easily found
means of enticing her on board, and then suddenly set sail for
Jamestown. The captive princess was, at first, much alarmed and
offended. But the kind words and good treatment of her captors soon
soothed her agitation, and she waited with patience the effect of an
embassy which was sent to Powhattan, with the tidings.

But the haughty savage, much as he loved his child, disdained to yield
to the emotions of his heart; he would not allow his enemies to obtain
any advantage from their treacherous seizure, and for many months no
message was received from him at Jamestown. During this time, a young
gentleman, of good birth and fine person, named John Rolfe, conceived
a warm affection for the engaging Indian girl, who returned it with
equal ardor. When Powhattan heard of this, he was highly pleased; he
sent his permission to their union, and from this time, till his
death, continued ever the firm friend of the English.

You will, doubtless, wish to hear something more of his interesting
daughter. After her marriage, she lived one or two years in Jamestown,
during which time she became a convert to the Christian religion, and
was baptized by the name of Rebecca. She afterwards, with her husband,
made a voyage to England, where she was received by the queen, and
other noble ladies, with all the attention due to her high rank and
her charming character. But she soon became sick of the crowd, the
noise, and the smoke of a large city, and longed for the fresh air and
green forests of her own country, which, alas! she was never more to
see. As she was about to embark, with her husband, for America, she
was taken ill, and died, in the twenty-second year of her age. Her
death caused the greatest sorrow among her friends on both sides of
the Atlantic, who knew her rare virtues; and who hoped that through
her means a lasting peace might be secured between her father’s
subjects and her husband’s countrymen.

Powhattan was succeeded by his brother, Opitchipan, a weak and infirm
old man. But the whole power was in the hands of a chief, named
Opechancanough, who is said to have emigrated to Virginia from a
country far to the south-east, perhaps Mexico. In his intercourse with
the English he showed much art, lulling all suspicion by his open and
friendly conduct, while all the time he was preparing for a sudden and
deadly blow.

On the 22d of March, 1622, the savages were observed to enter the
English plantations in rather unusual numbers. But as they came
apparently unarmed, and merely for the purpose of trading, no
suspicion was excited. They were allowed even to enter the houses, and
lodge in the bedchambers. On a sudden, the signal was given, and the
work of destruction began; hundreds of armed Indians, from the woods,
rushed on to aid those who were already on the spot. Great numbers of
the English were slain; neither age nor sex--man, woman, nor child,
was spared; and, but for the information of a Christian Indian, who
betrayed the plot to the English, every man in the colony would have
perished. As it was, more than the hundred of the whites were
slaughtered, and, of eighty plantations, six only were saved.

From the time of this massacre, a deadly war raged between the natives
and the English, in which no mercy was shown on either side. It ended,
as might be expected, in the destruction of the former. Opechancanough
was taken prisoner, his subjects defeated, their villages plundered,
and their cornfields burnt. The feeble remnants of this once powerful
tribe lingered for awhile around the scenes of their former greatness,
and were finally destroyed by pestilence and the sword, or went to
join their more fortunate brethren of the north and west.


                              CHAPTER XX.

  _Account of the Delawares.--The Mingoes.--Unite and become the
    “Five Nations.”--Their bravery and cruelty.--The Five Nations,
     or Iroquois make war on the Delawares.--Craft of the Iroquois.--
     Subjection of the Delawares.--Arrival of William Penn.--His
     interview with the Indians.--Their love and respect for him.--
     Wars with the English colonists.--Destruction of the Indian
     nation in Pennsylvania._


When William Penn, the good Quaker, landed in the country called from
him Pennsylvania, he found it inhabited by a great tribe of Indians,
whom he called the _Delawares_. The name which they gave themselves
was the _Lenni Lenape_, which means--“_original people_;” and they
declared that their tribe was the main stock, or, as they called it,
_grandfather_ of all the other tribes in the United States, except the
Mingoes or Six Nations, of New York. The account which they give of
themselves, before the arrival of the English, as we find it in the
history of the good missionary, Heckewelder, who lived among them more
than forty years, seems very probable.

They say that many hundred years ago, their ancestors resided in a
very distant country in the western part of the American continent.
For some reason or other, they determined on migrating to the
eastward, and accordingly set out together in a body. After a very
long journey of several years, they at length arrived at the
Mississippi, or “_river of fish_,” where they fell in with the
Mingoes, who had likewise emigrated from a distant country, and had
struck upon this river somewhere higher up. They were also proceeding
to the eastward, in search of a better country.

They found the region on the other side of the Mississippi occupied by
a powerful nation, the _Alligewi_, who dwelt in large towns, and had
many extensive fortifications; some of these are yet to be seen in
Ohio, and several of the other Western States. This people, seeing
such a numerous body of strangers about to enter their country,
resolved to oppose them. Accordingly, as the Lenni Lenape were
crossing the river, they received from the Alligewi such a furious
attack, they were in great doubt whether to force a passage by arms,
or to return to their former country.

While they were thus hesitating, at a loss what to do, they received
from the Mingoes a promise of assistance, provided they would share
with them the land which they should attain. This was at once agreed
to: and the two nations together, succeeded after many bloody
contests, in utterly defeating their enemies, and driving them down
the Mississippi. The conquerors then divided the land between them;
the Mingoes[9] taking the country about and north of the great lakes,
and the Lenape, that to the southward, lying on the Delaware and
Susquehannah rivers.

The Lenni Lenape, or Delawares, as we shall hereafter call them,
remained for a long time in peace and prosperity, increasing in
number, and enlarging in territory. Their grand _council-fire_ always
remained on the banks of the Delaware; but they sent out colonies as
far as Maine on the north, and the Potomac on the south. The tribes of
New England, the Narragansetts, the Mohicans, and the Pequots,
acknowledged their descent from them; the Shawanese and the Miamis of
Ohio, and even the Sacs and Foxes of the far north-west, called them
_grandfather_.

The Mingoes, on the other hand, remained still but an insignificant
tribe on the banks of the St. Lawrence. They were more cruel and
savage in their customs than the Delawares, but at the same time less
warlike and civilized. In a war which they carried on against the
powerful tribe of Adirondacks, they were completely worsted, and
compelled to retreat over the St. Lawrence, to the land where is now
the State of New York.

Till this time, the Mingo nation had consisted of five independent
tribes, unconnected with each other, except by the bond of mutual
danger. While suffering under defeat, it came to the minds of some of
the chiefs, that if they should all be united, and always act in
concert, they would be much more powerful, and less easily conquered,
than while each tribe acted, as seemed best to itself, without
reference to the others. Accordingly, they proposed to the tribes, a
strict union, both in war and in peace. After a long debate, this
proposal was assented to; and thus arose that celebrated Indian
confederacy, the _Five Nations_, who so long carried on a triumphant
and desolating contest, with the other tribes of the continent, and
even the whites themselves, and spread the terror of their arms from
Labrador to Florida.[10]

They first tried their united strength against the petty neighboring
tribes. Some they exterminated, others they expelled from the country,
and a few were taken into the union. They next turned their arms
against their old enemy, the Adirondacks. Here, also, they were
successful; this haughty and once powerful nation was defeated with
great loss, and compelled to beg the aid of the French, who had just
began to settle in Canada. But the numbers and courage of the
conquering Iroquois, as the Six Nations were called by the French,
prevailed even over civilized arms and discipline. The Adirondacks
were exterminated, and Montreal, the chief colony in Canada, was taken
and sacked by them.

The victorious Iroquois now turned their arms against their southern
neighbors. But their conquests in this direction were speedily checked
by a nation of warriors as haughty and brave as themselves. Their
ancient allies, the Delawares, with their numerous dependent tribes,
opposed their farther progress; and a war ensued between the two
nations, in which the Mingoes, or Iroquois, were worsted.

They now, according to the Delaware traditions, determined to resort
to stratagem. They represented to the Delawares, that the Indians of
the continent were gradually destroying themselves by their continual
wars, and that if a speedy end were not put to the desolating
contests, they would soon be too much weakened to resist the
encroachments of the whites; it became them, therefore, as members of
the same great family, henceforth to bury the hatchet, and live as
brothers in peace and contentment. But, in order to bring about this
desirable end, it was necessary that some great nation, feared for its
power, and respected for its wisdom and antiquity, should take upon
itself the office of mediator, between the rest. Such a nation was the
Delawares, whose warriors were like the leaves of the forest, and
whose origin was lost in the darkness of ages.

By such flattering speeches, the Delawares were at length prevailed
upon, in an evil hour, to lay aside the hatchet and act as mediators
in the native wars; in the Indian phrase, they consented to become
_old women_;--for among these nations wars are never brought to an
end, except by the interference of females. For they think it
unbecoming a warrior, however tired of the contest, while he holds the
hatchet in one hand, to sue for peace with the other.

By consenting to become _women_, the Delawares gave up all right of
fighting, even in their own defence. Henceforth, they were to devote
themselves to the arts of peace, while the Six Nations were to protect
them from their enemies. But the deluded Delawares soon found that the
protection which they afforded, was worse than their open enmity. The
treacherous Mingoes first secretly excited other nations to war
against their defenceless _grandfather_, and then, instead of standing
forth to protect him, they left him to the mercy of his enemies.

At the same time, say the Delawares, the English, landing in New
England and Virginia, and forming alliances with the deceitful
Mingoes, began to add their persecutions to those of their savage
foes, and this once powerful and warlike nation, attacked from every
quarter, knew not where to turn for relief. In this distressed
situation they were, when the good Penn first landed in their country.

When they first saw him coming with his crowd of followers, they
naturally expected only a renewal of the ill-treatment and oppressions
which they had already suffered from his countrymen. But when they
heard his mild and friendly words, and understood his kind offers of
peace and brotherly alliance, their delight at this unexpected and
happy fortune was unspeakable. It was under the wide-spreading
branches of a lofty elm, near the place where now rises the great city
of Philadelphia, that the good and the joyful Delawares made their
famous treaty of peace and friendship, which was to last as long as
the sun and moon should endure. On the part of the Indians, at least,
it has never been broken; and to this day, when they see the
broad-brimmed hat, and square coat of a Quaker, they say, with a
mournful pleasure, “He is a son of our good father Miquon,[11] the
friend of the Indians.”

But the friendship of their father Miquon, could not save them from
the fate which sooner or later overwhelms the native tribes of this
country. The power of their enemies finally prevailed; their lands
were seized, their council-fire extinguished, and they, themselves,
were driven to seek a refuge in the cold climes of Canada, or in the
regions beyond the Mississippi.

A like fate soon overtook their chief enemies, the Six Nations. During
the revolutionary war, this people remained always faithful to the
English cause, and suffered severely from the arms of the Americans.
Since that time, they have rapidly declined, both in numbers and
power; some have emigrated to Canada,--but the greater part of the
remnant of this warlike nation still remains, sunk in crime and
wretchedness, on a few tracts of land which have been reserved for
them in the State of New York.


      [9] The fear created by the Mingoes, of which the Mohawks
          were a part, appears to have continued to a late
          date. Colden, in his “History of the Five Nations,”
          says, “I have been told by old men in New England,
          who remembered the time when the Mohawks made war
          on their Indians, that as soon as a single Mohawk
          was discovered in the country, their Indians raised
          a cry, from hill to hill--a Mohawk! a Mohawk!--upon
          which, they all fled like sheep before wolves, without
          attempting the least resistance.

         “The poor New England Indians immediately fled to the
          Christian houses, and the Mohawks often pursued them
          so closely, that they entered along with them, and
          knocked their brains out in the presence of the people
          of the house. But if the family had time to shut the
          door, they never attempted to force it, and on no
          occasion did any injury to the Christians.”

     [10] The _Five_ Nations consisted of the _Senecas_,
          _Cayugas_, _Onondagas_, _Oneydas_, and _Mohawks_. The
          _Tuscaroras_, a southern tribe, afterwards joined
          them, and they were then called the _Six_ Nations.

     [11] When the Delawares learned the meaning of the word
          _Pen_ in English, they always called their white
          friend, Miquon, which means quill in their language.




 [Illustration]


                            Ruins of Babylon.


Babylon, one of the most famous cities of ancient times, is now a heap
of ruins, consisting, chiefly, of immense mounds of bricks. These are
situated on the banks of the river Euphrates, and near the modern city
of Bagdat.

In one place there is a heap of brickwork 126 feet high, and 300
feet in circumference; to this is given the name of Nimrod’s palace.
Another mound is 140 feet high, and 2200 feet in circumference. Among
these ruins are found pieces of pottery and fragments of alabaster,
carved in various forms.

Another mound, called Birs Nimrod, or tower of Babel, consists of a
heap of rubbish 200 feet high, on the top of which is a tower 60 feet
high.

How vast must have been the edifices, which have left such mighty
heaps of ruins! And yet how complete is the destruction and desolation
of this famous city--which once was forty-eight miles in circuit;
defended by walls fifty feet in height; filled with thousands of
people; the seat of luxury, pride, and pleasure; the abode of princes;
embellished with palaces, and hanging gardens, and temples, and all
that could delight the eyes of a luxurious nation.

Alas! “Babylon is fallen!” “The glory of kingdoms” is departed.
The fearful prophecy of Isaiah, uttered thousands of years ago,
when Babylon was still a great and proud city, has been literally
fulfilled. “The wild beasts of the desert shall lie there,” says he,
“and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there.”

Modern travellers, who have visited the spot, tell us that the
scene is just what is here depicted. Even the very animals,
spoken of by the prophet, are to be met with amid the caves,
and ruins, and desolation of the place. What a striking
instance is this, of the fulfilment of prophecy! 




[Illustration]


                             Adam and Eve.


The story of Adam and Eve--their residence in the Garden of Eden;
their temptation; their fall; their expulsion from the place which was
so beautiful, and where they had been so happy; their incurring the
displeasure of their Divine Benefactor; their going forth--with
prospects so changed--where toil and care should attend them; where
thorns and briars must be in their path, and where they must
thereafter get their bread by the sweat of the brow,--all this is a
picture at once exceedingly touching, and at the same time full of
instruction.

Most people are very apt to think that if they had been situated like
this first human pair, they should have behaved more wisely. But do we
not all of us have nearly the same experience as our first parents? We
are all capable of living innocently--and of enjoying the bliss, the
Eden, the paradise--which innocence bestows. But we voluntarily cast
away our innocence; we eat the forbidden fruit; we commit sin; we
become degraded; we lose the favor of God; we stand before him as
sinners!

Like Adam and Eve, then, we are cast out; like them we find thorns and
briars in our way; like them we encounter cares, and doubts, and
fears, and sorrows, in our journey through life. We eat our bread by
the sweat of the brow.

Who is there, that does not feel that his errors are his own--that he,
and he only, is responsible for them? Instead, therefore, of saying
that if we had been placed in another’s situation, we had done better
than he has done, let us rather look to ourselves--and instead of
palliating or hiding our faults, let us confess them before God, with
an humble, and contrite, and obedient heart--and ask forgiveness for
them in the name of the Redeemer.




THE MOLE.--It is said that the mole, in its movements under ground,
always turns its back to the sun, burrowing from east to west in the
morning, and from west to east in the evening.




                           Merry’s Adventures.


                               CHAPTER XX.


A month passed away after my uncle’s death, during which I was in a
sort of maze; I did not know what to do, and now, after many years are
gone, I can hardly recollect anything that occurred during that
period. I only know that I wandered over the house, from one room to
another; I then went into the fields; rambled about the farm, and
seeming by a sort of instinct to avoid everybody. I did not wish to
speak to any one. I seemed lost, and it was not till the day came when
the tavern was to be sold, with all its furniture, that I was fully
recalled to consciousness.

I remember that day well. The sale was by auction, and the place which
had been a home to me for years, was knocked off to the highest
bidder. The purchaser was a stranger to me, and took immediate
possession. I still remained in the house; and it was not till three
or four days after he and his household had come, that the idea
entered my head that I was to leave it. The man said to me one
day--“Well, Mr. Merry--when do you intend to go?” I did not understand
him at first, but in a moment it rushed into my mind, that this was a
hint for me to depart.

I felt a sense of mingled insult and shame; for it seemed that it was
almost turning me out of doors, and that by my stupidity, I had
subjected myself to such an indignity. I made no reply--but took my
hat and left the house. I wandered forth, hardly knowing which way I
went. In a short time I found myself ascending the mountain, toward
old Sarah’s cave. It now came suddenly to my recollection that the
hermitess had invited me to come and see her, if at any time I was in
trouble.

Although she was not, perhaps, the wisest of counsellors, yet, in my
present disturbed state of mind, it suited me well enough to go to
her. Indeed, I felt so miserable, so lonely from the loss of my uncle,
so helpless from the loss of my property, that I thought of taking up
my abode with the gray old dame of the rock, and living there the rest
of my life. With these strange notions running in my head, I
approached her den.

It was a chill December evening, and I found her in her cave. She bade
me welcome, and I sat down. “I knew it would come to this,” said she:
“I knew it long ago. Your uncle was kind-hearted, as the world say;
but is it kind to spend what is not one’s own? Is it kind to waste the
property of the orphan, and leave one’s sister’s child to beggary? Is
it kind to eat, drink, and be merry, when another’s tears must pay the
reckoning?”

“Nay, nay;” said I, “You must not speak in this way. My uncle is dead,
and I will not hear his name mentioned, but in words of kindness and
charity. Oh, do not blame him; it was his misfortune, not his fault,
to lose my property, as well as his own. At all events, he loved me;
he ever spake kindly to me; he was to me as a father; he could not
have done more for a son than he did for me.”

I could say no more, for tears and sobs choked my utterance, and old
Sarah then went on. “Well, well; let it be so, let it be so. But I
must tell you, Master Merry, that I knew your mother well. We were
both of the same country, both natives of England, and we came to
America in the same ship. She was a good woman, and in the dark days
of my life, she was kind to me. I will repay it to her child.” Saying
this, she went to the end of the cave, and took a small wooden box
from a crevice in the rock. This she opened, and handed a parcel to
me, adding; “this will repair your loss.” I looked at her in some
doubt. “Examine what I give you,” said she, “and you will understand
me.”

I opened the parcel, which consisted of a roll, with a covering of
silk. I found in it several thin pieces of paper, resembling bank
notes, and reading them as well as I could by the dim light which came
in at the entrance of the cave, I perceived that they were government
bills, of a thousand dollars each. “I am glad for your sake,” said I,
handing back the parcel to Sarah--“that you have so much money, but I
cannot consent to take it from you.”

“And what do I want of it?” said she, quickly. “It has been in my
possession for forty years, yet I have never seen the need of it. This
rock has been my shelter--this rock is my bed. The forest yields me
food, and charity gives me raiment. Oh no; that money can never be
used by me. It would feed my pride and tempt me back into the paths of
folly. I have sworn never more to use it, and if you do not take it,
it will perish with me.”

I endeavored to persuade the hermitess to change her views and her
mode of life. I urged her, as she had so much money, to leave her
cave, and procure the comforts and luxuries which her age and
infirmities required. But she was fixed in her purpose, and my
reasoning was without effect. We talked till the night was nearly
gone. At last I consented to take a part of the cash, but she insisted
that I should take the whole; and believing that she would never use
it, I received it, intending to reserve, at least, a portion of it for
her use, in case of need. The kind-hearted old creature seemed much
delighted, and my own heart was lightened of a heavy burthen. I felt,
not only that I had again the means of independence, but that I had
also a sure and steadfast friend.

It did not diminish my pleasure that this friend was a gray old dame,
clothed in rags and regarded with contempt by the world; poor as she
seemed, she had done for me what no rich person would ever have done.
The rich will seldom give away their money, or if they do, it is
sparingly and with reluctance. The song says--

      “’Tis the poor man alone,
       When he hears the poor’s moan,
       Of his morsel a morsel will give.”

My own experience has verified the truth of these touching words. The
rich consist usually of those who have a supreme love of wealth, and
who sacrifice everything else to obtain it, or keep it. A person who
eagerly pursues riches all his life time; who gives nothing away; who
turns a deaf ear to the calls of charity; who never opens his purse to
a friend; who never feels the appeals of society to his liberality--or
if he does these things, does them narrowly and selfishly--and in his
charities regards himself alone; such a one is almost sure to be rich
in purse, though he is more certain to be poor in soul. Such a person
may live and die rich in this world, but he goes a pauper into the
other--

             “Not one heaven current penny in his purse.”

But poor Sarah parted with the good things of this life, and no doubt,
she laid up riches in that world where neither moth nor rust can
corrupt, nor thieves break through and steal.

I left her the next morning, with many thanks, and a heart overflowing
with gratitude. I descended the mountain, and entered the high-road.
It was about three miles to the village, and feeling fatigued from my
imperfect repose upon Sarah’s bed of rock, I asked a fat gentleman,
who was riding along luxuriously in a coach, drawn by two sleek
horses, to let me ride. He did not deign to open his lips, but shook
his head, and the coach rolled on. I had not gone far before a poor
man, with an old wagon and a thin, raw-boned horse overtook me. The
whole establishment bespoke poverty; yet, when I asked the man to
grant me a ride, he cheerfully complied with my request, as if it gave
him real satisfaction to do an act of kindness. “Here it is again,”
thought I; “if you want a favor, ask it of the poor. The rich man, in
his easy coach, and with his fat horses that have hardly enough to do
to keep them from apoplexy, possesses a heart as hard as flint; while
the humble wagoner, with a beast that drags one leg painfully after
another, is ready to slave himself and his horse, out of mere good
nature. Thus it is that riches turn the soul to stone; thus it is that
poverty keeps the heart soft, and, like a generous, well cultivated
soil, ever prepared to yield good fruits.”

I soon reached the village, and immediately went to see Raymond, to
tell him of my interview with the hermitess. Having related what had
happened, I took out the money, and placed it in his hands. Guess my
surprise and disappointment, when he told me that the ten bills of a
thousand dollars each, were “_Continental notes_,” and not worth a
farthing! They had been issued by the government during the war of the
revolution, but had depreciated, so that a thousand dollars of this
paper, were sold for a single dollar in silver! The government had,
indeed, made some provision for the payment of such notes as were
brought forward before a certain time, but these had been withheld
beyond the period, and were now utterly without value.

I had, of course, no suspicion that Sarah was aware of this fact. The
money was once good; and having lived apart from the world, she had
not known the change that had come over the currency. Having no want
of money, it was all the same to her, whatever might be its worth; and
it was only till she desired to do an act of kindness to the child of
an early friend, that what was once a fortune to her, came into her
mind.

I therefore felt no diminution of my gratitude to the poor old woman,
when I learnt that her gift was all in vain, and that it still left me
a beggar. Concealing the fact from her, I took counsel of Raymond as
to what I must do. I was perfectly helpless; it was my misfortune that
I had been brought up to think myself rich, beyond the need of effort,
and in fact, above work. This silly idea had been rather encouraged by
my uncle, who, being an Englishman, had a little aristocratic pride in
me as a member of the family, and one born to be a gentleman, or, in
other words, to lead an idle and useless life. His feelings, and
purposes were kind, but short-sighted. He had not foreseen the
destruction of my property; and, besides, he had not learned that,
whether rich or poor, every person, for his own comfort and
respectability, should be educated in habits of industry and in some
useful trade or profession.

After a good deal of reflection, Raymond advised me to go to New York,
and get a situation as a clerk in a store. This suited my taste better
than any other scheme that could be suggested, and I made immediate
preparations to depart. I went to take leave of Bill Keeler, who was
now a thriving shoemaker, with a charming wife, and two bright-eyed
laughing children. I bade them good-bye, with many tears, and carrying
with me their kindest wishes. How little did I then think of the
blight that would come over that cheerful group and that happy home!
It is true I had some fears for Bill, for I knew that he loved the
bar-room; but it did not enter my imagination that there was a thing
abroad in society so nearly akin to the Evil Spirit, as to be able to
convert his good nature into brutality, and change an earthly paradise
into a scene of indescribable misery.

Having taken leave of all my friends--and now it seemed that I had
many--I set out on my journey to New York on foot, provided with two
or three letters of introduction, furnished by Raymond and his
brother, the minister, and with about five dollars in my pocket; the
whole amount of my earthly portion!




[Illustration]


                                 Gaza.


This city is often mentioned in the Bible, and is particularly noted
for the feats which Samson performed there, in carrying off its gates,
and in pulling down the temple of Dagon, upon which occasion he lost
his life. (See Judges chap. xvi.) It is situated about forty-five
miles southwest of Jerusalem, and not far from the Mediterranean Sea.
The high road from Syria, and other eastern countries, to Egypt,
passes through it: it has therefore been often taken in the wars that
have been waged in these regions.

When Alexander, the Macedonian conqueror, made his famous expedition
against Cyrus, he besieged Gaza, which was in his route. It made an
obstinate resistance of five months; but it was at last taken by
storm, its brave defenders were slaughtered at their posts; their
wives and children were sold as slaves; and the city was repeopled
with inhabitants, drawn from the surrounding country.

The crusaders found it in ruins, but they erected a castle here, and
entrusted it to the Knights Templars. From that time, it began to
revive: it soon passed into the hands of the Saracens, and then to the
Turks, who still hold it. Dr. Robinson, a very learned American
minister, has lately visited the place. He says there are now fifteen
or sixteen thousand people there, which makes it a larger city than
Jerusalem. He says the city is built upon a small hill, and bears few
marks of its former greatness. Its walls have entirely disappeared,
and most of the houses are miserable mud huts. 




                  Knights Templars, and other Orders
                            of Knighthood.


In a former number of the Museum (p. 145) we have given an account of
the order of Knights Templars, with an engraving representing their
appearance. In this number we give another picture, delineating more
accurately their dress and armor.

We have stated that the order of Knights Templars originated about the
period of the crusaders: but other orders of knights existed long
before. So early as the year 506, history tells us that knights were
made in England, with great ceremony. A stage was erected in some
cathedral, or spacious place near it, to which the gentleman was
conducted to receive the honor of knighthood. Being seated on a chair
decorated with green silk, it was demanded of him, if he were of good
constitution, and able to undergo the fatigue required of a soldier;
also, whether he was a man of good morals, and what credible witnesses
he could produce to affirm the same.

Then the bishop, or chief prelate of the church, administered the
following oath: “Sir, you that desire to receive the honor of
knighthood, swear, before God and this holy book, that you will not
fight against his majesty, that now bestoweth the honor of knighthood
upon you; you shall also swear to maintain and defend all ladies,
gentlemen, widows, and orphans; and you shall shun no adventure of
your person in any way where you shall happen to be.”

The oath being taken, two lords led him to the king, who drew his
sword, and laid it upon his head, saying, “God and Saint George (or
whatever other saint the king pleased to name) make thee a good
knight.” After this, seven ladies, dressed in white, came and girt a
sword to his side, and four knights put on his spurs. These ceremonies
being over, the queen took him by the right hand, and a duchess by the
left, and led him to a rich seat, placed on an ascent, where they
seated him, the king sitting on his right hand, and the queen on his
left. Then the lords and ladies sat down upon other seats, three
descents under the king; and, being all thus seated, were entertained
with a delicate collation; and so the ceremony ended.

The famous order of the Garter, which is still conferred as a badge of
honor, by the kings of England, upon such as they desire to favor, was
instituted in 1344. The Knights of the Bath, another famous order,
also still continues: this originated in France, and took its name
from the ceremony of bathing, which was practised by the knights
previous to their inauguration.

The Knights of the Thistle is a Scottish order; that of the Knights of
St. Patrick was instituted by George III., in 1783. There are a great
multitude of other orders, and among these, that of the Bear, the
Elephant, and the Death’s Head. In former times, as I have told you,
knights went about in quest of adventures, or they were devoted to
warlike enterprises. But in modern times, being a knight is nothing
more than to have a sash, or ribbon, or star, with a few diamonds or
precious stones attached to it, conferred by a king or queen, with
some ceremonies of no great meaning.




                     A Page for Little Readers.

                  HOW WELL BEN REMEMBERED WHAT HIS
                          MOTHER TOLD TIM.


There are some little boys, and little girls too--some with black eyes
and some with blue--who remember a great deal better what their
parents tell their brothers and sisters, than what is told to
themselves. Once upon a time there were two boys, one named Benjamin,
and the other Timothy--but called Ben and Tim--whose story will afford
a good instance of what I refer to.

These were nice little boys, and about as good as children in general;
and they loved their mother very much; but still, they did a good many
little mischievous things, that gave her trouble. She had a neat
little garden, and in it were some pretty flowers--especially some red
roses, which were very beautiful.

Now these two boys picked some of these roses, and, as their mother
wished to keep them, she told them both not to pick any more. Well,
for a day or two they obeyed; but at last little Ben, who was the
eldest, saw a beautiful little rose, and it looked so pretty, he
yielded to temptation, and plucked it. Tim saw him, and he plucked one
too.

They said nothing about it, for a time; but the next day little Ben,
who was very fond of telling tales, came out with the story, so far as
Tim was concerned. “Mother,” said he, “didn’t you tell Tim not to pick
any more roses?”

“Yes, I did,” said the mother.

“Well, he did pick one yesterday.”

“I didn’t!” said Tim.

“I say you did!” said little Ben.

“I say I didn’t!” said Tim.

“Oh, mother, he did, for I seed him pick it: it was a beautiful red
rose; and when he’d picked it, he smelt of it; and then he pulled it
all to pieces!”

Here Tim began to cry. “Well,” said he, “you picked one too!”

“Oh-o-o-o-o!” said Ben.

“I say you did pick a rose; you picked one first, and if you hadn’t
picked one I shouldn’t have picked one, and so there!”

Here Ben began to snivel. “I see how it is,” said the mother. “It is
too often so, my dear Ben: it is too often so. You remember very well
what I tell Tim, but you forget what I tell you. Now I forbade you
both to pick the roses; and it seems you were the first to disobey;
and in this you were more to blame than Tim, for you led the way to
disobedience, and thus, by a bad example, made Tim disobey also.

“But, what is worse than all, your love of telling tales induced you
to tell of Tim, when you were more to blame yourself. Fie, for shame,
Ben! This is all wrong, very wrong. You ought to remember better what
I tell you, than what I tell Tim, for you are the oldest; you ought to
be more ready to receive blame, than to bring it upon your little
brother.”

Poor Ben was in tears, and his little heart was very sad, and he could
not be comforted till his mother forgave him, and took him to her
bosom, and said she hoped he would never do so again. This he
promised, and then he brightened up, and the two children went to
their play.

Now I suppose that Ben was really sorry for his fault, and no doubt
his promise not to do so again was very sincere; but when once a child
has got a bad habit, it is very hard to get rid of it. It was,
therefore, a long time before he could remember what was said to him,
better than what was said to Tim. He however mastered this difficulty,
and at last, when his mother laid her commands upon him, he was sure
to take them to heart, and obey them.

Now I recommend it to all blue-eyed, and black-eyed, and gray-eyed
children, to think of this little story, and see that they are sure to
remember better what their parents tell them, than what they tell any
one else. Let them learn the story of Ben and Tim by heart, and heed
the lesson it conveys. 




                       A Word to Correspondents.

We are obliged to defer replying to our numerous Correspondents till
the next number, where the reader will find answers to the puzzles,
and something more to task his Yankee faculty of _guessing_.




                    BOB O’LINKUM’S SONG TO THE MOWER.

            THE WORDS AND MUSIC COMPOSED FOR MERRY’S MUSEUM.

[Illustration: music]

    Tinkle, Tinkle, Mister Ninkum,
    I am merry, Bob O’ Linkum!
    Prithee, tell me what’s the matter,
    That you’re making such a clatter--
    Can’t you leave us, honest folks,
    To sing our songs and crack our jokes?

    It is cruel, Mr. Ninkum,
    Thus to bother Bob O’Linkum--
    I had thought the meadow mine,
    With its blossoms all so fine,
    And I made my little nest
    ’Neath the clover, all so blest.

    But you come, oh naughty Ninkum,
    All unheeding Bob O’Linkum--
    And you swing your saucy blade
    Where my little nest is made--
    And you cut the blooming clover,
    Which did wrap my young ones over.

    Get you gone, oh ugly Ninkum--
    Leave the field to Bob O’Linkum;
    Let him on his light wing hover
    O’er the summer scented clover--
    Let him sing his merry song,
    And he’ll thank you all day long.




                          MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                         VOLUME IV.--No. 2.




[Illustration]


                        The Sense of Touch.


The sensations of smelling, tasting, hearing, and seeing, are conveyed
by distinct organs, severally devoted to these objects, and all
confined to the head. But the sense of _touch_, or _feeling_, extends
over almost every part of the body. Though we may call every sensation
_feeling_, yet what is properly denominated the sensation of _touch_,
consists of the feeling or sensation excited by bodies brought in
contact with the skin, and especially the tips of the fingers.

It is by the sense of touch, that men and other animals are able to
perceive certain external qualities of objects. It is by this sense
that we acquire ideas of hardness, softness, roughness, smoothness,
heat and cold, weight and pressure, form and distance.

The accuracy of this sense is much improved by habit. In some cases,
when persons have become deaf or blind, the sense of touch has grown
so acute as partially to supply the loss of the sense of seeing or
hearing. Blind persons have sometimes been able to determine the
qualities of objects, with wonderful accuracy, by touch, and even to
distinguish the colors of cloths, by being able to discriminate
between the substances used in giving these their hues.




                        Merry’s Adventures.


                           CHAPTER XXI.


With a heavy and doubting heart, I proceeded on my way to New York. My
situation was, in every respect, gloomy and depressing. I was alone in
the world, and utterly unpractised in taking care of myself. I was
cast forth to work my way in the rough voyage of life. I was like a
person, who, while sailing confidently upon a raft, sees it suddenly
sink in the waves, leaving him no other resource than to swim for his
life, and that too, without preparation or practice.

It is, however, true, that necessity is, not only the mother of
invention, but of exertion also, and by degrees I began to brace
myself up to the emergency in which I was placed. It is a great
thing--it is, indeed, the first requisite in order to obtain
success--to have the _mind_ and feelings prepared. I saw and felt that
I had no other dependence now, than myself; that even my food, my
clothing, my shelter, must henceforth, be the fruit of my own toil. It
was a strange and startling position; and it was necessary for me to
go over the events which had recently transpired, again and again,
before I could realize a state of things so utterly at variance with
the whole tenor of my life, my education, and my habits of thought.

It was long before, I could bring my pride down to my humble
condition; it was long before I could resolve to grapple earnestly and
heartily with the burthen which a life of toil presented to my
imagination. I had heard of a punishment of criminals in Holland, in
which they were obliged to work at a pump incessantly, to save
themselves from being drowned; if they relaxed for a moment, the fatal
element would rise over their heads and they would be lost forever. In
my hour of distress, I looked upon my condition as little better than
this. But necessity, necessity, that stern teacher, admonished me hour
by hour, and at last its lesson was indelibly written on my heart.
From that moment, fully estimating my dependence, I felt assured, and
with a firmer step pushed on toward the place of my destination.

The day after my departure from Salem, as I was passing through the
town of Bedford, I came to a handsome white house, the grounds of
which seemed to bespeak wealth and taste on the part of its owner. It
was at this moment beginning to snow, the flakes falling so thickly as
to obscure the air. It was evidently setting in for a severe storm,
and I was casting about for some place of shelter, when a tall, thin
gentleman, of a very dignified appearance, approached me. There was
that air of kindness about him, which emboldened me to inquire if he
could tell me where I could get shelter till the storm was over.

“Come in with me, my friend,” said he kindly; at the same time opening
the gate, and walking up the yard toward the house I have mentioned. I
did not hesitate, but followed on, and soon found myself in a large
room, richly carpeted, bearing every aspect of ease and luxury. Being
desired to take a seat, I placed myself by the cheerful fire, and
waited to be addressed by the hospitable host.

“It is a stormy day,” said the old gentleman; “have you far to
travel?”

“I am on my way to New York, sir;” said I.

“Indeed! and on foot?” was his reply; “then you had better stay here
till the storm is past.” He then proceeded to make some inquiries, and
soon learnt my story. He had known my uncle well, and seemed on his
account to take some interest in my behalf. The day passed pleasantly,
and when evening came, there was quite a circle, consisting of the
members of a large family, gathered around the fireside. The
conversation was lively and entertaining. The host appeared to be
about sixty years of age, but he had a look of calm dignity, an aspect
of mingled simplicity and refinement, which made a strong impression
on my mind. I had never seen any one who so much excited the feeling
of reverence. I did not know his name, but I had a feeling that I was
in the presence of a great man. The deference paid him by all around,
tended to heighten this impression.

About ten o’clock in the evening, the servants of the family were
called in, and all kneeling, the aged man offered up a simple, but
fervent prayer to heaven. It seemed like the earnest request of a
child to a father; a child that felt as if he had offended a parent
whom he loved, and in whom he confided. The scene to me was very
striking. To see a man so revered by his fellow-men--a man of such
wisdom and knowledge--kneeling in humiliation, like a very child, and
pouring out his soul in tears of supplication before the Father of the
Universe, affected me deeply. It was one of those things which was
calculated to have a decisive and abiding effect. I had then heard
little of religion, except as a matter of ridicule. I have since met
with the scoffer and the unbeliever; but the scene I have just
described, taught me that the truly great man may be a sincere, meek,
pious Christian; it taught me that the loftiest intellect, the most
just powers of reasoning, may lead to that simple faith which brings
the learned and the great to the same level as the unlettered and the
humble--submission to God. If, in after days, I have ever doubted the
truth of the Bible; if I have ever felt contempt for the Christian,
that good man’s prayer, that great man’s example, have speedily
rebuked my folly. These things have led me to frequent and serious
reflection, and, during the subsequent stages of my life, have induced
me to remark, that the unbeliever, the scoffer, is usually a person of
weak mind, or ill-balanced judgment. I have met many great men, who
were Christians. I never have met a great man who was a doubter.

In the morning the storm had abated, and after breakfast, I took my
leave, having offered sincere thanks for the hospitality I had shared.
As I was departing, the gentleman put into my hands a letter,
addressed to a friend of his in New York; and which he requested me to
deliver in person, on my arrival. This I promised to do; but candor
compels me to say that I did not keep my promise; and bitterly have I
had occasion to repent it. It is true, I sent the letter to the
gentleman, but I _did not deliver it myself_. I had not yet learned
the importance of a precise and accurate fulfilment of duty, and
performance of promises. Had I done as I was directed, it would, no
doubt, have altered the whole tenor of my life. I afterwards learned,
but all too late to be of avail, that the letter was to an eminent
merchant of New York, commending me warmly to him, and requesting him
to take me into his counting-room; and this letter was from a man of
such distinction,[12] that his request would not have been slighted.
Yet, through my carelessness, I missed this excellent chance for
getting forward in life.

I proceeded on my journey, but although I travelled very
industriously, the snow was so deep, that at night I had made little
progress. The fourth day after my departure, however, just at evening,
I entered the city of New York, and took up my lodgings at a small
tavern in Pearl street. Having taken supper, I went to the bar-room,
where were about a dozen men, drinking and smoking. One of them,
rather genteely dressed, came and sat by me, and we fell into
conversation. After a little while, he ordered some flip, and we drank
it. I felt my heart warmed, and my tongue loosed, and I told the
stranger my story. He appeared to take great interest in me and pretty
soon proposed to go into another room. Here were two other persons;
and we sat down--my new friend ordering more liquor, and introducing
me to the strangers. The liquor was brought, and also a pack of cards.
In an easy way my companion began to shuffle the pack, and handed them
to me to cut; seeming to take it as a matter of course that I would
play. I had not the courage to refuse, and drew up to the table. The
game went on, and in a very short time, I had lost every dollar in my
pocket!

“Wit that is bought, is worth twice as much as wit that is taught,”
says the proverb. We have good counsels bestowed upon us, but words
make a faint impression. It is only when these counsels have been
despised, and we are made actually to suffer, that we obtain lessons
which stick by us, and influence us. A father once warned his son
against certain evil ways. “Why do you counsel me, thus?” said the
boy. “Because I have tried these things and seen the folly of them,”
said the parent. “Well, father,” replied the inexperienced youth, “I
want to see the folly of them too!” Thus it is that we will not take
the experience of others; we will not heed the warnings of wisdom; we
must needs taste of evil, and then, but not till then, do we bear in
mind the bitterness that is in the cup of indulgence.

So it was with me; I had heard the dangers of gambling, but I had not
seen and felt the folly of it. But now the lesson of experience had
come, and it was deep and bitter. I went to bed with a heavy heart.
Sleep came not to my eyelids that long, long night. My fancy was
filled with real and imaginary evils. The death of my uncle; the loss
of my fortune; the desolation of my condition; my visit to old Sarah’s
cave; the bitter disappointment connected with the continental notes;
my farewell to friends; my launching forth upon the sea of
adventure;--all, came again and again to mind, each thought with
oppressive force and distinctness. Ideas seemed like living images
marching and countermarching in fearful procession, through the grisly
shadows of the night. Nor was this all. To these realities, were added
the fantasies suggested by apprehension, the painful emotions of an
offended conscience, and the bitter self-distrust, which a conviction
of my weakness and folly, at the very threshold of active and
responsible life, forced upon me. All these came in to increase my
misery. In vain did I try to close my eyes in repose; in vain did I
seek to shut out the truth from my mind. The more I courted sleep, the
more wakeful I became; the more I tried not to think, the more bright
and vivid were my conceptions. My soul was like an illuminated house,
filled with bustle and noise, when the proprietor would fain have
sought the silence and repose of the pillow.

Morning at last came, and with it something like comfort. “I have
learnt a lesson,” said I, “and will never gamble again.” Such was the
fruit of my experience, and it was worth all it cost me; for from that
time I have kept my resolution. I went to deliver the letters which
had been given me by Raymond and his brother. The persons to whom they
were addressed, received me kindly, and one of them, a bookseller,
took me into his shop as a clerk, on trial.

It its scarcely possible for any one to conceive of a youth so poorly
qualified to be useful, as I was at this time. My education was very
imperfect; I had no habits of industry; I was not accustomed to obey
others; I had no experience in doing the thousand little things which
are to be done, and which practice alone can render easy. On the
contrary, I had grown up in idleness, or at least to work, or play, or
do nothing, just as my humor might dictate.

Now those children who have had the guidance of parents, and who have
been taught habits of industry and obedience, ought to be very
thankful--for they will find it easy to get along in life; but, alas,
I had grown up almost to manhood, and had been educated to none of
these things; and now I was to reap the bitter fruits of my own
neglect and the misfortune of having no parent and no friend, save a
too indulgent uncle. How much I suffered, from these sources, I cannot
express; but my experience may warn all children and youth against the
foolish desire of being indulged in their wishes and humors. ’T is far
better that they should learn to perform their duties, to help
themselves, to be industrious, and to obey those in whose charge they
are placed.

The bookseller with whom I was now placed, was named Cooke--a large
man, with red hair standing out like bristles, and staring, fiery
eyes. When he first spoke to me, he was soft as cream in his tones,
but I soon learnt that when roused, he was hot as a volcano. For two
or three days he was, indeed, very gentle, and I fancied that I should
get along very well. But soon the fair sky was overcast with clouds,
and a terrible tempest followed.


     [12] I suppose that Robert Merry here refers to John Jay,
          one of the greatest and best men who ever lived; for
          about this period he dwelt in the town of Bedford,
          and was such a person as is described. He had filled
          many important offices; had been a member of congress,
          governor of New York, ambassador to Spain and England,
          and chief justice of the United States. At the period
          of Merry’s journey from Salem to New York, he had
          retired to private life, devoting himself to religious
          and philosophical inquiries. In 1798, he negotiated
          a famous treaty with England, which was the subject
          of much discussion. There is a simple anecdote which
          shows the excitement on this subject, and exhibits
          Governor Jay in a pleasing light. One day being at
          market, the butcher said to him, “There is a great
          pother about this treaty of yours, governor; pray what
          sort of a treaty is it?” “Well, my friend,” said Mr.
          Jay, “there is some good and some bad in it; but, on
          the whole, I think it a pretty good treaty: it is much
          like your beef--there’s a streak of fat and a streak
          of lean--but it’s very good beef after all.”




 IRISH WIT.--A soldier in an Irish corps observed to his comrade that
 a corporal was to be drummed out of the regiment. “By my faith,” said
 he, “I hope it’s the corporal that is so troublesome to our company.”
 “Pray, what’s his name?” enquired the soldier. “Why, Corporal
 _Punishment_, to be sure, Pat!”

       *       *       *       *       *

 MODE OF INVITATION IN CHINA.--An invitation to a party or feast in
 China is sent several days before, on a crimson colored ticket to the
 person expected, on which is written the time appointed, and the guest
 is entreated to bestow the “illumination of his presence.” 




[Illustration: _Uncas and Miantonimo._]


  Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c., of the Indians of America.


                            CHAPTER XXI.

    _Dutch settlement in New York.--Indian account of the matter.--
       Uncas, chief of the Mohicans.--His war with the  Narragansets.--
       Philip.--His wars and death.--Present state of the Indians in
       New England._


The country around the mouth of the Hudson, and the island on which
the great city of New York is situated, were first settled by the
Dutch. They found the land occupied by a powerful tribe of Indians,
descended from the Delawares, called the Mohicans, by whom they were
received with the greatest kindness and respect. The natives give an
amusing account of the first arrival of these strangers.

“A great many years ago,” say they, “when men with a white skin had
never been seen in this land, some Indians, who were out a fishing at
a place where the sea widens, espied at a distance something
remarkably large floating on the water, and such as they had never
seen before. These Indians, immediately returning to the shore,
apprized their countrymen of what they had observed, and pressed them
to discover what it might be. They hurried out together, and saw with
astonishment the phenomenon which now appeared to their sight, but
could not agree upon what it was: some believed it to be an uncommonly
large fish or animal, while others were of opinion that it must be a
very big house, floating on the water.

“Runners were sent off in every direction with the wonderful
intelligence, and the people crowded to the shore to view the strange
appearance. They concluded that the Manito, or Great Spirit, himself
was coming to visit them, in this huge vessel. All the idols and
temples were put in order, and a grand dance and feast was prepared to
entertain him. While in this situation, fresh runners arrived,
declaring it to be positively a large house, crowded with beings of
quite a different color from that of the Indians, and clothed
differently from them; that, in particular, one of them was dressed
entirely in red, who must be the Manito himself.

“The house, or as some say, large canoe, at last stops, and a canoe of
smaller size comes on shore, with the man in red, and some others in
it; some stay with the canoe to guard it. The chiefs and wise men form
a circle, towards which the man in red clothes advances with two
others. He salutes them with a friendly countenance, and they return
the salute after their manner; they are lost in admiration at the
dress, the manners, and the whole appearance of the unknown strangers;
but they are particularly struck with him who wore the red coat, all
glittering with gold lace, which they could in no manner account for.
He surely must be the great Manito, but why should he have a white
skin?

“Meanwhile a large bottle is brought by one of his servants, from
which he pours out an unknown liquid into a small cup or glass, and
drinks:--he then fills it again, and hands it to the chief nearest
him, who only smells of it, and passes it to the next, who does the
same; and the glass is about to be returned to the red-clothed Manito,
untasted, when one of the Indians, a brave man and a great warrior,
suddenly jumps up and harangues the assembly on the impropriety of
refusing the request of Manito, and not drinking the liquor, when he
had set them the example. For himself, he declared, that rather than
provoke the wrath of the Great Spirit by this conduct, he would, if
necessary, devote himself to death for the good of the nation.

“He then took the glass, and bidding the whole assembly a solemn
farewell, drank up its whole contents: he soon began to stagger, and
at last fell prostrate to the ground. His companions now bemoan his
fate, thinking that he has expired; suddenly he wakes, jumps up, and
declares that he has enjoyed the most delicious sensations from
drinking the liquor, and asks for more. The whole assembly imitate
him, and all become intoxicated.

“After they had recovered from the effects of this scene, the
strangers distributed among them presents of beads, axes, hoes, &c.,
and then departed. In about a year they returned, and concluded to
settle there: for this purpose, they only asked for as much land as
the hide of a bullock, which was then spread before them, would take
in. The Indians readily granted this slight request; but the whites
then took a knife, and cut the hide into a long strip of rope, not
thicker than a child’s finger, with which they were able to encompass
a large piece of ground. The Indians were surprised at the superior
wit of the whites, but did not care to dispute about a little land, as
they had still enough for themselves; and they lived for some time
contentedly with their new neighbors.” The Dutch, however, did not
long keep possession of the country, which they had thus unfairly
gained; about fifty years afterwards, it was taken from them by the
English, who called it New York.

The first grand chief, or _sachem_, of the Mohicans known to the
English, was called Uncas: he was a crafty and ambitious chieftain,
brave and cunning in war, and cruel to his conquered enemies. He was
always a firm friend to the English, probably because he saw that it
was for his interest to be so; for he was generally at war with the
Six Nations on the north, and the Narragansets, a numerous warlike
people on the east, who inhabited the country now called the state of
Rhode Island.

In one of these wars, Miantonimo, the Narraganset chief, suddenly
invaded the country of the Mohicans, with eight hundred of his bravest
warriors, giving Uncas only time to collect about half that number to
meet him. He saw that if he should attempt to oppose him by main
force, he should certainly be beaten; he therefore resolved to attempt
a stratagem.

When the two armies had approached near each other, ordering his
warriors to conceal themselves in the long grass, he advanced before
them, and challenged his adversary to single combat, saying that it
was a great pity that so many brave men should be killed, merely to
decide a private quarrel. But Miantonimo knew well that he had the
advantage in numbers, and he was resolved not to lose it. “My
warriors,” said the fierce chieftain, “have come a long way to fight,
and they _shall_ fight.”

Uncas had expected this answer, and instantly fell flat to the ground.
His men, rising, poured on their enemies a volley of arrows, rushed on
them with a hideous yell, and soon put them to flight. Miantonimo was
taken prisoner; he scorned to beg his life of his victorious enemy,
and was put to death, but without cruelty, on account of the request
of the English.

After the death of Uncas, which happened about the year 1680, his
tribe gradually dwindled away, under their continual wars with the
whites, and the other Indians, and their own evil passions, until the
feeble remnant of a once powerful people was compelled to abandon
their ancient hunting-grounds, and flee for protection to their
_grandfather_, the Delawares, now almost as wretched and powerless as
themselves; some even joined their old enemies, the Six Nations, by
whom they were generously adopted into that warlike confederacy.

But the greatest and the most renowned of all the New England sachems,
was undoubtedly the great chief of the Pokanokets, called by the
English, KING PHILIP. He was the son of Massassoit, who ruled the
Indians around Plymouth, where the Pilgrim Fathers first landed. He
received them kindly, sold them a large tract of land for their
settlement, and made a treaty of friendship with them, which lasted
unbroken for about fifty years.

The good feeling, however, of the old sachem did not descend to his
son Philip, who succeeded him. He saw that the English were gradually
encroaching upon the grounds of his race, and that, unless their
progress should soon be arrested, the red man would not have where to
lay his head in the country of his forefathers. He resolved,
therefore, to unite, if possible, all the Indians of New England, from
the Penobscot to the Hudson, in one last great attempt to recover from
their white invaders their ancient dominions. In a short time, by this
artful manœuvre, he had gained over to his cause the warlike nation
of the Narragansets, and all the tribes of Maine, for two hundred
miles along the coast. But the Indians of New Hampshire, for the most
part, kept aloof from the contest, and the Mohicans, under their
sachem Uncas, remained ever faithful to the English.

The war between the colonies and the English, commonly called Philip’s
War, broke out in the summer of 1675. The savage chief is said to have
wept when he heard of the first outrage of the war. He called to mind
the long, unbroken friendship, that for half a century had subsisted
between the red man and the whites; and his stern heart relented, when
he saw that it must now be broken, and forever. But it was too late to
retreat. From that hour he never smiled; but his whole soul was bent
upon the business before him.

At first, his success was tremendous; in a short time the country was
in flames, from one end of the colonies to the other. Thirteen towns
were entirely destroyed; seven hundred dwelling houses burnt; and as
many Englishmen killed. There was not a family throughout New England,
which did not mourn the loss of a relation. But his good fortune did
not continue long; the colonies gathered all their strength to meet
him; the Mohicans assailed him from the south; and the Mohawks on the
north were his implacable enemies. He was defeated in several battles;
his allies deserted him; his friends and relations were killed or made
prisoners by the English; and he himself was hunted, like a spent deer
by blood-hounds, from place to place. Still, even in his worst days,
he would not think of peace; one of his attendants, who dared to
propose it to him, he killed with his own hand. It was by the brother
of the same man, that he was himself slain.

A few minutes before his death, he is said to have been telling his
few remaining friends of his gloomy dreams, and urging them to leave
him, and provide for their own safety. On a sudden, the swamp in which
he lay concealed, was surrounded by the English, and in attempting to
escape, he was shot.

With this great man and noble warrior, perished the last hopes of the
natives of New England. From that moment they rapidly melted away
before the advance of the whites, and finally became extinct, or
mingled with other nations of the west; who, in their turn, sunk under
the power of their civilized invaders. A few Indians still remain,
scattered about in various parts of Massachusetts, Rhode-Island, and
Connecticut. At Marshpee, on Cape Cod, and on Martha’s Vineyard, there
are still a few hundreds; but they have forgotten their ancient habits
and language. They are mostly in a wretched state, idle and dissolute.
A number of the young men, however, are employed in the whale fishery,
and are skilful and industrious. The powerful tribe of the
Narragansets are reduced to about four hundred persons, who live at
Charlestown, in the southern part of Rhode Island. 




[Illustration: _Death of Tecumseh._]


                           CHAPTER XXII.

    _What has been told.--The Western sachems.--Pontiac and Tecumseh.--
       Account of their tribes.--Alliance with the French.--Pontiac
       attacks the white men.--Tecumseh and Elkswatawa.--Their efforts
       against the Americans.--Death of Tecumseh._


We have seen how, as the tide of European emigration poured on, the
tribes of the Atlantic coast gradually disappeared before it, either
retreating into the depths of the western forests, or dying in bold
but fruitless attempts to recover from the hand of the grasping
European the land of their forefathers. The flood of civilization
still rolled on; and again the savage girded himself to meet it. The
desperate struggle for life and freedom, for wealth and power, which
had crimsoned the waters of the Connecticut, the Delaware, and the
Potomac, with blood, was to be repeated on the banks of the Ohio, the
Wabash, and the Mississippi.

We have seen how Powhattan in the south, and Philip in the north,
strove with all the powers of their great minds, to unite the numerous
tribes of their race in a great effort, to stay the encroachments of
the whites; but in vain. In like manner, among the numerous tribes of
the West, there arose, from time to time, men of wisdom and bravery,
to guide their councils and turn their arms towards the same great
purpose. Such men were Pontiac and Tecumseh.

Before we proceed to give an account of the lives of these great men,
we must first say something about the tribes of Indians to which they
belonged, or with which they were connected.

The native tribes which lived beyond the Allegany range, and north of
the Ohio, were all nearly related to each other, being descended from
the same grandfather, the Delawares. The Wyandots or Hurons, however,
claimed to be the most ancient of all the great Indian family, and
were always addressed by the Delawares as their _Uncle_.

The Shawanese were a warlike and powerful people, dwelling on the
Ohio, in the southern part of the State of the same name. They
formerly inhabited the southern country near Savannah, in Georgia.
From their restless and ferocious disposition, they were constantly
engaged in wars with their neighbors, who, at length, tired of being
continually harassed, formed a league to expel them from the country.
The Shawanese, seeing their danger, fled for protection to their
grandfather, the Delawares, who received them kindly, and assigned
them lands upon the river Ohio. Here their bold and turbulent spirit
soon involved them again in a constant warfare with their neighbors,
both Indians and whites. This was the tribe of Tecumseh, the Indian
Bonaparte.

The Miami and Wabash tribes lived on the rivers of the same names in
Ohio and Indiana; they were formidable in bravery, and could bring
into the field many hundred warriors. The Wyandots or Hurons inhabited
the country around Detroit, partly in Michigan and partly in Canada.
They were not many in number, but possessed great influence, from
being acknowledged as the head of the great Indian family.

The Ottawas, Chippeways, and Potawattomies were three tribes,
scattered along the shores of the great lakes, in Michigan and the
Northwest Territories. They were strong in numbers and bravery, and
were always united in the bonds of friendly alliance. Of the first of
these, Pontiac was chief, and his influence extended over the other
two.

During the French war, which ended in the conquest of Canada by the
English, 1762, the natives, with the exception of the Six Nations,
were almost all on the side of the French. Hence, when the war was
finished in a manner so disastrous to their white friends, it was no
wonder that the Indians should be extremely dissatisfied, and
ill-disposed towards the conquerors.

Pontiac, an artful and ambitious chief, and a great warrior, saw this
feeling, and resolved to take advantage of it to unite the various
tribes in an attempt to recover from the English their newly-acquired
possessions. He used every art and inducement that he knew would have
power over the minds of his savage brethren; he reminded them of the
long series of wrongs which they had received from the hands of the
English; he showed them that while two hostile European nations were
settled in the country, each would court the friendship of the
Indians, by kindness and favors; but when all was in the hands of one,
they would have nothing to do but to wrench from the feeble grasp of
the red man, their few remaining possessions. Above all, he pretended
that the Great Spirit had made a revelation to a man of the Delaware
tribe--commanding the Indians to unite and drive their white invaders
from the land.

By such means, he succeeded in forming the greatest league ever known
among the native tribes of America. Besides the numerous tribes of the
west as far as the Mississippi, he had obtained the assistance of many
of the Delawares and Six Nations in Pennsylvania and New York, and the
Messissagas, far in the north of Canada.

His plans were as grand as his means. On the same day, throughout an
extent of more than a thousand miles of frontier, from Lake Superior
to the Potomac, every British fort was to be taken; every Englishman
killed. His plan, however, through the treachery of his allies, was
only partially successful: as it was, nine of the English forts were
taken, and nearly all the garrisons put to death; the whole line of
frontier settlements was wrapt in blood and flames.

In all their undertakings, the savages like better to succeed by
cunning, than by open force. Henry, the traveller, gives a lively
account of the manner in which the fort at Michilimackinac was taken,
and the garrison destroyed.

This being an important post, its capture was committed to the united
forces of the Sacs and Chippeways. They made use of the following
stratagem. On a certain day, the warriors collected in great numbers
around the fort, as they had been accustomed to do, in a friendly
manner. They then began a game of _baggatiway_, or ball, a favorite
amusement with the Indians; and the soldiers of the garrison poured
out to see the sport. Suddenly the ball was knocked, as if by chance,
over the wall of the fort, and the crowd of players and spectators
rushed in, pell-mell, to obtain it--no one caring to prevent them.

The savages were now secure of their prey; on a sudden, the war-cry
was given and the work of destruction commenced. At this time Henry
was engaged in writing: suddenly he heard a confused noise, followed
by a loud Indian war-cry. Rushing to his window, he saw a crowd of
Indians within the fort, furiously cutting down and scalping every
Englishman they found; and he could plainly witness the last struggles
of some of his intimate friends.

His heart died within him at the horrid sight. He knew that it would
be vain for him alone to resist, and resolved to make an attempt to
escape. He saw many of the French villagers looking out of the windows
at the scene, without being in any manner molested by the savages. The
thought struck him, that he might find a refuge in one of their
houses; accordingly, he managed to reach unseen the nearest of them,
and concealed himself behind some birchbark vessels in the garret.

When the massacre in the fort was over, the Indians scattered
themselves about the village in search of new victims. Henry heard
them enter the house in which he was, and inquire if there were any
Englishmen within. The Frenchman answered that he did not know of any;
they might look for themselves. He heard them approach the garret;
they entered, and began to search around the room. The trembling
Englishman thought that his last hour was come. But the darkness of
the place saved his life; and his bloody pursuers departed without
finding him.

Such was the fate of Michilimackinac; but at Detroit, the assailants
were not so successful, though led by Pontiac himself. A few days
before the time appointed for the attack, an Indian woman, grateful
for some kindnesses which she had received from the commandant,
revealed to him the whole plot. She told him that Pontiac would soon
present himself before the fort, with a long train of followers,
having each his rifle concealed under his cloak, and request to be
admitted to an interview with the commandant; that at the end of his
speech, the chieftain would present to him a belt, _the wrong side
outwards_. This would be the signal for a general massacre of all the
English.

The officer rewarded the woman for her information, and took his
measures accordingly. Exactly as she had said, Pontiac soon appeared
before the gates with a large retinue, and was admitted, at once, to
an interview. His speech was bold and threatening, and his manner
vehement and angry; but just as he arrived at the critical moment when
the belt was to be presented, the drums at the door of the
council-house suddenly rolled the charge, the guards levelled their
pieces, and the British officers drew their swords. The heart of the
bold chief failed him, at this evident proof that his treachery was
discovered. He trembled, gave the belt in the usual manner, and
retired without striking a blow.

Thus foiled in his stratagem, Pontiac resolved to try the effect of a
siege; and he actually maintained it for several months. But this is a
method of warfare which an Indian can by no means endure, and he soon
found himself deserted by his allies; while the garrison still
continued to hold out. At the same time he heard that an army of
English was advancing to the relief of the fort. He was compelled to
raise the siege, and retreat with all possible despatch. Soon after,
he concluded a peace with the British; and thus his mighty efforts,
his grand designs, his long series of cunning stratagems, bold
surprisals, and ruthless massacres, were worse than vain.

For a long time after the death of Pontiac, no wars of any consequence
took place between the whites and the Indians. But about the year
1804, there arose among the natives two men, chiefs of the warlike and
restless tribe of the Shawanees, who conceived, as Philip and Pontiac
had done before them, the design of uniting their scattered countrymen
for a common purpose. But it was not to expel the white men from the
country; they knew that such an attempt must be worse than useless.
But they wished to prevent them from encroaching more on the lands of
the natives. “We have retreated far enough,” said they; “we will go no
farther.”

Their names were _Tecumseh_ and _Elkswatawa_; they were brothers, but
different in mind and heart. The one was brave, frank, and
high-minded; the other cautious, subtle, and cruel. Each took the part
that suited his character. Elkswatawa was the _prophet_. He informed
his countrymen that the Great Spirit was about to take from the white
men and restore to the Indians the power and wisdom which rightfully
belonged to them. To bring about this desirable change, the red men
must return to the good old customs of their ancestors. They must
dress in skins; they must not quarrel, lie, or steal; and there must
be no more fighting between the tribes.

Tecumseh was the war-chief, and the orator. He visited the councils of
every tribe from the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Superior, haranguing them
on the wrongs which they had received from the white men, the loss of
their power and land, and the blessing which awaited them if they
would but attend to the words of the prophet.

The eloquence of the young warrior produced a great effect. Many of
the tribes declared themselves ready to adopt his scheme; and others
would soon have followed. But while on a visit to the Cherokees, he
received the mortifying intelligence that his brother, the prophet,
had given battle to the troops of the United States, under General
Harrison, and had been defeated. This was most unfortunate for the
cause of Tecumseh. His brother’s influence was nearly lost, many of
his allies wavered, and others deserted them altogether.

But the die was cast. He saw that war must follow; and he resolved to
meet it like a man; he redoubled his exertions to gain adherents.
About this time, (1812,) the war between England and the United States
commenced, and he immediately joined himself, with all his forces, to
the British cause. Throughout the war, his labors, his dangers, and
his exertions were unceasing. By his influence the British obtained
their immense force of Indian auxiliaries; his voice was heard at
every council-fire; he was foremost in every battle, the last in every
flight.

But he fought in vain; the American arms prevailed; his European
allies deserted him; and his faithful savage friends had fallen under
the rifles of the enemy. Still he disdained to yield. In the battle of
the Moravian towns, while his men were falling or fleeing around him,
he pressed forward into the hottest of the fight, sounding the
war-cry, and plying the tomahawk with desperate energy.

Suddenly there was a wavering in the ranks of the savages; a voice of
command was no longer heard among them. Tecumseh had fallen, and with
him fell the hopes of his followers. They fled, leaving the Americans
masters of the field.

He was buried near the place on which he fell; and it is said that his
grave is kept clear from shrubbery, by the frequent visits of his
countrymen, who thus shew the care with which they cherish the memory
of their last great chief. 




                      That thing I cannot do.


There is a beautiful story in the 5th chapter of the 2nd Book of
Kings, about a famous person, by the name of Naaman. He was captain of
the army of the king of Syria, and was a great and mighty man.

But he was afflicted with a loathsome disease, called _leprosy_, which
is common in the eastern countries. Now the Syrians had gone to war,
and had brought away from the land of Israel a young maiden as a
captive, and she waited on Naaman’s wife. The story in the Bible goes
on as follows:

“And she said unto her mistress, Would God my lord were with the
prophet that is in Samaria, for he would cure him of his leprosy. And
one went in and told his lord, saying, Thus and thus said the maid
that is of the land of Israel. And the king of Syria said, Go to, go,
and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. And he departed, and
took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold,
and ten changes of raiment. And he brought the letter to the king of
Israel, saying, Now, when this letter is come unto thee, behold, I
have therewith sent Naaman my servant to thee, that thou mayest
recover him of his leprosy. And it came to pass, when the king of
Israel had read the letter, that he rent his clothes, and said, Am I
God, to kill and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me to
recover a man of his leprosy? Wherefore consider, I pray you, and see
how he seeketh a quarrel against me.

“And it was so, when Elisha, the man of God, had heard that the king
of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying,
Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? Let him come now to me, and he
shall know that there is a prophet in Israel. So Naaman came with his
horses and with his chariot, and stood at the door of the house of
Elisha. And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, Go and wash in
Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come again unto thee, and thou
shalt be clean. But Naaman was wroth, and went away, and said, Behold,
I thought, he will surely come out to me, and stand, and call on the
name of the Lord his God, and strike his hand over the place, and
recover the leper. Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus,
better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them, and be
clean? So he turned, and went away in a rage.”

Now this beautiful story, though told about a great man in ancient
days, may afford instruction even to young people of our time; for,
like the Syrian captain, we all of us like to do things in our own
way; and furthermore, we like to perform certain duties rather than
others.

The truth is this--that in almost all our conduct, we permit our
pride, our likes and dislikes, our tastes and aversions to govern us,
rather than our sense of duty. We very seldom ask ourselves “what
ought I to do, and how ought I to do it?” implicitly and cheerfully
acting according to the reply which conscience gives. Even those who
mean to be governed by duty, are very apt to look over their list of
duties, pick out those which are most agreeable, and perform them,
neglecting or delaying all others--and even in performing duties, we
are likely to do them in the way most agreeable to ourselves, and
often not in the best way.

Now all this is weakness and folly: it is real and practical
disobedience; it shows that the heart is not right--that we are
selfish--self-willed, self-seeking, rather than honest, sincere,
faithful followers of duty.

Let us suppose a case. Anna is sick, and her mother wishes her to take
some medicine, and proposes that she shall take castor oil.

“Oh, mother,” says Anna, “I hate castor oil.”

“So does everybody,” says the mother. “But is it not better, my dear
child, to take a little disagreeable physic than to continue sick, and
run the risk of having a fever?”

“But, mother, won’t something else do as well?” is the reply.

“No, not as well,” says the mother, “the best thing for you is castor
oil; and sick or well, it is always right to do the best thing we
can.”

“Oh, mother,” says the thoughtless child, “I can’t take castor oil;
anything but castor oil--but really I cannot take that!”

Now this little girl is very much like Naaman. She wants to get well,
but she wishes to do this in her own way. She dislikes castor oil
particularly, and really feels willing to take the risk of being very
sick, rather than to swallow a little medicine which disgusts her. So
it was with Naaman. He wished to get well, and he was willing to take
a bath, but he was a proud man; and he did not like the idea of giving
a preference to a river of Judea over the beautiful rivers of
Damascus; and so he refused, and went away in a rage.

Thus it is that the little, as well as the great, are very apt to find
some difficulty in the performance of duty, even where it would
benefit themselves. Almost every person finds something, every day of
his life, which he cannot, or rather which he will not do, but which
at the same time he ought to do.

Now this is a very important matter; and the reason is this--that if
we cannot do the right thing at the right time, and in the right way,
though we may be very active, industrious, and energetic, still we
shall find ourselves really weak, inefficient and unsuccessful in
life.

But how shall we cure such a fault as this, if we happen to have it? I
will tell you. Watch yourselves carefully, and when you find
yourselves saying internally, “that thing I cannot do,” consider
whether it be a duty; and if it be, do it immediately, and do it as it
ought to be done! Remember, that even Naaman repented of his folly,
bathed in the river of Jordan, and was healed.




[Illustration]


                        Skeleton of a Bird.


The frame-work of a bird is one of the most curious and interesting
things in nature; and if we examine it carefully, we cannot but admire
the ingenuity and skill of its great Creator. What mechanic, save the
Author of nature, could have executed a piece of mechanism so
complicated, so delicate, and that yet works so admirably? Think of
the rapid motion of a bird in its flight; the quick vibrations of the
wings; the sudden bendings of the neck and tail; and consider that all
these are effected by muscles, which operate like the ropes of a ship.
How slow and difficult are the evolutions of a ship, which is one of
the wonders of human art; how swift are the evolutions of a bird,
which, however, is only one among the thousand wonders of nature!

Another curious thing about the skeleton of a bird, is this--all the
bones are hollow and very thin, yet they are very strong. Now, why are
they so thin and light? Because the bird is to fly in the air, and
therefore it is necessary that his body should be as light as
possible. How wonderfully the Creator seems to have foreseen all
things, and to have contrived them in the best possible way to answer
the purposes that he had in view! 




                      A Tragedy in the Woods.


An Englishman, who had been riding in Bengal, in India, tells the
following interesting, though painful story.

The whole face of the country in the East seems alive. A thousand
species of birds unknown in Europe--a thousand different kinds of
animals, omitted by some of our best zoologists--a thousand venomous,
but beautiful reptiles, vivify the scene. With a gun over the
shoulder, a host of objects offer themselves, to tempt a shot, (not
that I ever had the craving desire which some men feel, merely to kill
and destroy, for the sake of wanton cruelty,) from their gay plumage
and curious forms.

I was strolling through a wood “high up the country,” with my gun on
my shoulder, my thoughts all centred in Europe, when I heard a curious
noise in a tree almost immediately above me. I looked up, and found
that the sounds proceeded from a white monkey, who skipped from branch
to branch, chattering away with delight at beholding “a
fellow-creature;” for so he decidedly seemed to consider me. For a few
moments I took no notice of his antics, and walked quietly along, till
suddenly a large branch fell at my feet, narrowly escaping my head. I
again paused, and found that the missile had been dropped by my
talkative friend. Without consideration, I instantly turned round, and
fired at him.

The report had scarcely sounded, when I heard the most piercing, the
most distressing cry that ever reached my ears. An agonized shriek,
like that of a young infant, burst from the little creature whom I had
wounded. It was within thirty paces of me. I could see the wretched
animal, already stained with blood, point to its wound, and again hear
its dreadful moan.

The last agony of a hare is harrowing, and I have seen a young
sportsman turn pale on hearing it. The present cry was, however, more
distressing. I turned round, and endeavored to hurry away. This,
however, I found no easy task; for, as I moved forward, the unhappy
creature followed me, springing as well as it could from bough to
bough, uttering a low wailing moan, and pointing at the same time to
the spot whence the blood trickled. Then regarding me steadily, but
mournfully, in the face, it seemed to reproach me with my wanton
cruelty. Again I hastened on, but still it pursued me. When I stopped,
it stopped; when I attempted to go forward, it accompanied me. Never
in the whole course of my life did I feel so much for a dumb animal;
never did I so keenly repent an act of uncalled-for barbarity.

Determined not to allow the poor monkey thus to linger in torture, and
at once to end the annoying scene, I suddenly came to a halt, and
lowering my gun which was only single-barrelled, I was about to
re-load it for the purpose of despatching the maimed creature, when,
springing from the tree, it ran up to within about half a dozen paces
of me, and began to cry so piteously, and roll itself in agony,
occasionally picking up earth, with which it attempted to stanch the
blood by stuffing it into the wound, that, in spite of my resolution,
when I fired, I was so nervous, I almost missed my aim, inflicting
another wound, which broke the animal’s leg, but nothing more. Again
its piercing shriek rang in my ears. Horrified beyond endurance, I
threw down my gun, and actually fled.

In about half an hour I returned, for the purpose of fetching my gun,
fully expecting that the poor animal had left the spot. What, then,
was my surprise to find a crowd of monkeys surrounding the wretched
sufferer. As I advanced under the shade of some trees, I stole almost
close to them before they perceived me. I took advantage of this
circumstance to pause for a moment, and watch their movements. The
stricken monkey was crying out in the most piteous manner; the others
were busily employed in tearing open the wound, trying to destroy the
already dreadfully maimed creature. A shout drove them all away, save
the dying animal. I advanced; the little monkey was rolling in agony.
I took up my gun, which lay beside him. I fancied he cast one look of
supplication on me, one prayer to be relieved from his misery. I did
not hesitate; with one blow of the butt-end I dashed out his brains.
Then turning round, I slowly returned to my quarters, more profoundly
dispirited than I had felt for many months. Take my advice, sensible
reader--if you must live in India, never shoot a monkey.




[Illustration]


                              Frogs.


Frogs, with their cousins, the toads, are what are called
_amphibious_. We have heard a queer explanation of this word: a
show-man, speaking of an alligator that he had on exhibition, said
“that it was amphibious;” that is, said he, “it dies on the land, and
can’t live in the water.” He only got it reversed: he should have
said, that he lived equally well in the water and on the land.

Frogs are the best of all four-footed swimmers; they never deign to
walk or run; but they are great jumpers. The frog is rather more
slender, and more lively than the toad. The latter is, indeed, a dull,
stupid fellow, and often looks like a mere lump of dirt. Many people
dislike toads, and some fancy that they are poisonous. But nothing is
more innocent, or harmless.

Frogs are hatched from eggs, in about forty days after they are laid.
In about two days after being hatched they assume the tadpole or
pollywog form, and feed on pond-weed. When they are three months old,
two small feet sprout out near the tail; in a few days more the arms
are formed; and now the frog is every way perfectly formed, except
that it has a tail! During this state the creature eats very little,
and is seen to rise frequently to the top of the water to take breath.
He has always before lived like a fish, beneath the wave, but as he is
now changing his state, he must get acquainted with the world above
the water. In a few hours the tail drops off, and the frog, the real
genuine frog, is complete! And one most wonderful thing, is this: the
animal not only changes his form and habits, but his food also. While
a tadpole, he fed on grass; while a frog, he lives entirely on animal
food, as insects and worms. As he cannot find enough of them in the
water, he goes forth to hunt them, and takes insects by surprise.

Some people, seeing great quantities of toads and frogs in time of a
shower, fancy that they are rained down from the clouds. It may be
that these little creatures are sometimes scooped up by a whirlwind,
or water-spout, and carried to some distant place, when they fall with
the rain; but, in general, the abundance of these creatures after a
shower, is to be accounted for by the fact that at such a time they
all come forth from their lurking-places.

Frogs live chiefly on the land, but when cold weather comes, they dive
down in the mud, and lie there, in a torpid state, till spring comes
back, when they salute its return with a great variety of notes. Some
of these are rather plaintive and pleasing; but others are almost as
loud and coarse as the voices of bulls. These bellowing frogs are
sometimes called Dutch nightingales. In early times, these creatures
were so numerous in France, that they waked up the people early in the
morning. The rich men used, therefore, to require their servants to go
out and beat the frogs and keep them quiet, till they could get
through with their morning nap.




                      The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                              CHAPTER X.


Although Alexis did not expect to find letters from home, as he had
returned from his hunting expedition earlier than he anticipated,
still, on his arrival at Yakutsk, he went to the office where they
were to be deposited, if any had come. To his great joy he there found
two letters, and on looking at them, recognised the hand-writing of
his father upon one, and that of Kathinka on the other. His heart beat
quick, as he hurried home to read them alone; in his room. With
mingled feelings of hope and fear--of pleasure that he could thus hold
communion with his dearest friends--of pain that he was separated from
them by thousands of miles--he broke the seal of that which was
superscribed with his father’s hand, and read as follows:

                                             “Tobolsk, ---- 18--.

     “My dear Alexis,--I embrace a good opportunity to send you
     letters, and thus to advise you of the state of things
     here. You will first desire to know how it is with Kathinka
     and me. We get on more comfortably than I could have hoped.
     Your sister excites my admiration every day of her life.
     She is, in the first place, cheerful under circumstances
     which might naturally beget gloom in the heart of a young
     lady, brought up in the centre of fashion, surrounded with
     every luxury, and accustomed to all the soft speeches
     that beauty could excite, or flattery devise. She is
     industrious, though bred up in the habit of doing nothing
     for herself, and of having her slightest wish attended to
     by the servants. She is humble, though she has been taught
     from infancy to remember that aristocratic blood flows in
     her veins. She is patient, though of a quick and sanguine
     temper.

     “Now, my dear son, it is worthy of serious inquiry, what
     it is that can produce such a beautiful miracle--that can
     so transform a frail mortal, and raise a woman almost to
     the level of angels? You will say it is filial love--filial
     piety--a daughter’s affection for an unhappy father.
     But you would thus give only half the answer. The affection
     of a daughter is, indeed, a lovely thing; it is, among
     other human feelings, like the rose among flowers--the very
     queen of the race: but it is still more charming when it is
     exalted by religion. Kathinka derives from this source an
     inspiration which exalts her beyond the powers of accident.
     She has never but one question to ask--‘What is my
     duty?’--and when the answer is given, her decision is made.
     And she follows her duty with such a bright gleam about
     her, as to make all happy who are near. That sour, solemn,
     martyr-like air, with which some good people do their duty,
     and which makes them, all the time, very disagreeable, is
     never to be seen in your sister.

     “And, what is strange to tell, her health seems rather to
     be improved by her activity and her toil; and, what is
     still more strange, her beauty is actually heightened since
     she has tasted sorrow and been made acquainted with grief.
     The calico frock is really more becoming to her than the
     velvet and gold gown, which she wore at the famous ‘Liberty
     ball,’ at Warsaw, and which you admired so much.

     “All these things are very gratifying; yet they have
     their drawbacks. In spite of our poverty and retirement,
     we find it impossible to screen ourselves wholly from
     society. I am too feeble--too insignificant--to be cared
     for; but Kathinka is much sought after, and even courted.
     Krusenstern, the commander of the castle, is exceedingly
     kind to both her and me; and his lady has been her most
     munificent patron. She has bought the little tasteful
     products of Kathinka’s nimble needle, and paid her most
     amply for them. In this way we are provided with the means
     of support.

     “It galls me to think that I am thus reduced
     to dependence upon enemies--upon Russians--upon
     those who are the authors of all my own and my country’s
     sorrows; but it is best, perhaps, that it should be so--for
     often the only way in which God can truly soften the
     hard heart, is to afflict it in that way which is most
     bitter. Pride must fall, for it is inconsistent with true
     penitence; it is an idol set up in the heart in opposition
     to the true God. We must cease to worship the first--we
     must pull it down from its pedestal, before we can kneel
     truly and devoutly to the last.

     “Kathinka will tell you all the little details of news.
     I am bad at that, for my memory fails fast: and, my dear
     boy--I may as well say it frankly, that I think my days are
     fast drawing to a close. I have no special disease--but
     it seems to me that my heart beats feebly, and that
     the last sands of life are near running out. It may be
     otherwise--yet so I feel. It is for this reason that I have
     had some reluctance in giving my consent to a plan for your
     returning home in a Russian vessel, which is offered to you.

     “A young Russian officer, a relative of the princess
     Lodoiska, by the name of Suvarrow, is going to Okotsk,
     at the western extremity of Siberia, where he will enter
     a Russian ship of war, that is to be there; he will take
     command of a corp of marines on board, and will return
     home in her. Krusenstern has offered you a passage
     home in her; and as Suvarrow is a fine fellow, and, I
     suspect, is disposed to become your brother-in-law, if
     Kathinka will consent--nothing could be more pleasant
     or beneficial to you. You will see a good deal of the
     world, learn the manners and customs of various people,
     at whose harbors you will touch, and make agreeable, and,
     perhaps, useful acquaintances on board the ship. These are
     advantages not to be lightly rejected; and, therefore, if
     you so decide and accept the offer, I shall not oppose
     your choice. Indeed, the only thing that makes
     me waver in my advice, is my fear that I shall not live,
     and that Kathinka will be left here without a protector.
     And even if this happens, she is well qualified to take
     care of herself, for she has a vigor and energy only
     surpassed by her discretion. After all, the voyage from
     Okotsk to St. Petersburgh, in Russia, is but a year’s sail,
     though it requires a passage almost quite around the globe.
     At all events, even if you do not go with Suvarrow, you
     can hardly get home in less than a year--so that the time
     of your absence will not constitute a material objection.
     Therefore, go, if you prefer it.

     “I have now said all that is necessary, and I must stop
     here--for my hand is feeble. Take with you, my dear boy,
     a father’s blessing--and wherever you are, whether upon
     the mountain wave, or amid the snows of a Siberian winter,
     place your trust in Heaven. Farewell.
                                                   PULTOVA.”

This affecting letter touched Alexis to the quick; the tears ran down
his cheeks, and such was his anxiety and gloom, on account of his
father’s feelings, that he waited several minutes, before he could
secure courage to open the epistle from Kathinka. At last he broke the
seal, and, to his great joy, found in it a much more cheerful vein of
thought and sentiment. She said her father was feeble, and subject to
fits of great depression--but she thought him, on the whole, pretty
well, and if not content, at least submissive and tranquil.

She spoke of Suvarrow, and the scheme suggested by her father, and
urged it strongly upon Alexis to accept the offer. She presented the
subject, indeed, in such a light, that Alexis arose from reading the
letter with his mind made up to join Suvarrow, and return in the
Russian vessel. He immediately stated the plan to Linsk and his two
sons, and, to his great surprise, found them totally opposed to it:
They were very fond of Alexis, and it seemed to them like unkind
desertion, for him to leave them as proposed. Such was the strength of
their feelings, that Alexis abandoned the idea of leaving them, and
gave up the project he had adopted. This was, however, but transient.
Linsk, who was a reasonable man, though a rough one, after a little
reflection, seeing the great advantages that might accrue to his young
friend, withdrew his objection, and urged Alexis to follow the advice
of his sister.

As no farther difficulties lay in his way, our youthful adventurer
made his preparations to join Suvarrow as soon as he should arrive; an
event that was expected in a month. This time soon slipped away, in
which Alexis had sold a portion of his furs to great advantage. The
greater part of the money he sent to his father, as also a share of
his furs. A large number of sable skins, of the very finest quality,
he directed to Kathinka, taking care to place with them the one which
the hermit hunter of the dell had requested might be sent to the
princess Lodoiska, at St. Petersburgh. He also wrote a long letter to
his sister, detailing his adventures, and dwelling particularly upon
that portion which related to the hermit. He specially urged Kathinka
to endeavor to have the skin sent as desired; for, though he had not
ventured to unroll it, he could not get rid of the impression that it
contained something of deep interest to the princess.

At the appointed time, Suvarrow arrived, and as his mission brooked no
delay, Alexis set off with him at once. He parted with his humble
friends and companions with regret, and even with tears. Expressing
the hope, however, of meeting them again, at Tobolsk, after the lapse
of two years, he took his leave.

We must allow Linsk and his sons to pursue their plans without further
notice at present, only remarking that they made one hunting excursion
more into the forest, and then returned to Tobolsk, laden with a rich
harvest of valuable furs. Our duty is to follow the fortunes of
Alexis, the young sable-hunter.

He found Suvarrow to be a tall young man, of three and twenty, slender
in his form, but of great strength and activity. His air was marked
with something of pride, and his eye was black and eagle-like; but all
this seemed to become a soldier; and Alexis thought him the handsomest
fellow he had ever seen. The two were good friends in a short time,
and their journey to Okotsk was a pleasant one.

This town is situated upon the border of the sea of Okotsk, and at the
northern part. To the west lies Kamschatka--to the south, the islands
of Japan. Although there are only fifteen hundred people in the place,
yet it carries on an extensive trade in furs. These are brought from
Kamschatka, the western part of Siberia, and the north-west coast of
America, where the Russians have some settlements.

Alexis found Okotsk a much pleasanter place than he expected. The
country around is quite fertile; the town is pleasantly situated on a
ridge between the river and the sea, and the houses are very neatly
built. Most of the people are either soldiers, or those who are
connected with the military establishments; yet there are some
merchants, and a good many queer-looking fellows from all the
neighboring parts, who come here to sell their furs. Among those of
this kind, Alexis saw some short, flat-faced Kamschadales, clothed in
bears’ skins, and looking almost like bears walking on their hind
legs; Kuriles, people of a yellow skin, from the Kurile Islands, which
stretch from Japan to the southern point of Kamschatka; Tartars, with
black eyes and yellow skins; and many other people, of strange
features, and still stranger attire. He remained at this place for a
month, and the time passed away pleasantly enough.

Alexis was a young man who knew very well how to take advantage of
circumstances, so as to acquire useful information. Instead of going
about with his eyes shut, and his mind in a maze of stupid wonder, he
took careful observation of all he saw; and, having pleasant manners,
he mixed with the people, and talked with them, and thus picked up a
great fund of pleasant knowledge. In this way he found out what kind
of a country Kamschatka is; how the people look, and live, and behave.
He also became acquainted with the geographical situation of all the
countries and islands around the great sea of Okotsk; about the people
who inhabited them; about the governments of these countries; their
climates, what articles they produced, their trade; the religion,
manners and customs of the people.

Now, as I am writing a story, I do not wish to cheat my readers into
reading a book of history and geography--but, it is well enough to mix
in a little of the useful with the amusing. I will, therefore, say a
few words, showing what kind of information Alexis acquired about
these far-off regions of which we are speaking.

Kamschatka, you must know, is a long strip of land, very far north,
and projecting into the sea, almost a thousand miles from north to
south. The southern point is about as far north as Canada, but it is
much colder. Near this is a Russian post, called St. Peter’s and St.
Paul’s. The Kamschadales are chiefly heathen, who worship strange
idols in a foolish way--though a few follow the Greek religion, which
has been taught them by the Russians.

The cold and bleak winds that sweep over Siberia, carry their chill to
Kamschatka, and, though the sea lies on two sides of it, they make it
one of the coldest places in the world. The winter lasts nine months
of the year, and no kind of grain can be made to grow upon its soil.
But this sterility in the vegetable kingdom is compensated by the
abundance of animal life. In no place in the world is there such a
quantity of game. The coasts swarm with seals and other marine
animals; the rocks are coated with shell-fish; the bays are almost
choked with herrings, and the rivers with salmon. Flocks of grouse,
woodcocks, wild geese and ducks darken the air. In the woods are
bears, beavers, deer, ermines, sables, and other quadrupeds, producing
abundance of rich furs. These form the basis of a good deal of trade.

Thus, though the Kamschadales have no bread, or very little, they have
abundance of fish, flesh, and fowl. In no part of the world are the
people more gluttonously fed. They are, in fact, a very luxurious
race, spending a great part of their time in coarse feasting and
frolicking. They sell their furs to the Russians, by which they get
rum and brandy, and thus obtain the means of intoxication. Many of
them are, therefore, sunk to a state of the most brutal degradation.

The Kurile Islands, as I have stated, extend from the southern point
of Kamschatka to Jesso, one of the principal of the Japan Isles. They
are twenty-four in number, and contain about a thousand inhabitants.
The length of the chain is nearly nine hundred miles. Some of them are
destitute of people, but most of them abound in seals, sea otters, and
other game. The people are heathen, and a wild, savage set.

The Japan Isles lie in a long, curving line, in a southerly direction
from Okotsk. They are very numerous, but the largest are Jesso and
Niphon. These are the seat of the powerful and famous empire of Japan,
which has existed for ages, and has excited nearly as much curiosity
and interest as China.

One thing that increases this interest is, that foreigners are
carefully excluded from the country, as they are from China. The only
place which Europeans are allowed to visit, is Nangasaki, on the
island of Ximo. This is a large town, but the place assigned to
foreigners is very small; and no persons are permitted to reside here,
except some Dutch merchants, through whom all the trade and
intercourse with foreigners must be carried on.

The interior of Japan is very populous, there being twenty-six
millions of people in the empire. The capital is Jeddo, on the island
of Niphon; this is four times as large as New York, there being one
million three hundred thousand people there. The lands in the country
are said to be finely cultivated, and many of the gardens are very
beautiful. The people are very polite, and nearly all can read and
write. They have many ingenious arts, and even excel European workmen
in certain curious manufactures.

To the east of Japan is the great empire of China, which contains
three hundred and forty millions of people--just twenty times as many
as all the inhabitants of the United States! I shall have some curious
tales to tell of these various countries, in the course of the
sable-hunter’s story.




A TRAVELLER, who stopped one night at a hotel in Pennsylvania, rose
from his bed to examine the sky, and thrust his head by mistake
through the glass window of a closet. “Landlord,” cried the astonished
man, “this is very singular weather--the night is as dark as Egypt,
and smells very strong of old cheese!” 




[Illustration]


                          Walled Cities.


In ancient times, it was the custom to surround cities with very high
walls of stone. This was rendered necessary, by the habit that then
prevailed among nations, of making war upon each other. We, who live
so peaceably, can hardly conceive of the state of things that existed
in former ages. It is only by reading history, that we become informed
of what appears to have been the fact, that in all countries, until
within a late period, war has been the great game of nations.

As the people of ancient cities were constantly exposed to the attack
of enemies, the only way to obtain security was to encircle themselves
with high and strong walls. Sometimes these were of vast height and
thickness. We are told that Thebes, a city of Egypt--the mighty ruins
of which still astonish the traveller who passes that way--had a
hundred gates. It is said that the walls of Babylon were near fifty
feet high.

Most of the cities of Asia are still encircled with walls, and many of
the cities of Europe also. London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, have none:
Paris had only a small wall till lately--but the king is now engaged
in building one around the city, of great strength. Rome, Vienna, St.
Petersburgh, Berlin, and Amsterdam are walled cities.




                              Bells.


Bells are made of a mixture of about three parts of copper to one of
tin, and sometimes a portion of silver, according to the shape and
size the bell is to be. They are cast in moulds of sand--the melted
metal being poured into them.

The parts of a bell are--its body, or barrel; the clapper, within
side; and the links, which suspend it from the top of the bell.

The thickness of the edge of the bell is usually one fifteenth of its
diameter, and its height twelve times its thickness.

The sound of a bell arises from a vibratory motion of its parts, like
that of a musical string. The stroke of the clapper drives the parts
struck away from the centre, and the metal of the bell being elastic,
they not only recover themselves, but even spring back a little nearer
to the centre than they were before struck by the clapper. Thus the
circumference of the bell undergoes alternate changes of figure, and
gives that tremulous motion to the air, in which sound consists.

The sound which the metal thus gives, arises not so much from the
metal itself, as from the form in which it is made. A lump of
bell-metal gives little or no sound; but, cast into a bell, it is
strikingly musical. A piece of lead, which is not at all a sonorous
body, if moulded into proper shape, will give sound, which, therefore,
arises from the form of the object.

The origin of bells is not known; those of a small size are very
ancient. Among the Jews it was ordered by Moses, that the lower part
of the blue robe, which was worn by the high priest, should be adorned
with pomegranates and gold bells, intermixed at equal distances.

Among Christians, bells were first employed to call together religious
congregations, for which purpose runners had been employed before.
Afterwards the people were assembled together by little pieces of
board struck together, hence called sacred boards; and, lastly, by
bells.

Paulinus, bishop of Nola, in Campania, is said to have first
introduced church bells, in the fourth century. In the sixth century
they were used in convents, and were suspended on the roof of the
church, in a frame. In the eighth century an absurd custom of
baptizing and naming bells began; after this they were supposed to
clear the air from the influence of evil spirits.

Church bells were, probably, introduced into England soon after their
invention. They are mentioned by Bede, about the close of the seventh
century. In the East they came into use in the ninth century.

In former times it was the custom for people to build immense
minsters, and to apply their wealth in ornamenting their places of
worship. The same spirit made them vie with each other in the size of
their bells. The great bell of Moscow, cast in 1653, in the reign of
the Empress Anne, is computed to weigh 443,772 lbs.

Bells are of great service at sea during a very dark night, or thick
fog; they are kept, in such cases, constantly ringing. Near the Bell
Rock light-house, in England, as a warning to the mariner in fogs or
dark weather, two large bells, each weighing 1200 lbs., are tolled day
and night, by the same machinery which moves the lights, by which
means ships keep off these dangerous rocks.




                       A Mother’s Affection.


Would you know what _maternal affection_ is?--listen to me, and I will
tell you.

Did you ever notice anything with its young, and not observe a token
of joy and happiness in its eyes? Have you not seen the hen gather her
chickens together? She seemed delighted to see them pick up the grain
which she refrained from eating. Did you never see the young chick
ride on its mother’s back, or behold the whole brood nestle beneath
her wing? If you have, you may know something of a mother’s love.

Did you ever see a cat play with its kitten? How full of love and joy
she looks; how she will fondle and caress it; how she will suffer it
to tease, and tire, and worry her in its wild sports, and yet not harm
it in the least! Have you not seen her take it up in her mouth, and
carry it gently away, that it should not be injured? and with what
trembling caution would she take it up, in fear that she might hurt
it!

Did you ever see a bird building its nest? Day by day, and hour by
hour, they labor at their work, and all so merrily, then they line it
with soft feathers, and will even pluck their own down, rather than
their young should suffer.

A sheep is the meekest, the most timid and gentle of animals--the
least sound will startle it, the least noise will make it flee; but,
when it has a little lamb by its side, it will turn upon the fiercest
dog, and dare the combat with him: it will run between its lamb and
danger, and rather die than its young one should be harmed.

The bird will battle with the serpent; the timid deer will turn and
meet the wolf; the ant will turn on the worm; and the little bee will
sheath its sting in any intruder that dares to molest its young.

Many beasts are fierce and wild, and prowl about for blood; but the
fiercest of beasts--the tiger, the hyæna, the lion, the bear--all love
their young: yes, the most cruel natures are not utterly cruel. The
snake opens her mouth, and suffers her young to enter into her bosom
when they are in danger:--this is maternal love.

If, then, the beasts and reptiles of the earth, who are so full of
love for their offspring,--if they will care for them, provide for
them, live for them, die for them,--how great do you suppose must be
the love of a mother for her child? Greater than these, be assured;
ay, far greater, for the mother looks forward for the time when the
child shall become like a flower in full blossom. A mother’s love is
the most powerful thing on earth!

All other things are subject to change, all other hearts may grow
cold, all other things may be lost or forgotten--but a mother’s love
lasts forever! It is akin to that love with which God himself loves
his creatures, and never faileth.

Love thy mother, then, my little child. When she is gone, there is no
eye can brighten upon thee, no heart can melt for thee, like hers;
then wilt thou find a void, a vacancy, a loss, that all the wealth or
grandeur of the world can never fill up.

Thy mother may grow old, but her love decays not; she may grow sear at
heart, and gray upon the brow, but her love for thee will be green.
Think, then, in the time of her decline, of what she has suffered,
felt, and known for thee; think of her devotion, her cares, her
anxiety, her hopes, her fears--think, and do not aught that may bring
down her gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.




IN 1753, the Boston Common presented a singular spectacle. It was the
anniversary of a society for encouraging industry. In the afternoon,
about three hundred young women, neatly dressed, appeared on the
common at their spinning wheels. These were placed regularly in three
rows. The weavers also appeared, in garments of their own weaving. One
of them, working at a loom, was carried on a staging on men’s
shoulders, attended with music. A discourse was preached, and a
collection taken up from the vast assemblage for the benefit of the
institution.

       *       *       *       *       *

A YOUNG child having asked what the cake, a piece of which she was
eating, was baked in, was told that it was baked in a “spider.” In the
course of the day, the little questioner, who had thought a good deal
about the matter, without understanding it, asked again, with all a
child’s simplicity and innocence, “Where is that great _bug_ that you
bake cake in?” 




               The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                        of Thomas Trotter.


                          CHAPTER XXIII.

   _Journey to Pisa.--Roads of Tuscany.--Country people.--Italian
       costumes.--Crowd on the road.--Pisa.--The leaning tower.
       Prospect from the top.--Tricks upon travellers.--Cause of
       its strange position.--Reasons for believing it designed
       thus.--Magnificent spectacle of the illumination of
       Pisa.--The camels of Tuscany._

On the 22d of June, I set out from Florence for Pisa, feeling a strong
curiosity to see the famous leaning tower. There was also, at this
time, the additional attraction of a most magnificent public show in
that city, being the festival of St. Ranieri; which happens only once
in three years, and is signalized by an illumination, surpassing, in
brilliant and picturesque effect, everything of the kind in any other
part of the world. The morning was delightful, as I took my staff in
hand and moved at a brisk pace along the road down the beautiful banks
of the Arno, which everywhere exhibited the same charming scenery;
groves of olive, fig, and other fruit trees; vineyards, with mulberry
trees supporting long and trailing festoons of the most luxuriant
appearance; cornfields of the richest verdure; gay, blooming gardens;
neat country houses, and villas, whose white walls gleamed amid the
embowering foliage. The road lay along the southern bank of the river,
and, though passing over many hills, was very easy of travel. The
roads of Tuscany are everywhere kept in excellent order, though they
are not so level as the roads in France, England, or this country. A
carriage cannot, in general, travel any great distance without finding
occasion to lock the wheels; this is commonly done with an iron shoe,
which is placed under the wheel and secured to the body of the vehicle
by a chain; thus saving the wear of the wheel-tire. _My_ wheels,
however, required no locking, and I jogged on from village to village,
joining company with any wagoner or wayfarer whom I could overtake,
and stopping occasionally to gossip with the villagers and country
people. This I have always found to be the only true and efficacious
method of becoming acquainted with genuine national character. There
is much, indeed, to be seen and learned in cities; but the manners and
institutions there are more fluctuating and artificial: that which is
characteristic and permanent in a nation must be sought for in the
middle classes and the rural population.

At Florence, as well as at Rome and Naples, the same costume prevails
as in the cities of the United States. You see the same black and drab
hats, the same swallow-tailed coats, and pantaloons as in the streets
of Boston. The ladies also, as with us, get their fashions from the
head-quarters of fashion, Paris: bonnets, shawls, and gowns are just
the same as those seen in our streets. The only peculiarity at
Florence is, the general practice of wearing a gold chain with a jewel
across the forehead, which has a not ungraceful effect, as it
heightens the beauty of a handsome forehead, and conceals the defect
of a bad one. But in the villages, the costume is national, and often
most grotesque. Fashions never change there: many strange articles of
dress and ornament have been banded down from classical times. In some
places I found the women wearing ear-rings a foot and a half long. A
country-woman never wears a bonnet, but goes either bare-headed or
covered merely with a handkerchief.

As I proceeded down the valley of the Arno, the land became less
hilly, but continued equally verdant and richly cultivated. The
cottages along the road were snug, tidy little stone buildings of one
story. The women sat by the doors braiding straw and spinning flax;
the occupation of spinning was also carried on as they walked about
gossipping, or going on errands. No such thing as a cow was to be seen
anywhere; and though such animals actually exist in this country, they
are extremely rare. Milk is furnished chiefly by goats, who browse
among the rocks and in places where a cow could get nothing to eat. So
large a proportion of the soil is occupied by cornfields, gardens,
orchards and vineyards, that little is left for the pasturage of
cattle. The productions of the dairy, are, therefore, among the most
costly articles of food in this quarter. Oxen, too, are rarely to be
seen, but the donkey is found everywhere, and the finest of these
animals that I saw in Europe, were of this neighborhood.

Nothing could surpass the fineness of the weather; the sky was
uniformly clear, or only relieved by a passing cloud. The temperature
was that of the finest June weather at Boston, and during the month,
occasional showers of rain had sufficiently fertilized the earth. The
year previous, I was told, had been remarkable for a drought; the
wells dried up, and it was feared the cattle would have nothing but
wine to drink; for a dry season is always most favorable to the
vintage. The present season, I may remark in anticipation, proved as
uncommonly wet, and the vintage was proportionally scanty.

I stopped a few hours at Empoli, a large town on the road, which
appeared quite dull and deserted; but I found most of the inhabitants
had gone to Pisa. Journeying onward, the hills gradually sunk into a
level plain, and at length I discerned an odd-looking structure
raising its head above the horizon, which I knew instantly to be the
leaning tower. Pisa was now about four or five miles distant, and the
road became every instant more and more thronged with travellers,
hastening toward the city; some in carriages, some in carts, some on
horseback, some on donkeys, but the greater part were country people
on foot, and there were as many women as men--a circumstance common to
all great festivals and collections of people, out of doors, in this
country. As I approached the city gate, the throng became so dense,
that carriages could hardly make their way. Having at last got within
the walls, I found every street overflowing with population, but not
more than one in fifteen belonged to the place; all the rest were
visiters like myself.

Pisa is as large as Boston, but the inhabitants are only about twenty
thousand. At this time, the number of people who flocked to the place
from far and near, to witness the show, was computed at three hundred
thousand. It is a well-built city, full of stately palaces, like
Florence. The Arno, which flows through the centre of it, is here much
wider, and has beautiful and spacious streets along the water, much
more commodious and elegant than those of the former city. But at all
times, except on the occasion of the triennial festival of the patron
saint of the city, Pisa is little better than a solitude: the few
inhabitants it contains have nothing to do but to kill time. I visited
the place again about a month later, and nothing could be more
striking than the contrast which its lonely and silent streets offered
to the gay crowds that now met my view within its walls.

The first object to which a traveller hastens, is the leaning tower;
and this is certainly a curiosity well adapted to excite his wonder. A
picture of it, of course, will show any person what sort of a
structure it is, but it can give him no notion of the effect produced
by standing before the real object. Imagine a massy stone tower,
consisting of piles of columns, tier over tier, rising to the height
of one hundred and ninety feet, or as high as the spire of the Old
South church, and leaning on one side in such a manner as to appear on
the point of falling every moment! The building would be considered
very beautiful if it stood upright; but the emotions of wonder and
surprise, caused by its strange position, so completely occupy the
mind of the spectator, that we seldom hear any one speak of its
beauty. To stand under it and cast your eyes upward is really
frightful. It is hardly possible to disbelieve that the whole gigantic
mass is coming down upon you in an instant. A strange effect is also
caused by standing at a small distance, and watching a cloud sweep by
it; the tower thus appears to be actually falling. This circumstance
has afforded a striking image to the great poet Dante, who compares a
giant stooping to the appearance of the leaning tower at Bologna when
a cloud is fleeting by it. An appearance, equally remarkable and more
picturesque, struck my eye in the evening, when the tower was
illuminated with thousands of brilliant lamps, which, as they
flickered and swung between the pillars, made the whole lofty pile
seem constantly trembling to its fall. I do not remember that this
latter circumstance has ever before been mentioned by any traveller,
but it is certainly the most wonderfully striking aspect in which this
singular edifice can be viewed.

By the payment of a trifling sum, I obtained admission and was
conducted to the top of the building. It is constructed of large
blocks of hammered stone, and built very strongly, as we may be sure
from the fact that it has stood for seven hundred years, and is at
this moment as strong as on the day it was finished. Earthquakes have
repeatedly shaken the country, but the tower stands--leaning no more
nor less than at first. I could not discover a crack in the walls, nor
a stone out of place. The walls are double, so that there are, in
fact, two towers, one inside the other, the centre inclosing a
circular well, vacant from foundation to top. Between the two walls I
mounted by winding stairs from story to story, till at the topmost I
crept forward on my hands and knees and looked over on the leaning
side. Few people have the nerve to do this; and no one is courageous
enough to do more than just poke his nose over the edge. A glance
downward is most appalling. An old ship-captain who accompanied me was
so overcome by it that he verily believed he had left the marks of his
fingers, an inch deep, in the solid stone of the cornice, by the
spasmodic strength with which he clung to it! Climbing the mast-head
is a different thing, for a ship’s spars are designed to be tossed
about and bend before the gale. But even an old seaman is seized with
affright at beholding himself on the edge of an enormous pile of
building, at a giddy height in the air, and apparently hanging without
any support for its ponderous mass of stones. My head swam, and I lay
for some moments, incapable of motion. About a week previous, a person
was precipitated from this spot and dashed to atoms, but whether he
fell by accident or threw himself from the tower voluntarily, is not
known.

The general prospect from the summit is highly beautiful. The country,
in the immediate neighborhood, is flat and verdant, abounding in the
richest cultivation, and diversified with gardens and vineyards. In
the north, is a chain of mountains, ruggedly picturesque in form,
stretching dimly away towards Genoa. The soft blue and violet tints of
these mountains contrasted with the dark green hue of the height of
San Juliano, which hid the neighboring city of Lucca from my sight. In
the south the spires of Leghorn and the blue waters of the
Mediterranean were visible at the verge of the horizon.

In the highest part of this leaning tower, are hung several heavy
bells, which the sexton rings, standing by them with as much coolness
as if they were within a foot of the ground. I knew nothing of these
bells, as they are situated above the story where visiters commonly
stop--when, all at once, they began ringing tremendously, directly
over my head. I never received such a start in my life; the tower
shook, and, for the moment, I actually believed it was falling. The
old sexton and his assistants, however, pulled away lustily at the
bell-ropes, and I dare say enjoyed the joke mightily; for this
practice of frightening visiters, is, I believe, a common trick with
the rogues. The wonder is, that they do not shake the tower to pieces;
as it serves for a belfry to the cathedral, on the opposite side of
the street, and the bells are rung very often.

How came the tower to lean in this manner? everybody has asked. I
examined it very attentively, and made many inquiries on this point. I
have no doubt whatever that it was built originally just as it is. The
more common opinion has been that it was erect at first, but that, by
the time a few stories had been completed, the foundation sunk on one
side, and the building was completed in this irregular way. But I
found nothing about it that would justify such a supposition. The
foundation could not have sunk without cracking the walls, and
twisting the courses of stone out of their position. Yet the walls are
perfect, and those of the inner tower are exactly parallel to the
outer ones. If the building had sunk obliquely, when but half raised,
no man in his senses, would have trusted so insecure a foundation, so
far as to raise it to double the height, and throw all the weight of
it on the weaker side. The holes for the scaffolding, it is true, are
not horizontal, which by some is considered an evidence that they are
not in their original position. But any one who examines them on the
spot, can see that these openings could not have been otherwise than
they are, under any circumstances. The cathedral, close by, is an
enormous massy building, covering a great extent of ground. It was
erected at the same time with the tower, yet no portion of it gives
any evidence that the foundation is unequal. The leaning position of
the tower was a whim of the builder, which the rude taste of the age
enabled him to gratify. Such structures were fashionable during the
middle ages. There are two other specimens of this sort of
architecture still remaining at Bologna.

The crowd in the streets continued to increase every hour. It was
evident that the city already contained ten times as many guests as it
could accommodate with lodgings. There was not a public house where a
bed or even a dinner could be obtained. All round the city, in vacant
spaces, were temporary erections of booths, tents, shanties and other
hasty and imperfect structures, for the accommodation of the thousands
and thousands who could find no better quarters. At night, the whole
city was a blaze of lamps; every street being brilliantly illuminated.
This exhibition is not performed as with us, merely by placing lights
in the windows, but by such artificial and tasteful arrangement of
them as adds greatly to the picturesqueness and magnificence of the
scene. The two great streets bordering the river, and the three
bridges crossing it, were lined with lofty scaffoldings, representing
castles, towers, obelisks, and orders of architecture. These were hung
with millions of lamps, and the whole exhibited a scene of dazzling
and fairy magnificence, that reminded me of oriental splendor and the
visions of enchantment. The crowd of spectators completely blocked up
the streets, and it was impossible to move in any direction without
great difficulty. All night long the streets were full, and the blaze
of the illumination was kept up till the light of the lamps began to
fade away in the brightness of the dawn.

In the immense numbers of those who thronged the city, few thought of
a lodging for the night. Indeed, a lodging within doors, was out of
the question with regard to the most of them--there were not houses to
hold them. The greater part of these houseless guests were country
people, who had travelled on foot from a distance, and began towards
morning to feel the fatigues of their journey and sight-seeing. Sleep
overpowered them amidst the din and hurly-burly of the crowd, and they
threw themselves by hundreds and by thousands on the steps of the
doors, and on the pavements in nooks and corners, to sleep. The steps
of the churches were black with heaps of men and women piled one upon
another, fast asleep. Fortunately, the night was most balmy and
serene, and they were all too much accustomed to the open air to
suffer by this exposure.

The festivities were kept up through the following day. The river was
covered with barges, galleys, boats, and small craft of every
description, decked out with banners and streamers in the gayest and
most fantastic manner. There were boat-races and other naval sports,
which kept the river and the shores all alive with people through the
day. For my part, I had seen sufficient of the crowd, confusion and
tumult of these gayeties, and took more pleasure in strolling about
the neighborhood. The fields are richly cultivated, and the soil
naturally rich, till you approach the sea, where it becomes sandy and
barren. Even here, however, I found, in the midst of a forest of oaks,
a beautiful thriving farm belonging to the grand duke. It is true,
there was not much cultivation, owing to the thinness of the soil; but
there were immense herds of horned cattle, sheep and wild horses which
roamed at large through the woods, and over the desert tracts along
the shore, and, what surprised me most of all, about two hundred
_camels_. These latter animals, I was told, were first brought to this
region in the time of the crusades, and have been naturalized on the
spot. They are used as beasts of burthen, and carry loads of wood to
Pisa every day. It seems that all the camels which are carried about
in caravans over Europe and America, are obtained here, where they may
be bought for it hundred dollars apiece. Very probably, this breed,
having been so long from its original territory, has degenerated, so
that the genuine animal is never seen in our menageries. An attempt
was made some years ago to introduce camels into Carolina and Georgia,
where it was thought they might be of essential service in the low,
sandy regions, but the animals dwindled away and died. The camel
requires a dry air, and could not resist the moisture of our
atmosphere.




A SAILOR, who had heard of musical accompaniments, symphonies, &c.,
being one night at the theatre where the audience were calling upon
the orchestra for their favorite tunes, determined to put in his
claims; and standing up in the pit, he set the whole house in a roar
by calling out, “Hallo! you mess-mate with the big fiddle, give us
_Yankee Doodle with the trimmings_.”

       *       *       *       *       *

AMONGST the literary curiosities in the National Library at Berlin is
the Bible used by Charles I. on the scaffold.




              Farewell, for a time, to Correspondents.


As I am about to be absent for a few months, I must beg my
correspondents to excuse me, if they do not see in the Museum a
regular attention to their requests. For the present, however, let me
say, that I have received the letter of B....., dated Boston, April 7;
of M. A. R----l, North Bangor; of F., from Nantucket; of M. Hale,
Homersville, N. Y.; of Julia’s brother Jo, Elm Cottage; of G. Q.; of
W. N., of Boston; two letters from L. R. T., N. York; one from J. D.
C., Yarmouth; one from E. M. H., Malden; one from S. C. Morse,
Burlington, Vt.; one from W. B. C----, and some others.

I offer my thanks to Thomas L. S. for his suggestions. He refers to a
conundrum on the 120th page of vol. II. of the Museum, which states
that there is a chapter in the Bible of which it is impossible to read
three verses without crying. He says it is the 117th Psalm, and my
readers can see if he is right. The following story which Thomas tells
is pleasing.

     I was showing my little sister (three years old) the
     picture of Mt. Vesuvius, in your last “Museum,” and wishing
     to find her ideas on the subject, I asked her, “Is that
     mountain on fire?” “No,” said she. “What makes it smoke
     then?” said I. “Why,” said she, looking up into my face
     with a glance I cannot describe--“why, there is a stove in
     the mountain!”

The following letters tell their own tale; the first is from a very
young subscriber.

                                      _Hartford, June 1st, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     I have been a reader of your Museum ever since it has been
     published, and I like it very much. I was quite pleased with
     the stories of Brusque and the Siberian Sable-Hunter, and
     should like to see them continued. I was also interested in
     those stories of Peter Parley’s; and the puzzles have amused
     me much. I was glad to find so many in the June number.

     I have found out three of them, and believe they are
     correct; the third is _Peter Parley_, the fifth _Wooden
     Leg_, and the sixth _Robert Merry_.
                                                     MARY F.


                                       _Newburgh, May 4th, 1842._
     DEAR MR. MERRY:

     I take this opportunity of writing you a few lines, to let
     you know how I like your Museum. I have taken it for the
     last year, and I intend to take it as long as it is
     published, if nothing happens to prevent me. I long to see
     the rest of the Siberian Sable-Hunter, and Philip Brusque,
     and Peter Parley’s stories. If the little black and
     blue-eyed boys and girls only knew how interesting this
     little book is, they could not help subscribing for it. What
     boy or girl is there that cannot save one dollar a year? I
     have asked several of my friends to subscribe for it, and I
     hope that, before long, I can send some subscribers for
     Robert Merry’s Museum.

     I remain your faithful subscriber, a blue-eyed friend,
                                                 T. S. McC.


     MR. MERRY:

     In answer to Bertha’s charade in your May number, I can do
     no less than send you the following, hoping you will notice
     it in your next, and oblige B.

        Dear Bertha, if I don’t intrude,
        The _truth_ that’s in your story
        Is what you mean by “earthly good,”
        Likewise the “path to glory.”
        The _first_ is _T_, the end of Lot;
        The _second’s_ _r_,--you know it;
        That stands for rest, and every jot
        As plain as words can show it.
        And if the end of malt be _t_,
        As I do now conceive it,
        It doubtless must the fourth one be--
        In truth, I do believe it.
        The third is _u_, I do believe,
        In fact you’ll not deny it;
        And if I do the right conceive,
        The fifth is _h_--let’s try it.
        There is an _h_ in spelling _h_eaven,
        Likewise in spelling _h_ell;
        Now, if I am not much mistaken,
        There’s one in spelling s_h_ell.
        If now I make them all combined,
        Your anxious heart ’twill soothe--
        Likewise ’twill ease my weary mind,
        So let us call them TRUTH!
                                               M.


                                     _Lancaster, May 5th, 1842._
     DEAR MR. MERRY:

     Permit me, although an unknown friend, to address a few
     lines to you concerning your interesting little Magazine. I
     have taken it for more than one year, and I must say, the
     more numbers I get of it, the better I like them. I hope you
     will not discontinue the story of Thomas Trotter’s Voyages
     and Travels very shortly, as it is, in my estimation, the
     most interesting story I ever read. Your Magazine has become
     very popular, and I hope it may continue and increase in
     popularity, as I am certain there is no one, that is more
     worthy of a liberal patronage than Robert Merry’s Museum. If
     you will be kind enough to insert in your next month’s
     Magazine the enigma that I have composed, (which you will
     find on the other side,) you will oblige your true friend,

                                                        VIRGINIA.


                               ENIGMA.

                 I am a word composed of six letters.

     My 4, 3, 4, 6 is what everybody was once.
     My 4, 3, 2 is the name of a bird that flies all night.
     My 4, 3, 5, 6 is an article used by merchants.
     My 5, 3, 1, 2 is used by the shoemakers.
     My 6, 6, 5 is an animal that inhabits rivers.
     My 4, 3, 2, 2, 5, 6 is a thing that was done in the revolution.
     My 3, 5, 6 is a pleasant beverage.
     My 3, 2, 3, 5, 6 is what the little folks like.
     My 1, 3, 5, 6 is a thing often done.
     And my last, 4, 6, 3, 2, is what Paddy gave the drum. And my
        whole is in every town.

H. E. H. suggests _Admiral Nelson_, as a solution of the puzzle of
thirteen letters in the May number of the Museum. He is right.

The following puzzles are among the great number sent for insertion.

                        I am a word of 16 letters.

     My 1, 2, 7 is a witty fellow.
     My 12, 9, 13, 5, 15, 7 is often applied to a wanderer.
     My 13, 11, 12, 7, 14, 6, 5, 2 is one of the United States.
     My 4, 2, 12, 12, 9, 1 is an agricultural instrument.
     My 2, 12, 8, 5, 3, 2, 10 is a workman.
     My 16, 14, 6 is a sort of snare.
     My whole is the name of a distinguished American writer.

                                 Yours respectfully,
                                                       F.


                        I am a word of 13 letters.

     My 10, 11, 2, 1 is the name of a furious animal.
     My 9, 11, 10 is a liquid.
     My 6, 2, 3, 12 is a very valuable product.
     My 7, 6, 4, 9, 1 is a town of Massachusetts.
     My 5, 13, 4 forms a part of a gentleman’s  apparel.
     My 13, 12, 4 is the name of a female.
     My 8, 7, 4 is what my 6, 7, 4 very much  desires.
     My 12 and 9 is a word of refusal.
     My 6, 2, 4 is a small house.


                       I am composed of 15 letters.

     My 1, 2, 7, 6 is a medicine.
     My 3, 6, 8 is a quadruped.
     My 9, 13, 14, 5, 3 is an author.
     My 13, 5, 2 is an herb.
     My 1, 4, 7, 8 is a plant.
     My 14, 9, 15 is a part of the foot.
     My 2, 7, 8 is an insect.
     My 6, 7, 11, 12 is a name.
     My 13, 4, 7 is an ore.
     My 10, 9, 7, 4, 6, 11 is a group of islands.
     My 11, 10, 7, 5 is a number.
     My whole is a celebrated queen.


                            _Charleston, S. C., June 4th, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     Dear Sir,--Your Museum affords much amusement and
     instruction to your few subscribers here. I have made out
     the following answers to some of your puzzles, which it will
     be gratifying to me to know are correct.

                                 Very respectfully,
                                                     LOUISA.

     To the third, of thirteen letters--Daniel Webster.
     To the seventh, of eleven letters--Robert Merry.
     To the sixth, of nine letters--Wooden Leg.
     To the fourth, of eleven letters--Peter Parley.

The above answers are right.
                                                                R. M.




ON the death of King William IV., a council of Indians was held in
Canada, where it was announced that they had no longer a “great
father,” but a “great mother!”--meaning the queen.




                           MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                         VOLUME IV.--No. 3.




[Illustration]


                               Seeing.

Of all the senses, that of seeing is the most noble, commanding and
useful. It enables us to perceive thousands of objects at a glance,
with their forms, colors, and distance.

The mechanical structure of the eye is very curious, but I shall not
describe it now. It is sufficient to say that light is the great
instrument by which vision is performed. This is supposed to consist
of innumerable particles, inconceivably small, which proceed in
straight lines from every part of luminous or shining bodies. These
fly with a velocity ten million times as swift as a cannon ball, for
they come from the sun to the earth in eight minutes!

These rays of light enter the ball of the eye at the pupil; and at the
bottom of a cavity in the ball, called the retina, a little picture is
painted of every object placed before the eye. It is this little
picture that enables us to see; and we see distinctly, or otherwise,
as this is clear or obscure. A very curious thing is, that this
picture paints everything reversed, that is, upside down. The reason
why we do not, therefore, see things upside down, is a matter that has
puzzled greater philosophers than Bob Merry.




                        Merry’s Adventures.


                            CHAPTER XXII.


 The book shop in which I was now a clerk, was not like the present
 Broadway establishments of Appleton, or Wiley & Putnam--a vast hall,
 with almost endless successions of shelves, and these loaded with the
 rich and varied volumes of the American and English press. No indeed!
 it was a little shop in Pearl street, stocked with Webster’s Spelling
 Books, Watts’s Psalms and Hymns, Young’s Night Thoughts, Webster’s
 Third Part, the American Preceptor, and other works of a popular
 kind, and designed for general use. There were no Rollo works--there
 was no Peter Parley then!

Mr. Cooke was a very sharp man in trade. His whole soul was bent on
making money. He cared nothing for books, except for the profit he
made upon them. For a few days he left me to myself, but then he began
to try to make me as much interested in the business as he was. But
this was a vain attempt. My thoughts were always somewhere else, and
often when he spoke to me I did not hear him. I was constantly making
blunders. In casting accounts I got everything wrong; I credited Mr.
Lightfoot with books that should have been charged; I sent off to a
customer a lot of Peregrine Pickle, instead of Young’s Night Thoughts;
and at last, taking the inkstand for the sand-box, I dashed a puddle
of ink over the ledger!

This was the crisis of my fate. Never in all my days have I seen such
another sight as poor Mr. Cooke’s face. Astonishment, indignation,
fury, were in his countenance all at once. At last he broke out: “What
have you done? Oh you unlucky dog! Get out of my house; get out of my
sight! Oh my poor, dear ledger! Here’s a pretty kettle of fish! Get
out of my sight! Get a piece of newspaper; fetch some water; run to
the house and get a cloth! Oh dear, dear, dear! what shall I do! Oh
Robert Merry--Robert Merry!” Here the poor man was entirely out of
breath. I got the things he wanted, took my hat and walked into the
street.

I passed along quite rapidly for some time, hardly knowing what I was
about. In the tempest of my mind I walked rapidly, and was soon in a
remote part of the city. The time passed insensibly away, and it was
evening before I was aware of it. As I was walking through a dark and
narrow street, I heard a voice behind me, and a clatter as of many
persons running with all their might. The din drew nearer and nearer,
and soon I distinguished the cry of “Stop thief! stop thief!” In a
moment a young man rushed by me, and at a little distance several men
came pressing in hot pursuit. I was seized with a sudden impulse,
whether of fright, I cannot say, but I ran with all my speed. I was,
however, soon overtaken, and rudely seized by the collar by a man, who
exclaimed, “Well, rascal, I have got you at last!”

“Let go of me,” said I, “I am no rascal.”

“Nay, nay,” said the other; “not so soon, my boy!” at the same time he
twisted my collar, till I was well-nigh choked. Two other men came up,
and each had some rude thing to say to me.

“Well, master Scrapegrace,” said one, “I guess you have seen
Bridewell; so it will be as good as home to you.”

“It’s the very fellow I saw prowling about the streets last night,”
said another: “his hang-dog look is enough to commit him.”

“Really,” said a third, “there’s a touch of the gentleman about the
fellow; but there’s no rogue so bad as one that’s seen better days,
and had a neddicashun.”

With this kind of conversation they amused themselves, while they
pulled me rudely along, and at last lodged me in a watch-house. Here I
was kept till morning, when I was taken to a prison called Bridewell,
where were some fifty persons, of all ages and sexes, and wearing the
various aspects of poverty, wretchedness, and crime. I could not
endure to face them, so I slunk into a corner and sat down upon the
floor. Burying my face in my hands, I gave myself up to despair.

I sat for two or three hours in utter desolation, thinking over my sad
fortunes, and cut to the heart with a sense of the evils that
surrounded me. At length a man came and told me that I was wanted. I
followed him out, and was taken into a room full of people. I had
never been in a court of justice before, and I certainly did not guess
that this was a place that could bear such a title. I have seen a good
deal of the world, and yet I am ready to declare that in no place, not
even in the wilderness, among savages, is there a spot where men seem
to me so rude, so ill-mannered, so unjust, so little humane, as in
that place called _a court of justice_. The constable, the sheriff,
the judge, and, above all, the lawyers, have the same heartlessness,
the same disregard of the claims of one human being upon another.

I was hurried through the crowd, and placed in an elevated seat,
surrounded with a railing, thus becoming the object upon which every
eye was bent. The sense of my degradation, innocent as I was,
overwhelmed me with confusion. One of the lawyers, called the city
attorney, soon got up and stated to a sour and awful looking man, who
it appeared was the judge, that the times were marked with fearful
signs. “May it please your honor,” said he, “the good old days of
purity are past; no longer are the young brought up in the way in
which they should go, but they are either instructed to ridicule every
law of God and man, or left to work out their own destruction. It is a
time for justice to do her work; for the judge to assert the majesty
of the insulted law. I now bring before you, sir, a young man of
genteel appearance; one who has evidently seen and known better
things; but who yet, we have reason to believe, is a hardened and
practised villain.”

Having said this, the lawyer went on to state, that I entered a store
the evening of the preceding day, and robbed the till or drawer of its
money, amounting to several dollars; that I was soon pursued, and,
while running, threw away the money; that I was speedily overtaken,
lodged in the watch-house for the night, and then put in Bridewell.
Here several witnesses were called, who testified to these facts. One
of them, who had accompanied me to the watch-house, added, that he
knew me perfectly well; that I was a thief and gambler by profession;
that he had seen me some days before, at a little tavern, notorious as
a gambling house, and that he had seen me playing at cards with two
celebrated rogues. This he embellished with sundry particulars as to
my looks and actions.

I was so unpractised in the ways of the world, so ignorant, and so
utterly confounded at the strange events that came hurrying one after
another, that I sat still, and heard all this with a kind of stupid
wonder. I did not attempt to explain or deny anything. It all looked
to me like a conspiracy--the countenance of judge, lawyer, and
witness, bore an aspect coinciding with this idea, and I felt it to be
in vain to resist. Though the whole story, save only the gambling
scene, and my being taken in the street, was false, yet I said
nothing, and my silence was taken as admission of my crime.

This examination was followed by a speech on the part of the lawyer,
who evidently wished to have me convicted. I could not imagine why
this man, whom I had never seen before, whom I never injured or
offended, should be so anxious to prove me a thief, and to have me
shut up in prison. I did not then know that a lawyer always wishes to
succeed in any case he undertakes, right or wrong, because he is
thought a better lawyer if he is able to succeed. I did not then know
that if a lawyer has a bad case, he is particularly anxious to gain
it, and makes all the greater efforts because he thereby shows his
ingenuity and his art, and thus increases his reputation and gains
practice.

Well, the lawyer went on pleading very artfully, pretending all the
time to be candid, and to pity me; but yet exaggerating the testimony,
and making me out one of the blackest villains that ever lived. He was
so eloquent and so artful, that I almost began to think that I was
really a regular thief! I expected of course to be condemned, and was
not disappointed when the judge sentenced me to three months’
imprisonment in the city jail.

To this place I was taken the next day, and there shut up with about a
hundred other convicts; thus becoming the regular companion of
criminals; and denied the liberty of going forth to breathe the pure
air, or to associate with my fellow-men, because I was considered a
dangerous person! At the time, this all seemed to me not only cruel
and unjust, but unaccountable. I have since been able to see that it
proceeded from weakness of character on my part, owing to my faulty
education. My playing at cards at the tavern; my inattentive
negligence at the bookstore; my want of all habits of taking care of
myself, had thus led me on from one step to another, till I was now an
outcast from society and the world. I had been brought up to think
myself rich; this was the first great evil. I had never had that
constant admonition which parents bestow, and which, though children
often resist and reject it, is the greatest good that Providence can
send to young persons. It was owing to these defects in my education,
that I had grown up in ignorance and imbecility; and now that I was
left to take care of myself, I found that I was incompetent to the
task. Having committed no serious fault, and utterly innocent of all
crime, I was still a convicted felon. Let this part of my story teach
children to prize the advantages of a good education; to prize the
admonitions of parents; and to prize the protection and guidance of
father and mother, when danger and difficulty gather around the path
of youthful life.

I saw no one with whom I had the least desire to form an acquaintance,
and therefore kept aloof from all around me. Food was brought in, but
I had lost all appetite, and could not eat. A bed was assigned me in a
long room, where were about twenty other beds. It was a mere mattrass
of straw upon the floor; and though not inviting, at an early hour I
retired and lay down upon it. I was revolving my own fate in my mind,
when someone in the bed next to me, spoke. I looked up, and by the dim
light, I saw there a young man, thin and pale, and apparently unable
to rise. “Get me some water! for God’s sake get me some water!” said
he. The tones were husky, but earnest, and I sprung up instantly. “Who
are you?” said I.

“Oh, never mind who I am, but get me some water,” was the reply.

I went instantly, and procured some water and brought it to the
bed-side. The young man raised himself with great difficulty. He was
wasted to a skeleton; his hair was long and nearly covered his face.
His eye was deep blue, and large, and the expression was exceedingly
soft, though now very bright. He took a long draught of the water, and
then sunk heavily upon the bed, saying, as if it was all he had
strength to say, “Thank you!”

This scene interested me, and called my thoughts away from myself. I
sat by the side of the young man, looking intently upon his pale face.
In a short time he opened his eyes, and saw me looking at him. He
started a little, and then said--“What do you look at me so for?” “I
hardly know,” said I, “except that you are sick. Can I aid you--can I
do anything for you?”

“No--no,” replied he: “no--and yet you can. Come near; I am very
feeble and cannot talk loud. What brought you here? You do not talk
like one of us?” I here told the young man my story, very briefly. At
first he seemed to doubt my veracity--but he soon dismissed his
suspicions, and went on as follows:

“You think that your misfortunes are the result of an imperfect
education, and the want of the care, teaching, and protection of
parents. My story will show you that all these advantages may be
thrown away, if the heart is wrong. My story will tell you _the
dangers that lie in the first fault_!

“My parents were respectable and religious people. They took great
pains with my education, for I was their only child. They not only
sent me to school, and provided me with good books, but they gave me
good advice, required me to go to church, and took care that I should
not fall into evil company. It was impossible not to love such
parents, and therefore I entertained for them the strongest affection.
I also placed the most perfect confidence in them: I told them all my
wishes, and if reasonable, they were granted; I told them my troubles,
and then was sure to receive sympathy, and, if possible, relief.

“But this happy state of things did not continue. One of my companions
had a watch, which he wished to sell for ten dollars. It was very
pretty, and I desired exceedingly to possess it. I asked my father for
ten dollars to buy it; but he thought it an idle expense, and refused.
I then went to my mother, and tried to get her to persuade my father
to buy the watch for me; but this was unavailing.

“About this time, I saw a ten dollar bill, lying, as if left by some
accident, in one of my father’s desk drawers. The thought of taking
it, came suddenly into my mind. I took it and put it into my pocket,
and went away. It was the first thing of the kind I had ever done, but
a first step in guilt once taken, others soon become matters of
course. I had no great fear of detection, for I believed that the bill
would not be missed, and if it were, no one was likely to suspect _me_
of taking it. The money was soon missed, however, and some inquiry was
made about it. I was asked if I had seen it: to which I answered,
‘No!’ This lie, the first I had ever told, was the direct consequence
of my first fault.

“The loss of the money passed by; nothing more was said of it for some
time. After waiting a few days, I took the bill and purchased the
watch of my young friend, telling him to say that he had given it to
me, if any inquiry was made about it. I then took it home and told my
mother that John Staples had given me the watch. Thus I went on, not
only telling falsehoods myself, but also leading my companion into
falsehood: so sure it is that one crime leads to another.

“My mother seemed very thoughtful when I showed her the watch; and
pretty soon after, my father called me to him, and began to inquire
about it. He was evidently a little suspicious that I had come by it
unfairly, and suspected that, somehow or other, the affair was
connected with the lost ten dollar bill. I parried all his enquiries;
denied plumply and roundly all knowledge of the missing money; and at
last, with tears and a look of honest indignation, protested my
innocence.

“From this time, my feelings towards my parents began to alter, and
especially towards my father. I could not bear to see him look at me.
Ever before, I had loved his look, as if it were summer’s sunshine;
but now it seemed to me to be full of suspicion and reproach. I felt
as if his eye penetrated into my very bosom; and it stung me with
remorse. My confidence in him was gone; my affection flown; I even
disliked to be in his presence, and I was constantly devising the
means of cheating and deceiving him!

“So things went on for two or three weeks, when at last my father
called me to his study, and I saw by his look that something serious
was coming. He proceeded at once to tell me that a shopkeeper in the
village, in paying him some money, had given, among other bills, the
lost ten dollar note! He added further, that, on inquiry, he found
that it had been received of John Staples. My father’s inference was,
that I had taken the money, and bought the watch with it, and had
resorted to a series of falsehoods to cover up my guilt. Short as had
been my apprenticeship in crime, I met this charge with steadiness;
and still protested my innocence, and insinuated that suspicion ought
rather to fall upon Staples, than upon myself.

“Upon this hint, my father sent for John, who, true to his promise,
said that he had given me the watch. When asked about the money, he
denied all knowledge of it. My father told him of getting the
identical bill he had lost, at the merchant’s store; he took it out of
his pocket, and deliberately showed it to Staples. The fellow seemed
to feel that he was caught; that further evasion was vain. The truth
trembled upon his lips, but before he spoke, he looked at me. I gave
him such a frown as to decide his course. He instantly changed his
mind, and resolutely denied ever having seen the money before!

“This was decisive: Staples was proved a liar, and it was readily
inferred that he was also a thief. The matter was told to his father,
who paid the ten dollars in order to hush the matter up. Thus the
affair seemed to end, and my first enterprise in guilt was successful.
But alas, there is no end to crime! and our success in error is but
success in misery. I had obtained the watch--but at what a cost! It
had made me a liar; it had deprived me of that love of my parents
which had been my greatest source of happiness; it had made me dread
even the look and presence of my kind father; it had led me, in order
to save myself, to sacrifice my friend and companion; and, finally, it
had made me look upon all these things with satisfaction and relief,
because they had been connected with my escape from detection and
punishment. Thus it is that we learn not only to practise wickedness,
but to love it!

“From this time, my course in the downward path was steady and rapid.
I formed acquaintance with the vicious, and learned to prefer their
society. I soon became wholly weaned from my parents, and felt their
society to be an irksome restraint, rather than a pleasure. From
regarding my father as an object of affection, I learned now to look
upon him with aversion. When he came into my presence, or I into his,
his image produced a painful emotion in my mind. Thus I got at length
to feel toward him something like hatred. I spent a great deal of
money for him, and kept constantly asking for more. I knew that he was
in straightened circumstances, and that he could ill afford to supply
me--but this did not weigh a feather in my hardened mind.

“I went on from one step to another, till at last I agreed to unite
with my companions in a regular system of roguery. We formed a kind of
society, and robbed hen-roosts and melon-patches by the score. We
obtained entrance to houses and stores, and plundered them of many
watches and silver spoons. I was the youngest of the party, and did
not always take a very active part in their enterprises--but I loved
the sport and did what I could. At last, as we were returning from an
excursion one very dark night--there being four of us--we heard a
horse’s trot behind us. We waited a little, and soon a gentleman, well
mounted, came up. In an instant two of the gang rushed upon him; one
seized the horse’s bridle, and the other pulled the man to the ground.
We all fell upon him and began to rifle his pockets. He made some
resistance, and I was about to strike him on the head--when, think of
my horror!--I perceived that it was my father! I staggered back and
fell senseless upon the ground. No one saw me, and how long I remained
insensible, I cannot say.

“When I came to myself, I was alone. My companions had gone away, not
noticing me, and my father, after being rifled of his watch and money,
had escaped. What should I do? I could not return home; the thought of
meeting the parent, in whose robbery I had been an abettor, and
against whose life I had prepared to strike a ruffian blow--was too
horrible! I fled to this city--I allied myself to rogues and
scoundrels. I lived a life of crime; for nothing else was left to me.
I drank deeply; for drunkenness is necessary to one who pursues a life
of vice and crime. The mind gets full of horrors at last, and brandy
only can allay them; beside, brandy is often necessary to nerve the
head and strengthen the arm, so as to give the needed daring and
power. If you could annihilate liquors, it seems to me that you would
annihilate the whole profession of thieves, blacklegs, burglars,
robbers and counterfeiters. Get rid of those who sell liquors, and you
get rid of these felons; for they could not endure such lives as they
lead, unless braced up by the stimulus of strong drink.

“Well--my story is now told. I have only to say, that I was taken at
last, for one of my crimes, tried, convicted, and sent to this place.
But I shall stay here a short time only. My health is gone--though
scarce eighteen years of age; my constitution is wasted away, and the
lamp of life is near going out forever!”

Here the poor youth sunk down upon his bed, completely exhausted. He
closed his eyes, and by the flickering light of a remote lamp, his
face seemed as pallid as marble. It looked like the very image of
death, and I felt a sort of awe creeping over me, as if a corpse was
at my side. At last I could hear him breathe, and then I went to bed.
I reflected long upon what had happened. “I have thought,” said I,
mentally, “that I was most unhappy, in being destitute of the care and
instruction of parents; but there is a poor youth, who is still more
wretched, and who yet has enjoyed the blessing denied to me. The truth
is, that after all, good or ill fortune, is usually the result of our
own conduct. Even if Providence grants us blessings, we may neglect or
abuse them; if they are denied to us, we may, by a steady pursuit of
the right path, still be successful in gaining happiness.” With this
reflection, I fell asleep; but when I awoke in the morning, the young
man at my side was sleeping in the repose of death!




                  Sketches of the Manners, Customs,
                       &c., of the Indians of
                              America.


                           CHAPTER XXIII.

   _General resemblance.--Food.--Fishing.--Hunting.--Houses.--Dress.--
      Manner in which they train their children._

A strong resemblance in personal traits exists throughout the
numberless native tribes of North America. They are generally tall,
straight, and robust. Their skin is of a copper-color; their eyes
large, bright, black, and piercing; their hair long, dark and coarse,
seldom or never curled; and to their simple diet and active life they
owe their white and regular teeth, and their excellent health.

Their food is such as they can obtain from the rivers and the forests;
hunting and fishing, and fighting form the chief pursuits of the
American savages. Before the arrival of the whites, very little labor
was expended in tilling the lands; and, even that little, was done
mostly by the women. But since their hunting-grounds have become too
small, and game too scarce to allow them to support life in this way,
they have begun to turn their attention to the riches which labor and
time can draw from the bosom of the fertile soil.

The natives made use of both spears and nets in their fisheries. They
had a way of fishing in the night time, by means of a fire kindled on
a hearth in the middle of their canoes, which dazzled the fishes by
its light, and enabled those in the boats to take them easily with a
spear. They sometimes built a fence or dam entirely across the mouth
of some small river, leaving only one opening, at which they placed a
sort of pot or box, made very much in the form of a mouse-trap, into
which the fish were carried by the stream, and thus caught.

Before the Indians had learned from Europeans the use of fire-arms,
their only method of hunting was by means of bows and arrows, and
traps. In shooting with the bow, they were very expert, but they have
now generally laid it aside for the gun.

They had a very ingenious way of taking a great number of deer and
other large animals at a time. They first make two fences of strong
pointed stakes, so high that the deer cannot leap over them. These
fences at one end are very far apart, but they gradually approach near
each other, until there is but a small opening between them, which
leads into a small enclosure in the form of a triangle. At the farther
end of this triangle is a small covered way; large enough to allow one
deer to pass into it.

When all this is prepared, a great number of people assemble together,
and forming a half circle around the forest, advance slowly, driving
before them all the animals which it contains. These, finding
themselves hard-pressed, run on, until they come to the fences, which
they follow along, and thus enter the small enclosure to which they
lead. Here there is no returning, as the hunters block up the narrow
passage; the affrighted herd are compelled to enter the covered way of
stakes, where they are easily killed with a spear.

The morning is the best time for hunting. This the Indian knows well,
and he is always up and off in the woods before daylight, in hopes to
be able to return at breakfast time with a deer, turkey, goose, or
some other game, then in season. Meantime, his wife has pounded his
corn, now boiling on the fire, baked her bread, and spread their mat
in the open air, under the bright beams of the morning sun. And when
the hunter returns with his load of game, they sit down to their
simple meal, sweeter to them than the dainty repast of a Roman
emperor--for it has been purchased by the labor of their own hands.

The houses of the Indians are built of a frame-work of small trees or
poles, with a covering of bark or branches of trees; a hole in the top
lets out the smoke, and a small opening in the side, with a mat hung
before it, serves for a door. These huts or _wigwams_ are generally
small and dirty, and cannot be very agreeable residences; but this is
of little consequence, as the natives spend most of their time in the
open air. The tribes of Virginia lived in villages, which were
generally surrounded by rows of palisadoes, or strong sharpened
stakes, to secure them from the attacks of an enemy.

Formerly, the Indian dress consisted entirely of the skins of
different animals, which they could dress until they became quite soft
and pliant. Now, they generally make use of cloth, which they obtain
from their civilized neighbors. They wear a blanket or coat of skins
wrapt around the body, leggings, or close stockings, for the leg, and
_moccasins_, or shoes made of skin, for the feet. Of course, the
fashions vary in different countries; the Virginians were by no means
so well clad as the natives of Canada.

Like all other half-civilized nations, the natives of America delight
in ornamenting their persons. A young Indian warrior is, perhaps, as
thorough-going a _beau_ as any in the world. Heckewelder tells us of a
young acquaintance of his, who had spent a whole day in preparing
himself for a dance. His face was painted in such a singular style
that it appeared different in every different view. When seen from the
front, his nose appeared very long and narrow, with a round knob at
the end, much like the upper part of a pair of tongs. When viewed in
profile, on one side his nose represented the beak of an eagle; on the
other side it resembled the snout of a pike, with the mouth open, so
that the teeth could be seen. On one cheek there was a round spot of
red, and on the other one of black; while the eyelids were so colored
that they appeared to be upside down. This was the Indian ball dress;
and the young dandy warrior was evidently very proud of his work.

They paint themselves on various other occasions; they do it in war,
to strike terror into their enemies. The warriors of one tribe are
known to paint their bodies with white streaks on a black ground so as
to give them the hideous appearance of skeletons. In peace, the paint
is generally blue, or some other light color.

Most Indians are in the habit of changing their place of residence
several times a year, for the purpose of finding better
hunting-grounds, or of retreating from their enemies. In their
journeys, as in everything else, the women do all the drudgery of the
household, such as packing up, and carrying the movables, and raising
again their little cabin in their new situation. Such being the case,
their furniture must be scanty and light. The dry leaves of the
forest, with a blanket or a few skins, serve for a bed; a small iron
kettle to boil their food, a mortar to grind their corn, with a few
gourds, and, mats, make up the furnishing of an Indian wigwam.

To these, perhaps, should be added the cradle, which is as unlike the
cradle in which, when little children, we have been gently rocked to
sleep, as can be conceived. The cradle of the Indian babe is nothing
but a hard board, to which the helpless infant is bound with strong
bands or strips of wood, bent over like pieces of hoop. The cradle
with the child is then hung on the branch of a tree, where it rocks to
and fro in the wind, or is fastened to the back of its mother in her
travels; the little _pappoose_ enduring, without a sign of pain or
ill-temper, all the hard knocks which it is obliged to receive in this
situation.

The Indians never punish their children; they say it breaks the spirit
of the young warriors, and that their sons will never be brave in
fight, unless they are bold and forward in their youth. The parents,
however, take another way to infuse into the minds of their children
good principles, and a respect for the aged. This they do by exciting
their pride and emulation; they tell them that if they follow the
advice of the most admired and extolled hunter, trapper, or warrior,
they will, at a future day, obtain a reputation equal to that which he
possesses; that, if they respect the aged and infirm, they will be
treated in like manner when their turn comes to feel the infirmities
of old age.

These precepts seldom fail of effect; the ambition of the child is
aroused; and he listens to the directions of those older and wiser
than himself, in hopes of being, one day, admired and respected for
his own bravery and wisdom. But although this may stimulate the
faculties of youth, and may give them vigor, it is little likely to
cultivate self-restraint, and the habit of acting according to a rule
of duty.

When a boy becomes old enough to hunt, his father takes him out into
the woods, and teaches him how to proceed. The youth calls to mind the
lessons which he has received, in listening to the words of the most
famous hunters, and he resolves to equal them. The first game which he
kills, whatever it be, is immediately cooked, and all the friends and
relatives of the family are invited to the “boy’s feast.” From that
time, he takes his place among the men, and he is expected to
contribute, by his bow, his gun, or his net, to the support of the
family.

When a young man arrives at the proper age to marry, he begins to look
about him among the young women of his tribe, and if he sees any with
whose looks and behavior he is pleased, he endeavors to gain her favor
by presents and soft speeches. The parents of the young people soon
perceive the attachment, and a negociation commences. The mother of
the young man takes a choice piece of meat and carries it to the house
of the girl’s parents, never forgetting to mention that her son was
the successful hunter of the game. The mother of the young woman, on
her part, brings a dish of victuals, such as beans, or Indian corn, to
the wigwam of the other, saying, “This is the produce of my daughter’s
field.”

If the old ladies are able to tell the good news to each other that
the young people have pronounced the articles sent to them, “very
good,” the bargain is concluded. From that time, it is the duty of the
man to bring home game enough to support the family, while his wife
exerts herself to cook the victuals, prepare the clothes of her
husband, and till their little field of Indian corn, and other
vegetables; and though her labors are undoubtedly severe, yet she
knows that the time and abilities of her husband are taken up in the
all-important duties of hunting, fishing, and trapping, and she is
never unwilling to perform her part. 


                           CHAPTER XXIV.

    _Customs of the Indians in their intercourse with each other.--
       Anecdote of the missionaries.--Usages in respect to murder--
       war--peace--religion.--Traditions.--Superstitions.--Their
       ideas of heaven.--General character, and probable fate._


Hitherto we have regarded the Indians in their private and domestic
relations. Let us now glance at them in their intercourse with one
another, their laws, and their conduct towards other nations, both in
war and in peace.

The natives are brought up with a high sense of their own dignity and
honor, and they are always certain to feel and avenge an affront.
Hence, in their ordinary conversation, they take great care not to
excite the passions of others. They sometimes carry this civility
almost too far; they will seldom dispute anything which another
asserts, and they require the same complaisance in return.

It is said that a missionary was once preaching to the Indians, and
explaining to them the divine truths of the gospel, while his tawny
auditors listened in assenting silence. When he had finished, a chief
arose and observed that all the white man had said was very good, and
might be followed; he then related the tradition of his nation
concerning the first production of certain plants. But when the
missionary expressed himself disgusted with the idle tale, the Indian,
offended, replied--“My brother, it seems your friends have not done
justice to your education; we are willing to believe all the stories
which you tell us, why do you not believe ours?”

If it should ever happen, however, that an Indian, in a fit of
passion, should kill another, it is the duty of the relations of the
murdered man to avenge his death. The murderer knows his fate, and
submits without a struggle. Sometimes it is the case that the rank and
power of the criminal is so great, that no one cares to execute the
fatal decree of vengeance; at other times he is adopted by the family
of the deceased in his place.

When the murder has been committed on a person of another tribe, the
consequence is generally war. This, like all other important measures,
is first determined upon by a grand council of chiefs and warriors. In
these assemblies, the greatest order and decorum always prevail. The
most aged and respectable always speak first, and no one thinks of
interrupting one who is speaking. Even after he sits down, they are
silent for a few minutes, in order that they may seem to reflect upon
what he has spoken.

If war is finally concluded upon, a large painted post is set up in an
enclosed place, and the warriors, begrimmed with paint and holding
their tomahawks in their hand, dance with frantic gestures around it,
singing their war-song. As many as join in the dance, are bound to go
out against the enemy; this is the Indian mode of recruiting.

In their warfare, every species of cunning and cruelty is practised,
and all the ferocity of a savage nature breaks forth. When a town of
the enemy is attacked and taken, no age or condition is spared;
infants, old men, and women fall in indiscriminate massacre. Even
those that are spared, are reserved for a yet more terrible fate.

When a victorious expedition returns home, the scalps of their slain
enemies are carried in front, fixed on the end of a thin pole; the
prisoners follow, and then the warriors advance, shouting the dreadful
_scalp-yell_, once for every head which they have taken, dead or
alive.

When the captives enter the village, they are shown a painted post at
the distance of from twenty or forty yards, and told to run for it. On
each side of the way stand men, women, and children, with axes,
sticks, and other weapons, ready to strike him as he passes. If he
shows himself prompt, and bold, and makes, with all speed, for the
post, he is generally certain of reaching it without much harm; and,
in that case, he is safe, until his final destiny is determined upon.
This is called--_running the gauntlet_.

Sometimes he is adopted into the tribe, in place of others slain in
the war; or he is left to be ransomed by his friends. But if he be a
great warrior, who has done them much injury, he is generally
condemned to suffer by the fiery torture. He is stripped naked and
bound to a tree; a heap of dry brush is placed around him, and set on
fire, while his enemies dance in triumph around the victim, exulting
in his torment. He, on his part, meets his fate with firmness, even in
this horrid form; he sings his death-song, relates his exploits
against his enemies, and taunts them with cowardice, telling them that
they are no more than so many old women, and bidding them look on and
see how a _man_ can die!

When a war is to be concluded, or, in the language of the Indians, who
are fond of metaphorical expressions, when the hatchet is to be
buried, and the path of peace to be opened to their enemies’ country,
messengers of peace are sent, carrying with them a calumet, or pipe,
with a long stem adorned with the feathers of the rarest birds. This
pipe is lighted, and presented to the chiefs of the hostile tribe; if
they smoke it, it is a sign that the proposals are agreed to, and that
the hatchet is buried under the tree of peace. But if, on the other
hand, they refuse to receive it, the war is continued with as much
fury as ever.

There never was a nation without some religion. Even the most
barbarous and degraded African tribes have some divinity which they
worship. The natives of America believe in a Great Spirit, or
_Manito_, who created the world in the beginning, and governs all
things with absolute sway. Under him are many inferior spirits, some
good and others bad, who have each his particular duty to perform.
There is a god in the sun, another in the moon, and another for every
appearance which they do not understand. When the natives first saw
the white men of Europe, they took them to be _Manitos_, and paid them
the honors which they rendered to their god.

The Indians have all some dim tradition of the deluge; but farther
than this, their traditions do not extend. Some believe that a beaver,
who was swimming about upon the water, dived to the bottom, and
brought up a little earth in his paws, from which the land was formed.
Concerning the origin of the Indians themselves, they relate that for
a long time they lived under ground, in the shape of some other
animals, such as the bear, the beaver, and even the oyster, which, in
time, were changed to men.

After remaining a long time in this abode, some of their young men who
were out on a hunting expedition, discovered a hole in the earth,
through which they ascended and came to a fine country, well stocked
with game, fruit, and all other necessaries of life. They returned to
their people, told them of their wonderful discovery, and all
forthwith ascended and took up their residence on the earth. The
Mandans, however, say that some of their tribe yet remain under
ground; for a very fat woman, in her eagerness to reach the desired
land, laid hold of the vine by which they climb up, so roughly, that
it broke down, and those which were left, were forever prevented from
joining their companions.

The Indians of Virginia called their Great Spirit Quiouos. Some
gentlemen who were once ranging the woods near the settlements, came
upon the temple of this god, and took the liberty, as they saw no one
near, to open the door and go in. It was a cabin, somewhat larger than
usual, and at the farther end was a recess, before which hung a
curtain. On a shelf in this recess, they found some pieces of wood and
cloth, which, when put together, they found to be the famous idol of
the Virginians. As the cabin had no windows, this figure, seen by the
glimmering light from the door, must have appeared to its benighted
worshippers really terrific.

The Indians are a very superstitious race of people, and there are
always some who are willing to take advantage of the weakness of their
countrymen to serve their own interest. Such are the jugglers and
sorcerers--an artful and mischievous set of people. They pretend to
have power over the elements, to bring rain, to cure sickness, to
cause death, and to change themselves to any form, by means of their
charms and medicine.

Mr. Heckewelder was one day walking out, during a very severe drought,
and came upon an old conjurer, named Chenos, who was engaged in some
of his mummeries. The missionary asked him what he was doing.

“Oh,” said he, “I am hired to do a very hard day’s work. I am going to
bring down rain from the sky; don’t you see how much it is wanted, and
that the corn and everything else is perishing?”

“But can you make it rain?” said Mr. Heckewelder.

“Certainly,” replied the old conjurer, “and you shall be convinced of
it this very day.”

He had, by this time, encompassed a square, of about five feet each
way, with stakes and pieces of bark, so that it might resemble a
pig-pen of about three feet in height, and now, with his face uplifted
and turned towards the north, he muttered some words, as if invoking a
superior being. He did the same on the south, and then made a small
opening in the side of the pen. “Now,” said he, “we shall have rain
enough.”

And he was right; a few hours afterwards, the sky suddenly became
overcast, and a plentiful shower of rain succeeded; proving to every
Indian’s mind, the power of their conjurer, and the efficacy of his
prayers. It is evident that the old Chenos had paid good attention to
the signs of the weather, and his experience enabled him to foresee
that there would soon be rain, without the aid of supernatural powers.

The Indians put great faith in dreams; they believe that while the
body sleeps, the soul leaves it and acts for itself; and they think
that everything which they dream ought to be fulfilled when they
awake.

A chief of the Mohawk tribe, Hendrick by name, resolved to turn this
belief to good account. On a visit to Sir William Johnson, the
superintendent of Indian affairs in America, he had been very much
struck with the brilliancy of his host’s suit of clothes, which were
new and were richly covered with gold lace. A few days afterwards, he
called on Sir William, and told him that he had dreamed a most
singular dream. The other inquired what it was.

“I dreamed,” answered Hendrick, “that you gave me the fine suit which
you wore the other day.”

Sir William took the hint, and gave him the clothes; but he resolved
to dream in his turn; accordingly, not long after, he went to the
wigwam of his red friend, and informed him that he had dreamed that
Hendrick made him a present of a very fine tract of land of about five
thousand acres.

“Have you really dreamed that?” inquired the chief, in dismay; and,
after a moment’s pause, “Very well,” said he, “you shall have the
land; _but if you_ _please, Sir William, we will not dream any more_.”

The _heaven_ of every nation is a place where the greatest degree of
happiness is to be enjoyed hereafter; and of course it differs among
different nations, according to their various notions of happiness.
The Indians placed their chief pleasure in a life of easy indolence,
varied only by the delights of hunting and gaming. Their paradise is,
therefore, a land of eternal spring, where the sun’s beams are ever
mild and refreshing, and where the green woods are stocked with every
animal suitable for eating and the chase; and the waters are filled
with fish of the most delightful flavor.

Not only the souls of men but also those of animals are admitted into
this happy abode. And hence, among some tribes, it is the custom to
shoot the dead man’s horse over the grave of his master. But the way
to this heaven is long and full of dangers; such as meeting with
ferocious wild beasts, crossing rapid streams on a single log, and the
like. To enable the warrior to pass safely through all these and to
gain his subsistence until he arrives at his future abode, they place
in his grave weapons for hunting, a pipe, a tinder-box and flint,
together with food, and in modern times _a bottle of rum_ is added, if
the man has been in life, very fond of this destructive liquor--a
thing but too common among the natives.

Thus have we followed the Indian of North America from his birth to
the place where he awaits the joys of another life--from his
“tree-rocked cradle,” to his grave. Let us now glance at his general
character and his probable fate.

It must be owned that the character of the Indian of the north, is by
no means amiable. He is bold, but reserved, even to his friends;
fierce and implacable to his enemies; indolent, except when pressed by
hunger, or excited by revenge. Too proud to condescend to labor with
his own hands, he compels his wife to bear the drudgery of the lodge,
a sure sign of the savage. He never forgives an injury, never forgets
a kindness. In war he is brave and cunning, in religion superstitious
and cruel.

His virtues and his vices are all those of a barbarian; and such, it
is to be feared, he will ever be. The attempt to civilize the natives
within the limits of the United States, has been made often and
zealously for more than two hundred years, but in vain. The remnant of
this once powerful race is melting fast away, as one of their own
orators express it, “like snow before the sun;” and perhaps, in a
century more, not one will be left to remind us that the land which we
inhabit was once their own. Still, it is no less our duty to do all we
can to save and render happy, for a while, at least, the feeble
remnants of a people to whom we owe so much.




IN the crowded saloon of Mr. Catlin, the Indian lecturer, in the midst
of an intensely interesting discourse, a person rose up, and in a
solemn manner said, “Mr. Catlin, will you have the goodness to stop
for a moment?” The audience looked with astonishment, and the lecturer
paused: “I have lost my little boy in the crowd,” said the gentleman,
“and wish to call for him.” A dead pause ensued in the 1200 persons
present. “Clark Potter,” said the father. “Here I am, father,” said a
shrill voice in the corner; at which shouts of laughter and applause
ensued, and the stripling was handed over the benches to his anxious
parent.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN Irishman, wishing to dispose of his watch, said, by way of
recommendation, that it had beat the church clock that blessed day by
an _hour and a half_. 




[Illustration]


                         The Stock-Dove, &c.


There is a wild pigeon in Europe, called the _Stock-Dove_, from which
the various kinds of domestic doves are bred. In its native state,
this bird builds in rocks or decayed trees; its color is of a deep
bluish-ash color, the breast being dashed with a fine changeable green
and purple.

The varieties of the domestic pigeon are very great, and some of them
are very curious; yet, in their general habits, they are the same.
They breed every month; lay two eggs, and hatch two at a time. The
female sits from four in the afternoon till ten the next morning; the
male takes her place, from ten to four. In this manner they sit
alternately, till the young ones are hatched.

The affection of doves to each other is remarkable, and their cooing
notes are very soft and pleasing. The constancy of the female, in
sitting upon her eggs, is so great, that one bird was once known to
continue faithful to her task till the young were hatched, though her
legs in the mean time became frozen and dropped off!

So prolific are these birds, that fifteen thousand may be reared from
a single pair, in four years. Most birds drink by sipping at
intervals; pigeons drink at long draughts, like quadrupeds.

There is a kind of pigeon called _carriers_, and which are used to
carry letters from one place to another. These may be easily
distinguished from all others by their eyes, which are compassed about
by a broad circle of naked white skin, and by being of a dark blue or
blackish color. It is from their attachment to their native place, and
particularly where they have brought up their young, that these birds
have been employed in several countries as the most expeditious
travellers.

They are first brought from the place where they were bred, and
whither it is intended to send them back with information. The letter
is tied under the bird’s wing, and after feeding it well, lest it
should stop upon the way to eat, it is let loose to return. The little
animal no sooner finds itself at liberty than its passion for its
native spot directs all its motions.

It is seen upon these occasions flying directly to the clouds, to an
amazing height, and then with the greatest certainty and exactness,
directing itself by some surprising instinct, towards home, which lies
sometimes at many miles distance. It is said that in the space of an
hour and a half, they sometimes perform a journey of forty miles.




(As a great number of my readers have desired me to continue the story
of Philip Brusque and the island of Fredonia, I have concluded to give
the remainder of it.)




                     Story of Philip Brusque.


                           CHAPTER XII.


It is natural for mankind to love power; a child loves it, and always
seeks to govern his parents and his playmates. Men seek also to govern
their fellowmen. This desire is stronger in some than in others; there
are persons who are always striving and contriving, for the purpose of
acquiring authority over those around them.

Now when several people unite for a certain object, we call them a
society; if they unite for religious purposes, we call them a
religious society; if for charity, we call them a charitable society;
if for government, we call them a political society, because politics
is the business of government.

Wherever there is society, we see this love of power; we there find
persons who are seeking, by all sorts of means, to acquire authority,
so that they may rule. We find it even in school--for there we meet
with girls and boys, who strive not only to sway the teacher, but the
other scholars; we find it in villages--for there we meet with men who
are plotting to gain an ascendency; in short, we find it everywhere,
in towns and cities, in states, countries, and kingdoms.

Now this love of power is a selfish thing, and though it may lead to
good, yet it is very apt to lead to evil. It is this which has caused
conquerors to murder millions of their fellow-men; it is this which
has led politicians to practise every sort of fraud and deception. And
one thing is to be remarked here, that when a person desires power, so
much as to take dishonest or trickish means to obtain it, he is not
fit to possess it. Such a person will only use it selfishly, and not
for the good of those who may come under his authority.

It was fortunate for the little society of Fredonia, that in choosing
Mr. Bonfils for a governor, they selected one who did not desire power
for any selfish reason, and who accepted the office bestowed upon him
only in the hope of benefiting the people. He felt like a father to
his children, and his thoughts were, therefore, bent upon the means by
which their happiness could be promoted. If he had been a selfish
person, he would have turned his mind to consider how he might best
promote his own ambition; how he might acquire more power; and how he
might secure and perpetuate his sway.

You have heard of Washington, who was president of the United States:
now he never strove to get that high office, and he only accepted it,
in the hope that his government might bless the nation. You have heard
of Bonaparte; he became the emperor of France; but he did it by his
own efforts. He did not wait to be chosen a ruler; but he seized the
reins of power. He commanded the people to make a crown, and then he
commanded them to put it on his head, and call him emperor: and they
obeyed. Having thus acquired vast power, having command of the army
and the navy; having all the money of the government--he put them in
requisition to carry on wars of conquest. His love of power was so
great that he was not content with ruling over the thirty millions of
people in France; he yearned to reign over all Europe--over all the
world. His ambition was so boundless and grasping, that the nations of
Europe rose against him, hurled him from his throne, and caused him to
be confined to the rocky island of St. Helena, where he died.

Now Mr. Bonfils was like Washington, and not like Bonaparte. He took
the office of governor, only to do good to his people. His first
thought, upon becoming the ruler, was to discover what could be done
to make the little nation of Fredonia, peaceful and happy. In looking
around, he saw many things to give him anxiety. In the first place,
the clothes of the people were fast wearing out, and the tents in
which they lived, being covered with the sails of the ship, were small
and uncomfortable. They might do pretty well for the dry season, but
what was to be done when the autumn rains should set in? And, in
addition to all this, the people had only a very few articles of
furniture, and in this respect, they were exceedingly uncomfortable.

While, therefore, clothes, dwellings, and furniture, were needed,
there was another still more pressing want, and this was food. The
flour, bread, and biscuit, brought from the ship, were entirely gone;
the meat was all devoured; the salt, pepper, and spices were entirely
used up. The island, as I have said, produced many fruits,
particularly oranges; it also yielded pine-apples, a few melons,
grapes, and pomegranates. Upon these fruits the people had now
subsisted for several weeks; but Mr. Bonfils saw, that long before
another season could return, the fruits of the island must be
exhausted, unless something could be done to furnish food from other
sources, and protect what there was from waste.

On making inquiries, he ascertained that there were no cows, sheep,
deer, or hogs upon the island; and, saving a few wild goats that lived
around the cliffs, there were no animals of considerable size. There
were a few monkeys, a considerable number of lemurs, and a great
variety of macaws, paroquets, and other birds of gay plumage. It was
clear, therefore, that the animals did not afford the means of
subsistence, and even if they were sufficient, how could they be
taken, for, excepting the pistols of François, there were no fire-arms
upon the island.

Mr. Bonfils reflected upon all these things, and he saw that unless
something could be done, poverty and misery must be the lot of the
people of Fredonia. If they had no clothing, no good houses, no good
furniture, no proper food, they would sink into a state of nature;
they would lose their refinement, their sense of propriety, their love
of neatness and order; they would, in short, cease to be civilized,
and become savages.

“How are these things to be remedied?” said one of the old men to the
governor. “I will tell you my views upon this subject,” said the
latter.

“It is by the labor of the hands alone that mankind can live, in a
civilized state. It is the labor of the hands that produces hats,
shoes, shirts, coats, gowns, handkerchiefs; the things we want to
wear. It is the labor of the hands that produces houses, and the
furniture with which we supply them. It is the labor of the hands that
produces wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize, potatoes, peas, and other
things, as food for man and beast.

“Now where the people are industrious, all these things which we want
for dress, for shelter, for furniture, for food, become abundant;
where the people are industrious, therefore, they are not only
supplied with the comforts and luxuries of life, but they adopt good
and virtuous habits, and are therefore happy. Where they are indolent
they are poor, vicious and unhappy. The great thing in government,
then, is to make people industrious. And now how is this to be done?

“I do not know of any other way than to set before them inducements to
labor; we must see that those who work are well rewarded for it. Here
lies the great difficulty of our condition; we shall soon be in want
of food and shelter, and we shall all work hard before we starve or go
without houses. But when these pressing necessities are supplied,
shall we not relapse into indolence, vice and barbarism?

“The first thing to be done is, no doubt, to look out for food and for
shelter; but we must go farther; we must try to keep up the tastes of
the people; we must try to preserve their love of good clothing; their
love of good houses; their love of good food, and the other comforts
and luxuries of home; the refinements and enjoyments which flow from
neatness and order. We must preserve these tastes, because the people
will toil to gratify them; they will become industrious to gratify
them. Without these tastes people will only work for food; they will
live like mere animals, being content with satisfying animal wants;
they will become savages.

“Refined tastes constitute what we call civilization; they raise men
above savages; they are the source of that industry which makes a
nation rich and happy. I repeat, we must preserve these tastes, we
must preserve our civilization.

“Now, in order to preserve these tastes, we must have the means of
gratifying them; we must have MANUFACTORIES, to make bonnets, shoes,
and dresses; we must have AGRICULTURE, that is we must cultivate the
lands, in order to have bread and rear cattle; we must have vessels to
carry on COMMERCE, by means of which, we may exchange our products for
tea, coffee, spices and things which do not grow among us, but are
produced in other lands. Thus manufactures, agriculture, and commerce,
are the three great sources of prosperity; and these must be made to
flourish, in order to make people happy. How is all this to be done?

“The first step is this, to divide the lands and other property,
giving to each man his share, and making him secure in the possession
of it; and also making him secure in the possession of all he earns by
his industry or skill.”

Here the man broke in and said--“Pray excuse me, Mr. Governor, but I
differ with you there. I think it is better to hold the land and
everything else, in common. If you divide the land and property, some
persons who are greedy, sharp-witted and industrious, will constantly
increase their lands and property and become rich; while others, who
are simple, and careless, will gradually become poor. Thus we shall
soon see those odious distinctions of _rich_ and _poor_ in society. I
am opposed to all this!”

“I am well aware, my friend,” said the governor, “that such ideas as
you entertain, have often been indulged, and by very good people too;
but let me tell you that all attempts to put them in practice, have
resulted in disappointment and failure. No society that has held
property in common, has ever been happy; no society has ever advanced
in virtue, or civilization, or peace, that has been founded upon this
principle. Man loves to call things ‘_mine_,’ and ‘_thine_.’ Man is
made by his Creator to identify things with himself, and to love them
from such identity. Why, if all things are to be held in common, why
does the mother, why does the father, love the child? It is not
because it is more beautiful than other children, but because it is
theirs? Why is man made to love that place which goes by the dear
title of home? Why do we love our birth-place above all others, even
though a cottage or a hut? Why, even if we reach the palace in
after-life, is that birth-place the dearest spot on earth?

“Why do the people of every land love their particular country better
than all other lands? Why does the Laplander prefer his climate of
snows, and bless Heaven that has sent him such a happy lot? Why does
the Swiss, upon the shaggy sides of his mountains, where scarce the
wild goat can find footing, delight in his rugged home, and, looking
down upon the people of the luxurious valley beneath, lift his soul in
thanksgiving to God, who has preferred him thus? All this shows, that
man is made to love his children, his home, his country--to love the
things which belong to himself.

“Now I admit that selfishness is to have its boundaries; selfishness
which is at variance with the good of others is vicious, and deserves
rebuke. But the self-love, which makes a man love things belonging to
himself, is the foundation of that affection which parents bear to
children--which we all bear to home--which we all feel for our
country. If you undertake to blot out the ideas of _mine_ and
_thine_--if you seek to make all things common, then you war against
man’s very nature; you seek to overturn the design of our Creator; you
would deprive the child of the love of the parent; you would have no
such thing as home; you would annihilate that noble sentiment, which
we call patriotism. In short, you would deprive life of its greatest
charms; you would take out of man’s bosom his noblest sentiments, and
annihilate some of the most powerful springs of human action, effort
and industry.

“No--no! my dear sir: man is made to possess things, to call them his,
and to desire, by his own efforts, to accumulate things to himself. To
resist this principle, is to resist Heaven and nature, and common
sense. Destroy this principle, and you make man either a reluctant
drudge, or an indolent savage. So the world has ever found it. The
only way is to establish society upon this principle--if a man, by his
toil, builds himself a house, let him have it and keep it, and let no
man disturb him in the possession of it. If it is his, and he knows
that it will continue so, he will take pains to build it well, to make
it convenient, and to make it pleasant. But if he feels that it may be
taken away by some stronger man, or by society, he will do as little
to it as possible.

“Thus it is that men will work, if the fruits of their toil are to be
theirs; they will labor industriously, they will put forth their best
efforts, they will surround themselves with comforts and luxuries, if
they are to be secured in the possession of what they produce. You
will see, then, that according to my view, _industry_ is the great
source of national happiness: it is the great producing power, and it
is the great moral regulator of society. And the most potent stimulus
to industry, is to allow a man to have what he earns, and to keep it,
use it, or dispose of it, as he pleases. These are the fundamental
principles of government, and they are indispensable to civilization;
without them, society tends, necessarily, to barbarism, or to the
savage state.”

It was by such conversations as these, that Mr. Bonfils imparted his
views to the people. Many of them, who had shared in the turmoil of
the French Revolution, had got their ideas unsettled: some believed
that no government was necessary; others thought that some new system,
better than any yet tried, might be adopted. But, by degrees, they
assented to the views of their governor.

Agreeably to his plan, the lands were now divided among the men,
reserving about one half, as belonging to the government. Each had
enough; and the good effects of this were immediately visible, for
every one set about building himself a house. The change in the island
was wonderful; for, everybody had been idle before; but now, all was
activity, energy and industry.

While the men were at work in building the houses, the women were
equally industrious in providing such articles of furniture as they
could. They gathered leaves for beds; made curtains for windows of the
leaves of the palm, for they had no glass; they made dishes of shells
and wild gourds, and even fashioned a variety of articles of
earthenware, from clay.

The scene was really delightful. All were busy--all seemed happy.
There was no quarrelling--no grumbling--no idleness. And one curious
thing was this: that trade began to spring up, as soon as the division
of property was made, and each had received his share. One person
found that he had more of a certain article than he wanted, and less
of another; so he went round to the neighbors to exchange, or _swap_,
the superfluous articles for such as he needed. This was the beginning
of trade.

There was another thing that seemed to promote this: Mr. Bonfils
requested Piqué, the fisherman, who had been cast away on the island,
to go round and see if he could not find some place where fish could
be caught. In this he succeeded. He made hooks and lines with
considerable labor, and, with one other person, spent his time in
fishing. François undertook to supply the people with goat’s flesh and
birds, which he accomplished easily, by means of his pistols. Thus
fish, flesh, and fowl were supplied, though scantily at first; and
those who supplied them, received such things in exchange as they
wanted.

But this mode of bartering soon grew inconvenient. Some of the people
wanted fish and meat, but they had nothing to give in exchange, that
either François or the fishermen needed. How, then, could they get
fish and meat? Mr. Bonfils now saw the necessity of money; but there
was none upon the island. No one had brought any thither, and none had
been discovered. What then was to be done?

The governor knew that money must consist of something that has value
in itself; something that is wanted by all. He knew that salt was used
for money in some countries, because all desired it; he therefore
requested Brusque to set about manufacturing salt from seawater. This
was soon done, and thus the people had salt--and the lumps actually
came into use, as money. When a man bought a fish, or a piece of
goat’s flesh, he paid so much salt, instead of so much silver.




                 Ingenious Contrivances of Nature.

[Illustration: _The human spine._]


I have already spoken of many things which display wonderful ingenuity
of contrivance, on the part of the Creator, and, at the same time,
attest his wisdom and power. In every department of nature, the
mineral, vegetable, and animal, there are contrivances which no human
art can rival. Man may make imitations, but he can do no more.

In order to render this skill of the Creator more palpable, let us
examine one or two mechanical contrivances in the structure of
animals. We will select as our first instance, the human spine, or
back bone. This consists of twenty-four bones, joined and compacted
together in the most wonderful manner. It is so contrived that while
it is firm, and enables the body to support an erect position, it is,
at the same time, flexible, so as to bend in all directions. No human
art has ever been able to devise a chain that can perform these double
offices. Here we see that in mere mechanical contrivance, the works of
God defy competition from man.

But this is not all. The spine has still another office to perform. In
the centre of this chain of twenty-four bones, and passing through
them all, is a tube, containing the _spinal nerve_. This extends from
the brain through the back, and communicates with every part of the
body by a thousand small pipes which have the name of nerves.

Besides all this, the spine is to be so adjusted that the ribs may be
fastened to it, as well as the legs and arms; and finally, to this the
various muscles, which enable the limbs and body to move, are to be
fastened.

Now suppose that an ingenious mechanic were to undertake to construct
an artificial skeleton, in imitation of that which belongs to man;
would it not be impossible for him to accomplish the task; and would
he not be compelled to give up in despair? Let us consider that we
only ask of the human architect an imitation, and that even this is
beyond his ability. How great, then, must be the wisdom and power of
that Supreme Architect, who not only made, but designed and contrived
his works, and not only designed and contrived them, but furnished the
very materials from his own manufactory--the bones, the muscles, the
nerves, and the fluids necessary for his purpose.

[Illustration: _The veins._]

Let us take another illustration of the wisdom and power of God, as
displayed in animal mechanism. It is the design of the Creator that
the blood shall be distributed throughout the body, and that this
shall be essential to life. The body is, therefore, provided with two
systems of blood-vessels--arteries and veins; the first to carry the
blood from the heart, and the latter to bring it back.

These tubes are wonderfully contrived and distributed over the body;
and the blood, which is to pass through them, is furnished by means
equally wonderful. But what machinery can be devised to receive the
blood from the veins and force it through the arteries and throughout
the system? The heart is destined to perform the work. This is a
hollow muscle, in the centre of the body, surrounded by spiral fibres,
running in both directions, the layers crossing and interlacing each
other. By a contraction of these spiral fibres, the hollow muscle is
compressed, and whatever fluid may be in it, is squeezed out from the
cavity within. By a relaxation of these spiral fibres, the cavities in
the hollow muscle are prepared to admit any fluid that may be poured
into it. Into these cavities the great trunks or pipes of the arteries
and veins are inserted--the one to carry out the blood and the other
to return it.

[Illustration: _The arteries._]

[Illustration: _The heart._]

Every time that the heart beats, a contraction of the spiral fibres
takes place, and the blood is sent through the arteries by the force
of the stroke, as water gushes through a syringe; and exactly at the
same time an equal proportion is received from the veins. Thus at
every pulse about two spoonfuls of blood are sent out from the human
heart, through the arteries, and the same quantity is received through
the veins. It is said that each ventricle of the heart will contain an
ounce of blood. The heart contracts four thousand times in an hour,
from which it appears that four thousand ounces, or two hundred and
fifty pounds of blood pass through the heart every hour!--[_From
Parley’s Farewell._]




                     PETER PARLEY’S NEW STORIES.

                              [No. V.]

                       Don’t be too Positive.


There are many young persons who are very positive about things, when
they are, after all, mistaken.

“There goes Jerry Smith,” says Philip.

“Where? I don’t see him,” says John.

“Why, there--yonder, at the top of the hill.”

“Oh--that ain’t Jerry Smith.”

“Why, yes it is.”

“No it isn’t--that’s Seth Mead.”

“I tell you it’s Jerry Smith; if it isn’t I’ll eat him!”

Such is the dialogue; but pretty soon the boy comes along, and,
behold, it is Seth Mead, and not Jerry Smith. “There!” says John--“now
you’ve got to eat him, Phil!”

“Where is the hammer, Peter?” says his father.

“I don’t know, sir,” is the reply.

“But you had it last.”

“No, I didn’t, sir.”

“Yes you did; you took it yesterday.”

“Oh, yes, I remember--I took it--but I put it in the drawer again,
where I got it.”

“Are you sure?”

“Yes, sir.”

“I think you are mistaken--for if you had put it there, it would have
been there still.”

“I’m certain sure I put it back there!”

“Well now, my son, I found it out on the grass, where you had been at
work. Didn’t you leave it there?”

“Oh--yes--I believe I did. Yes, I remember--I did leave it there.”

“Well, now take a lesson from this; don’t be so positive, where you
are not sure. In two instances you have been mistaken: you first said
that you had not taken the hammer out, and you were quite positive;
you then said you had put it where you got it, and you were again
quite positive. But remember that in both cases you were mistaken. Let
this teach you to be more modest and careful in future; and, instead
of saying you are sure, say, I think so and so; or, I believe so and
so. No person ought ever to say that he is positive of a thing, where
there is the least chance of mistake.”

“Mother,” said Ellen, “may I go and see Jane Hanson? she asked me to
come.”

“When did she ask you?” said the mother.

“Yesterday--yesterday afternoon.”

“Not yesterday, my dear.”

“Yes it was yesterday, mother: I saw her on the green by the church.”

“Don’t be positive, Ellen; it could not have been yesterday.”

“Yes it was yesterday--I’m certain it was yesterday; I met her on the
green, and she asked me to come. Why, mother, how could I be mistaken?
I _know_ it was yesterday.”

“That cannot be, Ellen, for I have just been at Mrs. Hanson’s, and
Jane went to Providence, in the seven o’clock train of cars, yesterday
morning.”

“Oh!--well--it must have been day before yesterday--yes, now I
recollect, it was day before yesterday!”

“Well, my child, I am sorry to see you so certain--so positive, when
you are really not sure, and when, in point of fact, you are mistaken.
Pray be more careful in future. You may go and see Jane, but as you go
along, say it over in your mind, till you cannot forget it--_Don’t be
too positive!_”




A BOY was one day reading something to his mother about _patriarchs_;
he stumbled at the hard word, and called it _partridges_. His mother
set him right as to the pronunciation of the word, but did not at the
same time tell him the meaning of it; he therefore associated the idea
of a bird with the word patriarch. The next time he found the word
_patriarchal_ he again asked his mother’s assistance, exclaiming,
“Here, mamma, here are those _queer fowls_ again;” and to the latest
day of his life, he said he could never get rid of the association.




                    The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                            CHAPTER XI.


The season of summer, at Okotsk, consisting of the months of June,
July, and August, is the only time when a vessel can venture to
navigate the stormy sea of that far northern region. Alexis was,
therefore, obliged to wait several weeks, before the time of departure
arrived. As the land mail came once every month from St. Petersburgh
to Okotsk, by way of Tobolsk, he twice received a letter from his
sister. In the latter instance, the epistle arrived but a single day
before the vessel was to sail, and contained somewhat painful
intelligence. A part of it ran thus:

     “Although, as I have said, I am, on the whole, cheerful,
     yet, I confess that my mind is sometimes clouded with
     apprehension. Our dear father is impressed with the idea
     that he shall live but a short period, and it is impossible
     to disguise the fact, that he is very feeble. He does not
     leave the house now, and very seldom his room. His mind is,
     however, tranquil, and he seems to feel a sort of religious
     resignation, which is really beautiful to behold. He has no
     anxieties but for you and me.

     “He has a dreadful idea of Colonel Krusenstern, the
     Russian commander here, who has been so kind to us,
     and especially to me. He thinks all his kindness is
     selfish and hypocritical, and that, under the mask of
     friendship, he harbors some base design. I must confess,
     that I begin to fear the man, for he is known to be
     ruthless and savage in his temper, when once excited.
     I almost suspect that he has sent you and Suvarrow
     away, to deprive us of protection. If our poor father
     were to die, what, alas, would be my situation? But
     I must not indulge these thoughts; indeed, they are
     only flitting shadows, that occasionally come
     across my mind. Do not mention these things to Suvarrow,
     for they might make him unhappy. I must confess that I feel
     depressed at the idea of the dreadful distance that lies
     between us; and how that distance will soon be increased.
     Only think of it, Alexis--when you get into the Pacific
     Ocean--you and Suvarrow will be on one side of the world,
     and I on the other! Then will there be a whole world
     between us!--This is a sad thought; but I must not permit
     it to weaken my heart, so as to prevent doing my duty to
     our beloved father. Oh, Alexis! what would I not give to
     see you! But it may not be. Heaven bless you, my dear, my
     only brother! Farewell!
                                                   KATRINE.”

Alexis was so much affected by this letter that he was on the point of
deciding to return straight back to Tobolsk--but before he had quite
made up his mind, the vessel was ready to depart, and Suvarrow hurried
him on board. There all was activity and bustle. The ship, called the
Czarina, carried forty guns, and contained three hundred men. To get a
vessel of war, of this size, under way, is a serious matter. The heavy
anchor is to be taken in; a variety of sails to be set; and it seemed
as if all was to be done with as much noise as possible. Alexis had
never been on board a ship before, and the scene was quite strange and
bewildering to him. But at last the anchor was in; several sheets of
broad canvass were spread to the wind; the vessel began to move
forward; the waves dashed against her prow, and rippled along her
sides; a stream of milky foam was at her stern, and the little town of
Okotsk began to seem smaller and smaller, and at last sank from the
view, behind the swelling bosom of the sea!

The die was now cast; Alexis was upon the ocean, separated from the
land on which he had hitherto dwelt, and many months must elapse
before he could hope to see his kindred, about whom he now had
occasion to feel the greatest anxiety. But his attention was soon
called to other things. The wind blew more and more fresh, and the
gallant ship flew like an eagle upon her way. Everything was new to
our young hero, and for a long time his mind was absorbed in the
scenes on board the ship, or by the aspect of the gloomy deep. But at
last he grew sea-sick, and was obliged to go to his berth.

[Illustration: _The dog presented to Peyrouse._]

The sea of Okotsk appears like a little spot upon the map, but it is a
thousand miles long, and five hundred miles wide. The vessel,
therefore, was soon out of sight of land, but proceeding southward,
she approached a rugged and rocky shore, in about a week. Alexis was
now able to be on deck, and was told that they were about passing
between the great island of Jesso, on the left, and the island of
Saghalien, on the right. They soon entered a narrow strip of water,
called the straits of Peyrouse, in honor of that celebrated navigator,
who passed through them in 1788. The land was visible on both sides,
but it presented a dreary and desolate appearance.

Alexis learned that Jesso, or Matsmai, as it is often called, though
considered one of the Kurile islands, belongs to the Japanese. There
are, however, on this island, as well as upon Saghalien, a race of
natives, called Ainos, who are remarkable for having long and full
heads of hair. But they are very intelligent, and at the same time are
neat, peaceful, and much attached to one another. Peyrouse landed upon
one of the shores in this region, and had a very pleasant reception.
One day he gave a child a piece of rose-colored nankeen; and his
father, wishing to return the favor, went out immediately, and got a
little dog, and begged Peyrouse to accept it. This is only one
instance to show how well they appreciate a favor.

The Czarina made no stay in these regions, farther than to catch a
supply of salmon, which were amazingly abundant. The mariners found
the shores almost constantly beset by thick fogs, rendering the
navigation very difficult and dangerous. Beside this, there seemed to
be rocks and reefs on every hand, and swift currents, that made it
necessary to use the utmost caution.

The straits were soon passed, and the ship entered the Japanese Sea,
which lies between Tartary and the islands of Japan. The course of the
ship was still southerly, and for several days nothing of particular
interest happened. While they were thus pursuing their voyage, the
officers of the ship usually dined together, Alexis and a Russian
merchant, who had entered the vessel at Okotsk, being of the party.
Much hilarity prevailed, songs were sung, and many good stories were
told.

One day, after dinner, while all were sitting around the table, the
conversation turned upon Tartary, a vast country which lay westward of
the Japanese Sea. After a good deal had been said on the subject, the
captain of the ship, whose name was Orlof, joined in the discourse,
and proceeded as follows:

“In ancient times, the Tartars were called Scythians; and in their
contests with the Romans, they appear to have displayed great vigor of
character. They have been spread over nearly all the central and
northern part of Asia, from time immemorial; but they are broken into
many tribes, and pass under many different names, as Cossacks,
Kalmucks, Mongols, Kirghises, Kalkas, Mandshurs, Uzbeks, Turkomans,
&c. The tribes which inhabit Siberia, the Ostiacks, Tunguses and
others, are but fragments of the great Tartar family.

“At the present day, the central part of Asia, from the Caspian and
Volga on the west, to the Sea of Japan on the east, is occupied by
Tartars, though divided into two separate governments--Independent
Tartary and Chinese Tartary. The latter, including Thibet, is nearly
as extensive as Siberia, and has been subject to the emperor of China
since 1647, for it was about that time that the Mandshur Tartars took
Pekin, and set one of their princes on the throne of China. Since that
time, the emperors of China have been of this Tartar line.

“The Mogols are regarded as the original race of all the Tartars, and
also of the Japanese, Chinese, and some of the adjacent nations. They
are, also, the original stock from which the Turks have sprung, as
well as the Huns, and some other tribes of Europe. But the point about
which I was going to speak, is the inconsistency of the Tartar
character. With other nations, they are considered savage and
merciless, while, among each other, they are kind, gentle and
affectionate, in a remarkable degree. Of these two opposite characters
there is abundant proof.

“Attila, the leader of the Huns, who fell like a cloud of desolating
locusts upon Italy, about the year 400 after Christ, was called the
‘scourge of God.’ His mission seemed to be to destroy, and he
performed the fearful work without mercy. Hundreds of thousands of
men, women, and children, were sacrificed to his fury, and that of his
bloody followers.

“In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the empire of the Mogols, and spread
his empire from east to west, three thousand five hundred miles. Not
only lesser kingdoms, but China itself became subject to his sway. In
the early part of his career, he took a large number of prisoners;
but, as if to make his name a terror throughout the world, he ordered
those of the most elevated rank to be thrown into caldrons of boiling
water. He pursued his conquests with amazing success, but with
unsparing severity. Cities, towns, and countries he laid waste, and he
crushed human beings with as little feeling as if they had been only
so many spiders. He trod the earth, crushing human beings, as
remorselessly as we do insects. He turned his armies against China,
and passed the great wall, which had been built a thousand years
before, to save that empire from the Tartars, who even then, appear to
have excited the dread of their neighbors.

“Genghis entered China, and attacked Pekin. This at last yielded, and
for an entire month, it was given up to fire and the sword. He
afterwards led his armies against the more western nations. The
conflict and the slaughter were fearful; in the destruction of two
cities, alone, Bochara and Samarcand, two hundred thousand people were
destroyed, of every age and sex. Everywhere he was successful, but at
last he died, in his sixty-sixth year. Six millions of people fell
victims to the bloody wars of this great butcher of his fellow-men.
Yet, savage as he was in war, Genghis was a promoter of learning, and
a friend to religious freedom; he welcomed all learned men at his
court, and showed great tenderness to friends, and especially, his own
family.

“Timour the Tartar, or Tamerlane, though the son of a peasant, became
a king, and, about the year 1400, had so extended his conquests that
his empire nearly exceeded that of Genghis Khan. He subdued Persia,
India, Syria, and Asia Minor. He conquered Bajazet, the sultan of
Constantinople, and took him prisoner. He twice took Bagdat, and in
the latter case, gave it up to the fury of his soldiers, who slew
eight hundred thousand men. Yet Timour--thus savage in war--was a man
of many agreeable qualities, and has left behind him numerous
anecdotes of justice and gentleness.

“There are many other proofs to be found in history of this savageness
of the Tartars in war; yet, all travellers tell us of their
hospitality, humanity and kindness, in peace. Many of them are robbers
by trade, and from the earliest times they have been accustomed to
pour down, by thousands, from their colder climes, to ravage the rich
and luxurious natives of the south.”

When the captain paused, the merchant remarked, that he was much
gratified at this sketch of Tartar history and character. “I suppose,”
said he, “that the phrase, ‘he has caught a Tartar,’ arose from the
general notion among mankind, that the people of this stock, are a
rough, untameable race. I have, indeed, heard a story told as giving
origin to this proverb. A braggadocia soldier, it is said, in one of
our wars against some of the tribes on the borders of the Caspian,
getting separated from his companions, was taken by one of the enemy.
His commander being near--the soldier called out--‘Captain, I have
caught a Tartar,’--‘Well,’- said the captain, ‘fetch him along!’ ‘But
the fellow won’t let me come!’ said the soldier. Since that time, the
expression, _he has caught a Tartar_, is applied to those, who, in
seeking to get an advantage of others, have been taken in themselves.

“But you were speaking of Genghis Khan. I was once among the Cossacks
of the Don--among whom there are always many story-tellers. I
recollect to have heard one relate a tale of that famous conqueror,
which exhibits him in the light in which you have portrayed him. Shall
I tell it?”

“Certainly,” was the reply of several voices--and the merchant went
on. But as the story is rather long, we must leave it for the next
chapter.




                The Voyages, Travels, and Experiences
                         of Thomas Trotter.


                            CHAPTER XXIV.

   _Horse-races at Florence.--Excursion to Vallombrosa.--Mountain
      scenery.--The monastery.--Wild and secluded situation.--Life of
      the monks.--Travelling on foot in Italy.--Things not seen
      there.--Manners of the children.--Beauty of the skies.--
      Comparison with things in America._


The grand duke of Tuscany had just been married and was celebrating
his wedding at Florence, by all sorts of public shows. There were
fireworks, balls, and entertainments of every description, among which
were horse-races. These last are singular exhibitions: the horses are
raced through the streets, in the very centre of the city, and without
riders--a procedure which we should think very hazardous. In fact, it
often happens that people are killed by the sport. The streets being
paved with smooth flat stones, on which a horse cannot run without
danger of slipping, the whole extent of the race-course is strown with
earth, and the streets leading into it are closed by barriers. A dozen
horses are started at a time, bearing spurs instead of riders. These
spurs consist of leaden bullets set full of sharp points and attached
loosely to the horse’s back by cords. When the animal runs, the
bullets fly up and down, striking their sharp points into his hide at
every step, and goading him onward with great pain. At the moment of
starting, the whole race-course is blocked up with a dense throng of
spectators, who open to the right and left, as the horses approach,
leaving a narrow lane in the middle of the street, through which they
gallop, often to the imminent danger of the populace. I saw several
exhibitions of this sort; but, although the Italians thought them
remarkable for the speed of the animals, it did not appear to me that
they were any way distinguished for their fleetness. A horse without a
rider has less weight to carry, and might be supposed to run faster on
that account; but he lacks the incitement and encouragement which his
rider can infuse into him. The Florentines, however, seemed to enjoy
the sport mightily, and rent the air with shouts and halloos, waving
their handkerchiefs and swinging their hats, as the horses brushed by
them in the crowd, to frighten them onward.

I made another excursion from Florence to visit the celebrated
monastery of Vallombrosa, about twenty miles distant, among the
Appenines. The road ran, for about a dozen miles, up the valley of the
Arno, and I was enchanted with the beautifully variegated aspect of
the country. It was everywhere broken and hilly; olive trees and
vineyards were abundant, and the gardens exhibited the richest
culture. Within about six miles of Vallombrosa, the road becomes too
steep and rugged for carriages, and here I found the forest trees
begin to appear for the first time. Below, the country is clear of
wood, with the exception of the olive and mulberry and other fruit
trees of moderate height. On the steeps of the mountains, which I was
now ascending, I met with many chestnuts and oaks, which appeared
quite lofty in comparison with the trees I had formerly seen here,
although they were much inferior in size to those of the same family
in America. As I continued to ascend, the woods became thicker, and
abounded in walnuts and firs. By the name _walnut_, the reader must
not understand the shagbark, or hickory tree of America, which does
not grow in Europe; but the tree producing the fruit known in our
country as the _English walnut_, although it grows in almost every
part of Europe, particularly in the south. The path grew still more
steep and rugged, and the woods thicker, until at length they
exhibited much of the savage aspect of a forest. In the midst of this
wild scenery, the monastery burst on my view, perched on the side of a
mountain, and overhung by the towering Appenines, dark and frowning,
with shaggy woods.

The situation of the abbey of Vallombrosa is most striking and
romantic. Lonely, remote, and secluded, it stands in an amphitheatre
of wild mountains, so greatly variegated in scenery, that Milton, who
spent much of his time in this place, has copied it accurately in his
description of Paradise. This enchanting spot, as his verses
beautifully describe,

    “Crowns with her enclosure green,
     As with a rural mound, the champion head
     Of a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides,
     With thicket overgrown, grotesque and wild,
     Access denied; and overhead up-grew
     Insuperable height of loftiest shade,
     Cedar and pine and fir, and branching palm,
     A sylvan scene; and as the ranks ascend,
     Shade above shade, a woody theatre
     Of stateliest view.”

The convent commands a most enchanting prospect down the vale: above,
the view is bounded by the dark forests on the mountain-tops. A little
stream tumbles in a fine cascade down the sides of the mountain, into
a deep dell between these steep heights and the green lawn in which
the convent is situated. Still higher up, and overlooking the convent,
stands a hermitage, called Paradisino, perched, like an eagle’s nest,
on a steep and projecting cliff. From this point, the prospect is
still more extensive than from the convent. The eye traverses over a
wide range of country towards the west. Ridge after ridge of blue
heights appear down the valley, till the towers and domes of Florence
strike the sight, at a distance, with the Mediterranean in dim
perspective, far beyond. Close at your feet are the buildings of the
convent, with a bright green lawn and a black girdle of pine forest
around them, the dell, the water-fall, and the savage height of the
Appenines clothed with woods to the top.

The inmates of the convent have no neighbors, for they live out of the
way of the world. No public road passes by their doors, and it is not
often that a visiter toils up the steep path that leads to their
lonely abode. A few farm-houses and hamlets are scattered here and
there in the valley below, but few inhabitants are to be seen. Those
who love retirement may find Vallombrosa a desirable summer residence;
but in winter, the snows and fogs confine the monks within doors. It
is even said that the woods abound in bears and wolves, which in that
season carry their depredations to the convent doors. Yet here, in
this wild solitude, at an almost inaccessible height, I found a degree
of splendor and luxury, which seemed not at all in unison with the
character of the spot. The chapel of the convent was adorned with
costly pillars of marble, paintings, and other ornaments, and the
monks entertained me with as rich a dinner as I could have found at
the Tremont House. It is very clear that their penances and
mortifications stop short of the stomach. I may add, that the worthy
friar, who did the honors of the house, had no scruple in pocketing a
crown, which I offered him, in payment for his civilities.

Highly gratified with this pleasant excursion to the beautiful “_shady
vale_,” I descended the mountain and reached the little town of
Pelago, at the foot of the steepest part of the road, just as a heavy
shower came on. I found a small inn here, the landlord of which was
very civil and communicative. He told me that much rain fell upon the
mountains, and advised me to put off my return to the city till the
next day; a counsel which I was prudent enough to accept. The rain
continued through the night, but the morning was clear, and I had a
delicious walk down the Arno to Florence. The reader may possibly
wonder that I ventured to travel about the country to such distances
on foot, and may have his head full of robbers and banditti. But the
truth is, a man is in no more danger of being robbed in Italy than in
the United States; and a pedestrian runs the least hazard, for a
robber would have small expectation of plunder from him.

It is interesting for a traveller to note down, not only what he sees,
but also what he does _not_ see. I did not see such a thing as a
wheelbarrow, or a handcart, in all Tuscany; nor do I believe such
things were ever known there. The “animal of all work,” the donkey,
supplies the place of both. At Rome, indeed, they had some clumsy
things which they meant for wheelbarrows; but even these nobody knew
how to use. Heavy burthens are carried through the streets on men’s
heads. I never saw a pudding on the table in this country, and though
the Italians have heard of it, they know no more of the real thing
than we do of their favorite delicacy of fried toadstools. I do not
remember seeing any weathercocks, except on the saddles of the
carriage-horses at Naples, where I imagine they were meant rather for
ornament than use. The cheerfulness of an Italian does not depend so
much as ours on the direction of the wind, and he has not occasion to
look out his window every morning at the church steeple, to know
whether he is to be happy or miserable through the day. Pumps are
nowhere to be seen, with the exception of one at Florence. Fountains
are abundant at Rome and Naples, but in Florence, Pisa and most other
cities of the north, the inhabitants depend for water on their wells.
To this list of varieties may be added another item that will sound
oddly to the reader; namely, squalling children--for in all my
residence in this country, I do not remember to have heard a child
cry. This I explain by the fact, that young children, from their very
earliest age, are made to spend most of their time in the open air:
they have, consequently, better health, and their attention is
occupied and amused by a greater variety of objects than is the case
with those in our country, where constant confinement within doors,
makes them sickly and peevish. Nothing, indeed, is more remarkable
than the cheerfulness, vivacity and intelligence of the little boys
and girls in Italy, and the readiness they display to join in the
company of strangers. They are not frightened at a new face, as we
commonly expect children to be. The good behavior, too, of the young
lads about the streets, is worthy of note: they are never seen at
fisticuffs, or engaged in riotous or rude proceedings, but address one
another with a degree of politeness, which, to a stranger, has almost
an appearance of mock-gravity.

Florence is generally regarded the most agreeable city in Italy for a
constant residence. The climate is cooler than that of Rome, but I
think it warm enough to suit travellers from America. The police of
the country is strict, and there is sometimes embarrassment and delay
about passports, but, in general, every accommodation is afforded to
travellers; and the public officers are uniformly respectful and
obliging. All foreigners must take out a permit to reside in the
country, which is renewed from time to time; for this a slight fee is
charged, the amount of which goes to the poor.

Six or eight miles out of the city is a country seat of the grand
duke, called Pratolino, much visited by travellers on account of a
colossal statue in one of the gardens. The statue is of brick, and
hollow. I mounted into the head which is large enough to contain half
a dozen men; from this the size of the whole figure may be estimated;
though I should add that it is not quite erect, but in a crouching
posture. The environs of Florence offer a great variety of objects, to
occupy the time of a traveller, and I do not wonder that foreigners
generally give this spot the preference in their choice of a residence
in Italy.

We are accustomed to hear much of the beauty of Italian skies; and as
these descriptions come chiefly from the hands of the English, who
live in an atmosphere darkened by clouds and fogs, it is no wonder
that the bright sun and transparent air of Italy should fill them with
delight. The brightness of the skies, however, does not surpass that
of our own country, in the finest season, though it is true, the fine
season of Italy is much longer than that of New England. In summer,
the air in Italy is uniformly dry, and the sky clear or occasionally
diversified with clouds. There are no fogs, no sudden changes from hot
to cold, except in crossing the mountains. The night dews do not
threaten you with colds and coughs, and you may generally sleep with
the windows open. The moonlight and starlight evenings are serenely
beautiful, but not more so than with us. For magnificent sunsets we
far surpass the Italians. The sun there goes down in a clear sky, with
a rich golden tint in the west; but they have nothing equal to our
autumnal sunsets, when the sky is arrayed in those gorgeous purple
clouds which light up half the heavens with their brilliant and
dazzling flames. In thunder and lightning, moreover, their sky never
affords anything approaching to the grandeur and sublimity of ours; at
least, I witnessed nothing of the kind, during all the summer and
autumn which I passed in this country. I missed, also, in my rambles
about the country, the fresh and fragrant smell of the woods, which is
so grateful to the senses of the traveller in our territories.
Nowhere, excepting on the mountain-tops, and rarely even there, do we
see thick woods, or anything exhibiting the wildness of nature and the
freshness of a virgin soil. This, indeed, is hardly to be expected in
a country which has been inhabited, by populous nations, for four
thousand years, who have been all that time cutting down the woods and
building cities.

The grain mostly cultivated in Tuscany is wheat: other grains are
raised in small proportions, but wheaten bread constitutes the chief
food of the population. Some Indian corn is seen, but much less than
in Piedmont and Lombardy, where it grows so abundantly that I have
known cargoes brought down the Po and shipped from Venice to Boston.
This, however, was in 1836, when corn was above a dollar a bushel.
Potatoes are rarely seen in Italy, but the Italians always cook them
well. Next to bread, the most important article of food for the common
people, is _faggioli_, or horse-beans, of which they consume immense
quantities. They are not only raised in the country, but imported by
shiploads from Egypt. The Yankee white beans they know nothing of.
Garden vegetables are produced in great variety, and their carrots are
enormous in size. An apple tree I never saw here, but the country
affords them: the fruit, however, is not much esteemed, nor worth
esteeming. No other apples are equal to those of America. I observed
many times a singular article on the table, at the dessert, namely,
raw string-beans, which the Italians ate, pod and all, with a great
relish, but I thought them altogether unpalatable.




                                       _Boston, July 20th, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:

     The riddle in the June number of the Museum, sent by
     “Harriett” of Newport, is one of the most ingenious I ever
     read. I have puzzled over it a great deal, and at last
     I think I have found the solution, viz., _Abracadabra_.
     It will be seen that this mystic word answers to all the
     conditions of the riddle. Will not your fair correspondent
     tell us who the celebrated author of this clever puzzle is?
                                                       R. N.




                         A Melancholy Event.


I suppose all my young readers know that the name of the present king
of France is Louis Philippe. He was the son of the duke of Orleans, a
very wicked man, who lived in the time of the French Revolution, and
voted in the French Assembly for the death of his relation, Louis XVI.
This infamous man, who took the name of Mons. Equality, to please the
people, however took good care to educate his children well, and for
this purpose, he employed Mad. de Genlis, the author of the Tales of
the Castle, and other delightful books, to be their teacher. Under her
care, Louis Philippe grew up a well-instructed and virtuous young man.

During the revolution he was obliged to fly from France for safety,
and for many years he wandered about in different lands. At one time
he came to this country, and in Switzerland he taught mathematics to
young people. Only think of it--this schoolmaster is now a king! After
Bonaparte was put down in 1815, the family of Louis Philippe was
restored to the throne, and he returned with them to Paris. In 1830
another revolution broke out. To restore quiet and good order, our
friend La Fayette advised the people to make schoolmaster Philippe
their king. They took this advice, and he has reigned in France since
1830. He is esteemed one of the most wise and talented sovereigns of
the whole world; and no doubt his good education under Mad. de
Genlis--his misfortunes in early life--the course of events which
compelled him to earn his own living--his teaching school, thereby
acquiring the habit of governing himself and others--all together,
have made him so good and great a king. If he had been brought up like
most other kings, indulged in everything--spoiled by flattery and the
habit of thinking himself a great deal better than other people--no
doubt he had been a far less wise and useful man.

But I must now speak of Louis Philippe’s eldest son, the duke of
Orleans. He was a fine, amiable man, born about the year 1810, married
to a German princess, and having several young children. He was heir
to the throne of France, and being very amiable, was not only dear to
his parents and friends, but to the whole French people. But alas!
nothing can ensure safety in this world--not even youth, and health,
and wealth, and power, and high hopes, and a nation’s love! On the
13th of June, the duke was going in a coach to Neuilly, a few miles
from Paris, to see his parents, and take leave of them, for he was a
soldier, and was about to go and review some troops at St. Omer.

On the way to Neuilly the horses of the coach took fright and ran
away. The duke jumped out of the carriage, and falling heavily on the
ground, struck his head, and was so much injured as to die in a few
hours. The king, his father, and the queen, his mother, and princes,
and generals, and famous physicians came, but tears and prayers and
medicines could not save him. The whole French nation seemed to be in
mourning; for they loved the prince, and expected, on his father’s
death, that he would be their king.

The eldest son of the duke of Orleans, a boy about four years old, is
now heir to the throne of France, and when Louis Philippe dies, he is
to succeed him. If he should be still a boy, when the king dies, a
regent will be appointed to carry on the government in his name, till
he is a man.




“IT was once in my power to shoot Gen. Washington,” said a British
soldier to an American. “Why, then, did you not shoot him?” said the
other; “you ought to have done so for the benefit of your own
countrymen.” “The death of Washington would not have been for their
benefit,” replied the Englishman; “for we depended upon him to treat
our prisoners kindly, and we’d sooner have killed an officer of our
army.” 




[Illustration: THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.] 




                         MERRY’S MUSEUM.

                       VOLUME IV.--No. 4




                     SKETCHES OF BIBLE SCENES.

[Illustration]


                             Bethesda.

This place was rendered very interesting to all Christians, by the
miracle performed there by our Saviour, which is recorded in the fifth
chapter of St. John. Multitudes of pilgrims and travellers have from
age to age, flocked to Jerusalem eager to see the place where Jesus
bid the impotent man, “rise, take up his bed and walk.”

The pool of Bethesda is described as a pool by the sheep market, which
is called Bethesda, having five porches; the word Bethesda meaning the
place where victims for sacrifice were purified; and it is believed
that the sheep for sacrifice were washed in Bethesda before being led
away to the temple; and as sacrifices were very frequently offered, it
is natural to suppose that both the sheep market and the pool were
near the temple. Another explanation is that it signifies the “House
of Mercy,” from the healing quality of its waters.

Within the present walls of Jerusalem are two fountains; the lower
one, into which the waters of the upper one flow, through a passage
cut in the rock, is the celebrated pool or fountain of Siloam. There
has always existed a tradition that the waters of Siloam flowed
irregularly; but Dr. Robinson, who first visited it, says “that as he
was standing on the lower step near the water, with one foot on a
loose stone lying near it, all at once he perceived the water coming
into his shoe, and, supposing the stone had rolled, he withdrew his
foot to the step, which, however, was now also covered with water. In
less than five minutes the water bubbled up from under the lower step,
and in five minutes it had risen nearly a foot in the basin, and it
could be heard gurgling off through the interior passage. In ten
minutes it ceased to flow, and the water was again reduced to its
former level.

“Meanwhile, a woman came to wash at the fountain. She frequented the
place every day, and said that the water flowed at irregular
intervals, sometimes being quite dry, the men and flocks dependent
upon it suffering from thirst, when, all at once, the water would boil
up from under the steps, and flow in a copious stream. The ignorant
people say that a dragon lies within the fountain; when he awakes, he
stops the water; when he sleeps, it flows.”

In the scriptural account, we are told that “an angel went down, at a
certain season, into the pool, and troubled the waters,” and then,
whosoever first stepped in was made whole. Does not this “troubling of
the waters,” look like the irregular flow of the fountain just
described?


                            Jerusalem.

Jerusalem is the metropolis of the province of Judea, and one of the
most remarkable cities in the world. Manetho, an Egyptian historian,
says it was founded by the shepherds who once invaded Egypt in great
numbers; but who these shepherds were, is still a mystery. The first
we know of it, however, with any good degree of certainty, is in the
time of Melchizedeck, who lived in the days of Abraham. It was then
called Salem. Josephus says it was the capital of Melchizedeck’s
kingdom.

After this, it became the metropolis of the people called Jebusites.
Its name, at that time, was Jebus. When the Israelites, under Joshua,
attempted to take the city, they found the Jebusites too strong for
them, and could only take that part of it which was divided between
the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. David, however, completely conquered
it, and made it the capital of his own kingdom. This is one reason why
Jerusalem is sometimes called the “City of David.”

Under David and his son Solomon, Jerusalem rose to a very high degree
of splendor. It is in thirty-one degrees fifty minutes north latitude,
and thirty-five degrees twenty minutes east longitude; being about
twenty-five miles west of the river Jordan, forty-two east of the
Mediterranean Sea, one hundred and two south of Damascus, and one
hundred and fifty north of the eastern branch of the Red Sea. It was
built on four hills: Zion, Acra, Moriah, and Bezetha; but Moriah, on
the east, and Zion, on the south-west, are the principal. It was
surrounded by a strong wall, forty or fifty feet high. The general
form of the city is at present nearly a heptagon, or figure with seven
sides.

The glory of the city Jerusalem was its temple. The pattern of
building the temple was given by David to his son Solomon; David
himself not being permitted by God to erect it. He, however, made
great preparations for it. He and his princes made vast contributions
for the purpose; amounting, it is said, to more than one thousand
millions of pounds sterling. Solomon, who was the man selected by
divine appointment, employed one hundred eighty-four thousand men--a
number equal to all the grown men who are able to labor in the whole
state of Massachusetts--about seven years in completing this mighty
work. When completed, the temple occupied, within its walls, about
thirty-one acres of ground; and was unquestionably one of the most
costly edifices of its size, that the world ever saw. To it, every
male Jew was required to go twice a year to perform worship.


[Illustration: _View of Jerusalem._]


But the glory of this costly edifice lasted only thirty-four years;
for, during the reign of Rohoboam, the son and successor of Solomon,
Shishak, king of Egypt, seized and pillaged it, and carried away its
treasures. Indeed, the city of Jerusalem was several times taken,
during those early periods, and sometimes it was burnt; but it was as
often rebuilt.

About six hundred and two years before Christ, Nebuchadnezzar, king of
Egypt, invaded Palestine, and threatened the destruction of the city
and temple; but was prevented from effecting his object by the
submission of Jehoiakim, the king. Efforts being made, soon after,
however, to throw off the yoke, Nebuchadnezzar again appeared with his
army before the city, and, after a siege of fifteen or sixteen months,
took it, and laid both the temple and the whole city in ashes. This
was B. C. 590.

About B. C. 530, by permission of Cyrus, Jerusalem began to be rebuilt
under Nehemiah, and repeopled; but the walls were not completed till
B. C. 456. The temple was also rebuilt, by Zerubbabel; but this last
temple was never so splendid as the former.

The city itself was again destroyed, many years afterward, by Ptolemy.
It met with a similar fate still later, from Antiochus Epiphanes, who
slew forty thousand of the people, and made slaves of as many more. It
was rebuilt by Judas Maccabeus, and in the time of our Savior was
somewhat flourishing. But about A. D. 70, after a dreadful siege of
two years, by the Romans, during which the inhabitants suffered so
much from famine as to eat, in some instances, the dead bodies of
their friends, the city was taken, and, according to the prediction of
our Savior, nearly forty years before, it was made a heap of ruins.
The temple was completely destroyed, so that not one stone lay upon
another; and the ground where it had stood, was ploughed up. Even the
name of the city was changed.

Adrian, another Roman emperor, undertook afterwards to rebuild the
city, but his plan only partially succeeded. In the mean time, he
banished all the Jews, forbidding their return. Constantine the Great,
enlarged the city, and restored its ancient name.

Since that time the fate of Jerusalem has been various and singular.
In 614, the Persians captured it; and in the capture, ninety thousand
Christians were slain. In 637 it was seized by the Saracens, who held
it till 1079, when the Seljukian Turks got possession of it. After the
Crusades, the Ottoman Turks became its masters; and these own it at
the present day.

We have already represented Jerusalem as standing upon several
eminences, and surrounded by a wall, forty or fifty feet high. Towers
rose at various places on these walls, some of them to the height of
one hundred, or one hundred twenty feet. The length of the wall, or
circumference of the city, about the time of Christ, must have been,
according to the best accounts, about four miles and a half. It was
very thickly populated; containing, as some suppose, nearly three
million inhabitants. This may be too high an estimate; but the
population was certainly very large. One evidence of its great
population is the fact, that there were in it, at this time, nearly
five hundred Jewish synagogues. At present, Jerusalem contains five
synagogues, eleven mosques, and twenty monasteries.

But Jerusalem is very far from being now what it once was. Instead of
containing millions of inhabitants, as some suppose it formerly did,
it scarcely contains twenty thousand. Of these, perhaps ten thousand
are Mohammedans, six thousand are Jews, two thousand are Greeks, one
thousand five hundred Catholics, and five hundred Armenians. Instead
of being four and a half miles in circumference, the city scarcely
measures two miles and two thirds. The following spirited account of
Jerusalem, as it now is, is from the “Modern Traveller.”

When seen from the valley of Jehoshaphat, Jerusalem presents an
inclined plane, descending from west to east. An embattled wall,
fortified with towers, and a Gothic castle, compasses the city all
round, excluding, however, a part of Mount Zion, which it formerly
enclosed. In the western quarter, and in the centre of the city, the
houses stand very close; but in the eastern part, along (towards) the
brook Kidron, you perceive vacant spaces.

The houses of Jerusalem are heavy, square masses, very low, without
chimneys or windows. They have flat terraces or domes on the top, and
look like prisons or sepulchres. The whole would appear to the eye one
uninterrupted level, did not the steeples of the churches, the
minarets of the mosques, and the summits of a few cypresses, break the
uniformity of the plan. On beholding these stone buildings, in the
midst of a stony country, you are ready to inquire if they are not the
confused monuments of a cemetery in the midst of a desert.

Enter the city; and you will find nothing there to make amends for the
dulness of its exterior. You lose yourself among narrow, unpaved
streets, here going up hill, there down, from the inequality of the
ground, and you walk among clouds of dust, or loose stones. Canvas
stretched from house to house, increases the gloom. Bazars, roofed
over, and fraught with infection, completely exclude the light from
the desolate city. A few paltry shops expose nothing but wretchedness
to view; and even these are frequently shut from apprehension of the
passage of a cadi.

Not a creature is to be seen in the streets, not a creature at the
gates, except now and then a peasant gliding through the gloom,
concealing under his garments the fruits of his labor, lest he should
be robbed of his hard earnings by the rapacious soldier.

Aside, in a corner, the Arab butcher is slaughtering some animal,
suspended by the legs, from a wall in ruins. From his haggard and
ferocious look, and his bloody hands, you would suppose that he had
been cutting the throat of a fellow-creature, rather than killing a
lamb.

The only noise heard from time to time in the city, is the galloping
of the steed of the desert: it is the Janissary, who brings the head
of the Bedouin, or who returns from plundering the unhappy Fellah.

Here reside (that is, among the ruins of Jerusalem) communities of
Christian monks, whom nothing can compel to forsake the tomb of
Christ; neither plunder, nor personal ill-treatment, nor menaces of
death itself. Night and day they chant their hymns around the holy
sepulchre.

Driven by the cudgel and the sabre, women, children, flocks, and
herds, seek refuge in the cloisters of these recluses. What prevents
the armed oppressor from pursuing his prey, and overthrowing such
feeble ramparts? It is the charity of the monks; they deprive
themselves of the last resources of life, to ransom their supplicants.

Cast your eyes between the temple and Mount Zion. Behold another petty
tribe, (the Jews,) cut off from the rest of the inhabitants of this
city! These people bow their heads without murmuring; they endure
every kind of insult, without demanding justice; they sink beneath
repeated blows without sighing; if their head be required, they
present it to the cimeter. On the death of any member of this
proscribed community, his companion goes at night, and inters him, by
stealth, in the shadow of Solomon’s temple.

Enter the abodes of these people. You will find them, amidst the most
abject wretchedness, instructing their children to read a (to them)
mysterious book, which they in their turn will teach to their
offspring. What they did five thousand years ago, this people still
continue to do. Seventeen times have they witnessed the destruction of
Jerusalem, yet nothing can discourage them, nothing can prevent them
from turning their faces towards Zion.

To see the Jews scattered over the whole world, according to the word
of God, must, doubtless, excite surprise. But to be struck with
astonishment, you must view them at Jerusalem; you must behold these
rightful masters of Judea, living as slaves and strangers in their own
country; you must behold them expecting, under all oppressions, a king
who is to deliver them.

We will only mention, in conclusion of this article, that the most
ancient as well as most splendid edifice in the whole modern city of
Jerusalem, is the mosque of Omar. It stands on Mount Moriah,
precisely--it is supposed--where once stood the temple of Solomon. It
is one thousand four hundred eighty-nine feet--more than a quarter of
a mile!--long, and nine hundred ninety-five feet broad. It was built
A. D. 636, and has, therefore, stood exactly one thousand two hundred
years. It is, indeed, rather a collection of mosques, than a single
one. The whole is included in two grand divisions; the Sakhara, in the
centre, and the Akhsa, on the south side.


[Illustration]


                      Valley of Jehoshaphat.

Jehoshaphat is a narrow valley or glen, which runs from north to
south, between the city of Jerusalem or Mount Moriah, on which it
stands, on the one side, and Gethsemane and the Mount of Olives, on
the other. The brook Kidron, or Cedron, runs through this valley; on
which account it was sometimes called the valley of Kidron. It had
also several other names, among which were “the Vale of Shevah,” the
“King’s Dale,” &c.

This glen received its more common name from the fact, that
Jehoshaphat, one of the kings of Judah, erected a most magnificent
tomb in it. It abounds with monuments, ancient and modern, and appears
to have served as a burying-place to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for
many ages. The Jews think so highly of being buried there, that it is
said they resort thither to die, from all parts of the world; and, for
such a privilege, sometimes pay to the merciless Turks, who own the
soil, almost its weight in gold.

There are three monuments pointed out here, which are of particular
interest; those of Absalom, Zechariah, and Jehoshaphat. A traveller
thus describes them.

“The first mentioned is a square mass of rock, hewn down into form,
and separated from the quarry out of which it was cut, by a passage of
twelve or fifteen feet on three of its sides; the fourth or western
front being open towards the valley, and to Mount Moriah; the foot of
which is only a few yards distant. This huge stone is eight paces in
length on each side, and about twenty high in the front and ten feet
high at the back; the hill on which it stands having a steep ascent.
It has four semi-columns cut out of the same rock, on each of its
faces, with a pilaster at each angle, all of a mixed Ionic order, and
ornamented in bad taste.

“In the immediate vicinity is the tomb of Jehoshaphat, a cavern which
is more commonly called the Grotto of the Disciples, from an idea that
the disciples of our Savior went frequently thither to be taught by
their Master. The front of this excavation has two Doric pillars, of
small size, but of just proportions. In the interior are three
chambers, all of them rude and irregular in their form, in one of
which were several grave-stones, removed, we may suppose, from the
open ground, for greater security.

“Opposite to this is the reputed tomb of Absalom, resembling nearly,
in the size, form, and description of its square base, that of
Zechariah. This is surmounted by a sharp conical dome, having large
mouldings running round its base, and on the summit something like an
imitation of flame.”

Here is also shown what is called the tomb of the Virgin Mary, and the
pit where the Jews say the sacred fire was hid during the Babylonian
captivity; together with many more objects which arrest the attention
of the traveller; and which, though they give no certain information,
serve greatly to interest him.


[Illustration]


                         Joppa, or Jaffa.

This is one of the most ancient seaports in the world. It is situated
on a fine plain, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, forty-five
miles west of Jerusalem. It is believed to have existed before the
deluge; to be the city where Noah built his ark; whence Jonah embarked
from Tarshish, where he was thrown overboard and swallowed by a whale.
It was the port used by Solomon to receive timber from Tyre for the
building of the temple. It is now much reduced in importance, being
only a small Turkish town on the shores of the Mediterranean, built on
a little eminence projecting into the sea, and containing a population
of from ten to fifteen thousand Turks, Arabs, Jews, and Christians. It
has a fine climate, and a fine country around it, and the orange
gardens are the finest on the shores of the Mediterranean. Although it
is the seaport of Jerusalem, its harbor has always been bad, and the
vessels that anchor there are often wrecked in the storms.

The modern city has nothing in its history to interest the traveller.
He must stand on the shore, and fill the little harbor with the
Tarshish; or, imagine Noah entering the ark with his family, by whom
the earth was to be repeopled; or wander through the narrow streets to
seek for the house of Tabitha, whom Peter raised from the dead, or
that of Simon, the tanner, where Peter tarried many days.


[Illustration]


                           Mount Carmel.

Mount Carmel is a tall promontory forming the termination of a range
of hills, in the northern part of Palestine, and towards the sea. It
is fifteen hundred feet high, and is famous for its caverns, which are
said to be more than a thousand in number. Most of them are in the
western part of it. Here also was the cave of the prophet Elijah. Both
Elijah and Elisha used to resort to this mountain, and here it was
that the former opposed the prophet of Baal with such success. Here it
was, too, that this prophet went up, when he told his servant to look
forth toward the sea yet seven times, and the seventh time he saw a
cloud coming from the sea “like a man’s hand”--when the prophet knew
the promised rain was at hand, and girded up his loins and ran before
Ahab’s chariot even to the gates of Jezreel. (See 1 Kings xviii.
4-46.)




                         Merry’s Adventures.


                           CHAPTER XXIII.


About a week after my imprisonment, as I was sitting in the large room
of the jail, occupied in observing the several persons around me, the
door of the prison opened, and a well-known face presented itself to
my view: it was that of Bill Keeler! He did not immediately see me,
for I was at a distance from him, and there were several persons
between us: he, however, looked around, evidently seeking some one. I
could not doubt that this was myself, and my first impulse was to rush
into his arms; but a sense of shame--a feeling of degradation--at
being found in such a place withheld me. I therefore, kept my seat on
the floor, and buried my face between my knees.

I sat in this position for some time, when at last I felt a hand laid
on my shoulder, and the familiar voice of Bill, half whispering, said,
close to my ear, “Robert--Bob--look up--I’m here!” I could not resist
this, but sprang to my feet, and clasped Bill to my bosom. My feeling
of shame vanished, my humiliation was forgotten for the moment, and I
fully indulged the warm emotions of friendship.

Having talked over a great many things, Bill at length said, “Well,
now as to this being in the jug--how do you like it?” The tears came
to my eyes--my lip trembled, and I could not speak. “Oh, don’t mind
it,” said he, “we’ll get you out, somehow or other.”

“Get me out--how is that to be done?” said I.

“Why, we must first know how you got in,” he replied.

“They put me in!” was my answer.

“Yes, yes,” said my friend, “but for what?”

I here related the whole story; how my negligence at the shop had
brought down the fury of the old bookseller upon my head; how I had
wandered forth in a state of distraction; how a thief, pursued,
slipped by me, and how I was taken to be the rogue, and condemned as
such. Bill listened attentively, and after I had done, looked me
steadily in the face for a moment. He then clasped his hands firmly
together, and said, with deep emotion, “Thank Heaven, you are
innocent! I knew it was so: I told ’em it was so.” He could say no
more--for his breast heaved, and the tears ran down his cheeks. He
turned away as if ashamed, and hastily effacing the traces of his
emotion, shook me by the hand--said he would see me again soon, and,
giving me no opportunity to detain him, went away.

I did not then guess the meaning of this, or conjecture the plan he
had in view; but I afterwards learned that he went straight to the
city attorney, who had conducted the prosecution against me, and
sought an interview. He told the lawyer his errand, and stated that as
he knew I was innocent, he hoped I might be released.

“How do you know he is innocent?” said the lawyer.

“He says he is innocent!” said Bill.

The lawyer smiled--but did not speak.

“You think he is not innocent?” said my friend. “I _know_ he is--Bob
Merry could not steal, any more than a cow could climb a tree; he
wan’t brought up to’t, and he han’t got a turn for it. Why, Robert was
eddicated a gentleman, and he never could draw a mug of cider without
spillin’ half on’t! And now, arter he’s bin in New York less than a
fortnit, you make him out an accomplished rogue. I ax your pardon,
mister, but it don’t stand to reason, that an honest boy becomes a
thief just as a pollywog turns into a frog.”

“Can you _prove_ his innocence?” said the lawyer, dryly.

“Prove it!” said Bill, indignantly: “hav’nt I proved it? Don’t he say
he’s innocent? Don’t I know he’s innocent? Prove it, to be sure! Pray,
mister, what do you take me for?”

“I take you to be a very honest fellow, but very ignorant of these
matters,” said the lawyer. “The question is not whether your friend is
innocent,”--

Here Bill opened his eyes, and drew the edges of his lips into a
circle. The lawyer proceeded,--

“The question is not whether your friend is innocent; but, it is
whether you can _prove_ him to be so. If you can bring forward
witnesses to swear that he was in another place, and, therefore, could
not have committed the crime charged; and, if you can make the judge
believe this, and if you can pay the expenses of the court, and the
fees of the lawyers, we can get him out--not otherwise.”

This was said in a manner so cold and yet so decisive, as to
discourage Bill; so he took his hat and went away. But he did not
abandon his project here. After walking about for some time,
considering what was to be done, he went to the court-room, with the
intention of appealing to the judge. When he got there, however, he
was abashed by the imposing aspect of the scene. The judge, sitting
upon his bench, high above the rest, appearing to be regarded with awe
by the lawyers, and other persons around, was too formidable a
personage to be readily approached, even by one who paid so little
respect to outward circumstances as Bill Keeler. He therefore paused,
and his attention was soon absorbed by the trial that was going
forward.

A young man was before the court, charged with theft. The evidence was
clear and conclusive; and his lawyer had, therefore, advised him to
plead guilty: to tell the truth, and throw himself upon the mercy of
the judge. He was just about to commence his confession, when Bill’s
attention was drawn to him. He went on to say that he had been for
some time connected with a gang of thieves, and proceeded to state
some of his exploits. In the course of his narrative, he said that,
three weeks before, he had stolen some money and other articles from a
house, and, being discovered, was pursued; but escaped, as another
young man whom he passed in his flight, was apprehended in his place.

“You say,” said the judge, “that another young man was apprehended in
your place”--

“Yes, sir!”--said Bill Keeler--who had watched the scene with intense
interest--and who had gradually sidled through the crowd, and now
stood close to the prisoner--“Yes, sir--another young man was
apprehended in his place, and that’s Robert Merry, as honest as the
cooper’s cow--and you sent him to jail, Mr. Judge, and he’s there
now.”

“Order--order!” said the constable.

“Who is this fellow?” said the judge.

“It’s me sir,” said Bill, nothing daunted, now that he had opened his
lips; and, brave as a soldier after the first fire, he went on. “It’s
me, sir, Bill Keeler, of Salem. I’m a shoemaker, sir, and don’t know
nothing about law in York. But, sir, if a feller’s innocent, we don’t
put him in the jug, up our way.”

“Hold your tongue!” said the officer.

“I’m going to,” said Bill--“so as to have it ready!”

The prisoner went on with his confession, and all he said tended to
confirm the fact, that he was the thief for whose crime I was
imprisoned. Bill waited till the case was closed; he then left the
court-room, and again went to the lawyer whom he had before visited.
As this man had witnessed the scene at the court-room, and of course
now understood the mistake by which I had been imprisoned, Bill
expected to find him prepared to set about my release.

“You see, Sir,” said he, “that I was right.”

“Right! About what?”

“Oh, you know well enough--you was at the court to-day, and you heard
that gallows-bird tell how it happened that he stole the money and
spoons, and left Bob Merry to go to jail for ’t.”

“Well; what is all this to me?”

“Why, ain’t you a lawyer?”

“Yes.”

“Well, ain’t it the business of a lawyer to see that justice is done?”

“Not at all; a lawyer has nothing to do with justice.”

“Indeed! What is his business then?”

“To serve his client. I am the city lawyer, and the city is my client;
it is my duty to try persons charged with offences,  and get them
committed, if I can. What have I to do with justice?”

“Why,” said Bill, scratching his head--“all this kind o’ bothers me,
for I’m just from the country, where we have a notion that there’s
such a thing as justice and law, and that it is designed to protect
the innocent and punish the guilty: but it seems that I’m rather green
here at York! Howsomdever, I should like to ax one question.”

“Certainly,” said the lawyer.

“Well,” said Bill, casting his eyes knowingly at the attorney--“you
got Bob into the pound, and you know how to get him out: set a thief
to ketch a thief, as we say--no offence, Mister. ‘The hair of the same
dog’--you understand!’ Now, as I said, you got Robert into the jug,
and you know how to get him out. You was the lawyer of the city to get
him into prison--will you be my lawyer to get him out of the prison?”

“Of course, if I am paid.”

“And what is your fee?”

“Twenty dollars.”

“Whew! what did you charge for getting Bob into jail?”

“The same.”

“Well, what a queer trade this of yours is! Twenty dollars for a job,
whether it’s to imprison the innocent, or to release the innocent!
It’s a beautiful trade--an honest trade--and, besides, it’s
profitable! It works both ways; twenty dollars for doing wrong, twenty
dollars for doing right! twenty dollars for justice, twenty dollars
for injustice! Fegs! I should like to be a lawyer myself! But to
business. I will pay you what you ax, if you’ll get Robert out of
jail.”

“You must pay down!”

“No, no; he’s a good customer that pays when the work is done.”

“That may be; but I must have my money before I begin.”

“Well, here it is; though it’s the last dollar I’ve got. I wish you’d
take ten, and let me have the rest to get back to Salem with.”

“I can’t take less than twenty.”

“Take fifteen?”

“Not a cent less than twenty.”

“Well--then, take it! Now, when’ll you have Bob out?”

“This afternoon.”

Here Bill left the lawyer, who was as good as his word, and that very
day I was released.




                           The Hippopotamus.


After the Elephant and Rhinoceros, the next animal in size, is the
Hippopotamus, or river horse. It is now found in the central parts of
Africa only. It is of a dark ash color, without hair; its tail is
short, its ears small, and its look stupid. It is, withal, a ferocious
animal, with a very ugly mouth. It lives, during the day, chiefly in
rivers and lakes, often remaining for hours, with its nostrils only,
above the water. It feeds on coarse vegetables, going to the shore by
night, for this purpose. It walks on the bottom, immersed in the
river, as well as if it was on dry land.

It has the power of breathing out the air in its lungs, while under
water, thus causing a bubbling upon the surface. To this, allusion is
made in the book of Job, in describing the _Behemoth_, which is, no
doubt, the hippopotamus. The accuracy of the description is striking:
“He lieth,” says the inspired writer, “under the shady trees, in the
covert of the reed, and fens. The shady trees cover him with their
shadow: the willows of the brook compass him about. Behold he drinketh
up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan
into his mouth.”

The hippopotamus is about eleven feet long, but not more than four or
five high. His legs are so short that when he walks over soft,
ploughed ground, he makes a trench in the earth as if an enormous sack
had been drawn along. He is a voracious eater, and his stomach will
hold five bushels at once. He makes prodigious havoc among the crops
of corn, when he is hungry. His chief food, however, consists of the
coarse vegetables of rivers, and his business seems to be that of a
river scavenger, to clear streams of exuberant vegetation. It
possesses great strength, and is respected by the other beasts, for,
not even the crocodile or the lion ever molests him. He is, in fact,
lord of the wilds he inhabits.




[Illustration]


                          The Flying Dragon.


This little creature, in spite of his formidable name, is, in fact, a
very harmless fellow, of the lizard race, and about ten inches in
length. It lives on trees, and devours insects that come in its way.
It is found in Asia and Africa.




[Illustration]


                              The Snail.


This creature, apparently so insignificant, is one of the greatest
curiosities of nature. The animal consists of a soft, pulpy substance,
with a curious shell, which serves as a house, and to which it always
is attached. When the snail wishes to go from one place to another, he
drags his shell along on his back; when he wishes to take some rest,
or when he is frightened, he draws himself into his shell.

This little creature has almost as complete a set of the organs of
life, as the larger animals: he has a mouth, eyes, tongue, brain,
nerves, stomach, liver, heart, muscles, &c. But some of these are
curiously contrived. Its eyes, for instance, it carries on the points
of its long horns, which it passes about in various directions, thus
seeing everything that is going on near it.

Under its two smaller horns, for it has four, is the snail’s mouth;
and though it might seem too pulpy an animal to have teeth, yet it has
eight of them, with which it devours leaves, and even bites off pieces
of its own shell!

The snail is hatched from an egg; at first its shell is small, but it
increases with the growth of the animal. If this shell gets broken,
the creature straightway mends it, and makes it just as good as new.
It is provided with a bag, in which it has a coloring matter for
painting its shell.

At the approach of winter, the snail either retires to some hole, or
buries itself in the earth, where it remains, in a torpid state, till
spring. In some countries, snails are eaten as food, and they are so
much esteemed in France, that the people raise thousands of them.




                      The Siberian Sable-Hunter.


                             CHAPTER XII.


The merchant proceeded to relate the story which he had promised, and
which we shall call

                         THE RIVAL MESSENGERS.

In the days of the famous Genghis Khan, there was one of his princes
who ruled over a province at a great distance from the seat of
government; and he had, at a certain time, occasion to send a
messenger to the king, who was then there. The purpose of the message
was to communicate some gratifying intelligence, in relation to the
conquest of a province of Persia; and the prince knew that whoever
should be the bearer of the pleasant tidings, was sure to receive some
distinguished mark of royal favor.

In order to provide against the chance of miscarriage, it seemed
necessary to despatch two messengers, and by different routes--one of
them leading through a pleasant and peaceful country, the other
passing over mountainous regions, inhabited by hostile and warlike
tribes.

It was a desirable, though a dangerous mission, and many of the young
men of the court and the army, hoped the choice might fall on them. It
was, at last, decided that the only son of the prince should be one of
the messengers, and that he should take the safer and easier route;
and that a young officer, the son of a peasant, should be the other,
and proceed by way of the mountains. They were soon ready and departed
upon their expedition, each being provided with a swift courser, and
attended by four well-mounted men, skilled in all the arts of war and
horsemanship.

Phalax, the son of the prince, had taken leave of his friends with a
haughty confidence of reaching the seat of government before his
rival. He not only had an easier and safer route, but he was, in fact,
better mounted; his horse was of the famous hollow-backed breed, of
King Solomon, and far-famed for his fleetness and endurance. His
companions, too, were of the proudest chivalry of Mongolia, all of
noble blood, and were in the full flush of youthful manhood. Nothing
could exceed the splendor of their equipages, the impatience of their
chargers, and the gallant bearing of their riders.

Abdael, the other messenger, was well mounted upon a horse of a
celebrated Tartar stock--but the animal was of a humbler line, and of
less imposing qualities than the horse of Phalax. His attendants, too,
were common soldiers, though of tried valor and long experience.

As the two parties set forth from the palace of the prince, there was
a shout among the populace--some calling out, “Phalax! Phalax!” and
others, though very few, “Abdael! Abdael!” The superior beauty and
splendor of the prince’s party dazzled and pleased the eyes of the
unthinking rabble, who are apt to look only at the outside of things;
beside, they had been taught to look upon those of noble blood with
respect; and, more than all, mankind are apt to be on the side which
seems to be that of power, and likely to obtain success. It was for
these reasons that the greatest portion of the spectators, cheered
Phalax, while only a few, who reflected more justly, encouraged
Abdael, the more humble and modest of the rival messengers.

As Phalax was about to depart, his princely father beckoned him to his
side, and whispered in his ear a single word--“Success and glory, my
son! may the Father of light bless thee!”--It was almost at the same
moment, that an old man stood at the side of Abdael. He was evidently
poor, for his garments betokened it--but he was still of a respectable
mien. “Give me thine ear, Abdael,” said he. The young man bent in his
saddle. “The chances are against thee, my boy, for the prince has, in
his heart, designed thy ruin, and his son’s triumph; yet there is one
thing thou canst do.” “What is it, my father?” said Abdael. “Thy
duty”--was the reply. “It shall be done!” said the young man; and he
rode away.

Thus the messengers set forth, guided by different counsels, and
influenced by different motives. Phalax was impelled by the thought of
glory and triumph; Abdael, by a sense of duty. The issue of the story
will show that the first is a wavering principle, beaming brightly for
a time, like a full lamp, but soon exhausted, and finally going out at
the moment of utmost need; while the other is like a heaven-set star,
ever in the same place, and ever leading its votary on in the straight
and narrow path of wisdom and safety.

Phalax and his companions dashed on with great ardor, taking the road
that led through a series of beautiful valleys. The first day, they
travelled with the utmost rapidity and diligence, and at evening found
themselves far advanced in their journey; but, on the morrow, they
were all stiff and sore; and the horses were not a little jaded. The
next day, they went but a short distance, and stopped for the night at
a little village. Near by, was the palace of a prince, who, hearing of
their arrival, invited them to come and see him. Now, the young men
knew that this prince was a great hypocrite, and that, under the guise
of friendship to the Khan, he nourished the most deadly hostility.
Prudence would have dictated a polite refusal of the invitation, but
they were anxious to enjoy the luxuries of the palace: so they said,
“This act of the prince is too gracious a piece of courtesy to be
slighted;” and, therefore, they went to the palace. Here they were
entertained with great splendor. A rich banquet was provided, with
music and wine, and dancing, and other festivities.

The young men entered heartily into the pleasures of the scene. Phalax
drank deeply--and when he was about to put another goblet to his lips,
one of his more discreet companions said, in a whisper, “Beware!
remember your message--remember your father’s counsel--‘glory and
success.’”

“You are a fool,” said Phalax, already partially intoxicated; “I’m not
so much a dastard as to take a dastard’s advice;” and saying this, he
drank off the goblet, and, in a short time, fell stupified beneath the
table.

While this was the state of the leader of the party, the rest were
little better. They drank deeply, and, passing into the gardens, where
were walks, and fountains, and flowers, and everything to delight the
senses, they spent the remainder of the night in dissipation.

It was not till late the third day after the scene we have described,
that Phalax and his friends awoke from the deep sleep into which they
fell, after their dissipation; for the wine they had drunk, had an
infusion in it of a sleepy drug. This had been contrived by the
command of the deceitful prince, who, under pretence of hospitality,
took this method of thwarting the purpose of the messengers.

Thus Phalax and his party lost two entire days, yet they did not know
it. When they recovered, they had their horses saddled, and set out
again on their journey. But they were all weary, enfeebled, and out of
humor. For some time, they rode on in silence. They then began to
grumble at one thing and another. At last, the young man who had been
insulted by Phalax at the table, spoke to him on the subject. The
latter denied the truth of the charge, and insinuated that he never
said what was imputed to him. The youth retorted: “Do you call me a
liar?” said he. “I do,” said Phalax, fiercely. “You are a coward,”
said the youth. “Let us prove it,” said Phalax, in a rage.

It was in vain that the other members of the party interfered to stop
the quarrel. Phalax rode apart--brandished his spear, and challenged
the offended youth to mortal combat. Quick as lightning, the latter
rode forth, and whirling his weapon over his head, prepared for the
attack.

The two were at the distance of a hundred yards, when, putting spurs
to their steeds, they flew at each other, each with his spear in an
attitude of deadly hostility. The horses met, and both riders were
thrown to the earth. The spear of Phalax passed through the body of
his antagonist--and the young man lay dying on the ground. Phalax was
stunned, but otherwise unhurt. He soon arose, and went to the side of
his dying companion: “Forgive me,” said he, “Oh, forgive me. I was
drunk and scarcely knew what I said. I remember to have spoken
improperly to you. Arise, my dear friend, and tell me you forgive me.”
“It is in vain,” said the youth. “I forgive you, but I die.” Saying
this, he breathed his last.

Phalax, being of royal blood, had been brought up to think that all
mankind were made for princes, and might be used as their passions or
pleasures should dictate. He did not feel, therefore, as if he had
committed a great crime, or slain one who had the same rights with
himself; he had only taken the life of an inferior. He, however,
mourned for his friend, and felt much ashamed of his impetuosity and
want of self-government. He said little, but determined to be more
prudent in future. With this resolve he proceeded on his journey.

We cannot trace all the adventures of Phalax and his party. It is
sufficient to say, that they were so confident of reaching the capital
before their rivals, that they did not deem it necessary to be either
prudent or industrious. They knew that the route of Abdael, was not
only more difficult and dangerous, but more circuitous--and, besides
all this--they believed that, even if their rival should deliver the
message first, the Khan would bestow the honor upon Phalax, and his
party, in consideration of their rank. And, finally, if even this
should fail, and if, as they said among themselves, “the king should
have such bad taste as to prefer a plebeian to a prince--why, at least
we have noble blood in our veins; and that is an advantage we shall
ever enjoy--Abdael cannot be a prince or a nobleman.”

Thus offering apologies for their negligence, and fortifying
themselves in their folly, the party proceeded, forgetting the great
object of their expedition in the indulgence of the various passions
which tempted them by the way. It was the _love of glory_ that had
been presented to the imagination of Phalax, as the motive to action.
This was a selfish passion, and gave way the moment another passion, a
little stronger, took possession of the breast. The desire of ease,
the desire of wine, the desire of dissipation, the desire of pleasure,
often mastered the desire of glory, and made the young leader of the
party forget this, and the means by which it was to be obtained.
Besides all this, it must be remembered that in their debauchery at
the prince’s palace, a deception had been practised upon them, and
precious time had slipped, unreckoned, away, thus leaving them in a
state of delusion.

We must now turn to Abdael and his companions. Soon after they set
out, Malek, an old soldier, rode to his side, and said, “It is a hard
lot, my young master, to have the longer route, and the more
mountainous path; what do you intend to do?” “My duty, and trust in
Heaven!” said Abdael. “I had no doubt of it,” said Malek, and,
apparently satisfied, he rode on.

The party did not attempt to urge their horses. They proceeded slowly,
but steadily, and stopped for the night, after having performed but a
very moderate journey. The next day they did the same; and so on, the
third and fourth day. The greatest care was taken of the horses at
night; and the men were particular to avoid every species of excess.
They abstained from wine altogether, for Abdael feared that they might
be betrayed into indiscretion, or licentiousness. They were obliged to
keep their arms constantly in hand, for they were surrounded with
enemies.

It might have seemed, to a careless observer, rather a dull party, but
if any one could have looked beneath their stern exterior, and have
seen their hearts, he would have discovered a sober satisfaction
there, arising from the consciousness of performing their duty; he
would also, have seen, that even the dangers and difficulties which
surrounded them, became sources of agreeable excitement.

Beside this, the feeling of mutual danger, and the necessity of mutual
support, created a kindly feeling between the individuals; and thus
they were in fact, like so many steadfast friends, united for common
protection and defence. They were, therefore, cheerful and happy. They
had little hope of reaching the capital in season to achieve a triumph
over Phalax, but they had, at least the satisfaction of feeling that
even in defeat, they would have the approbation of their own
consciences, and, perhaps, obtain the respect of the king.

In a few days they reached rugged and precipitous mountains, and now
the necessity of all their care, courage, and perseverance became
obvious. The road wound amid deep and fearful valleys, crossed rapid
streams, threaded wild passes, traversed ridges and peaks, which hung
like curtains of everlasting rock, over the ravines below. Although it
was summer, these lofty regions were covered with snow, and the wind
was as keen and chill as winter.

Nor were the obstacles thus presented by nature, the only ones which
beset the travellers. One day, as they were pursuing their route along
the edge of a dizzy cliff, they saw a party of Tartars on horseback,
at a little distance before them. They were about twenty in number,
but as soon as they were remarked, they vanished. In a few minutes,
however, they reappeared, some in front and some in the rear of the
little party. On they came with the speed of a snow-drift, threatening
to hurl Abdael and his friends over the precipice into the gulf
beneath, by the fury of the onset. But the travellers were prepared;
Malek and two soldiers turned back, and met the assailants in the
rear, and Abdael and one of his friends, faced the enemy in front.

The Tartars came close up to Abdael, as if to push him from the path,
but such was his steadiness and that of the man at his side, that the
enemy recoiled, and stood still at a little distance. The leader then
brandished his lance, and hurled it at Abdael. The latter received it
upon his sloping shield, and glancing off, it cut the air downward
into the glen. Abdael, in an instant, hurled his spear at his enemy,
and, true to the mark, it entered the breast of the Tartar leader, who
reeled in his saddle, fell from his horse and rolled over the cliff.
His body bounded from rock to rock, and was lost to the sight in the
grisly shadows of the ravine!

This fearful scene took place in view of both parties, and such was
the panic created in the Tartar troops, that they immediately took to
flight. Abdael and his men now proceeded. In the evening, and at the
foot of the mountain, they reached a small town situated in a lovely
valley. Though the snow-capped peaks were so near, yet every species
of lovely flower was in bloom, and the most luscious fruits hung ripe
from the stem. Here they had many invitations to stay and participate
in the pleasures of the place, but Abdael remained no longer than was
necessary for rest, and refreshment to his men and their beasts.

He had not proceeded far from the town we have mentioned, when the
Prince of the Valley, who had heard of his arrival, sent messengers to
meet Abdael, and ask him to spend a few days at his palace. The young
traveller conceived it necessary, as a mark of courtesy, to call upon
the prince; and accordingly, he and his party went to the palace, and
caused their arrival to be announced. They were received with due
ceremony, and urged to stay a few days. “May it please your royal
highness,” said Abdael, “I am but a plebeian, and my companions are
common soldiers. They are worthy men--but more fit for battle and
foray than for the presence of a prince. I, therefore, pray your
highness to hold us excused from an honor too great for such as we
are.”

“Thou art a wise youth,” said the prince, “and I suspect there is much
pride beneath thy humility of speech. However, thou shall have thy
way, only let thy men come and partake of the feast we have provided.”

Abdael bowed, and the men came in. They sat down to the table, which
was spread with every luxury the nicest palate could desire. The
travellers were worn and weary, and they had now subsisted for a long
time on the coarsest food; but, taking example from Abdael, they ate
sparingly of the simplest articles, and avoiding the sparkling wines,
they drank water only. This was noticed by the prince, who spoke in an
offended tone to Abdael; “I am sorry, young soldier, that the wine
pleases thee not.”

“Forgive me, prince,” said Abdael, courteously--“it is not that I
distrust the quality of the wine--but, we are humble men, and have
little to boast of but our wits. Now, wine is a great thief, and
should it steal our wits away, we should be poor, indeed. It is only
those who are noble, and have something better than their brains to
boast of, that can afford to drink wine and run the risk of losing
their senses!”

“By my beard!” said his royal highness, “this is a bold fellow: you
curmudgeons are too wise to make fools of yourselves, and therefore
you leave that to princes and nobles! Upon my word, this is courtly
speech! But, young man, perhaps you suspect the wine to be drugged.”

“There is no need of suspicion of the wine to him who has foresworn
the cup!” said Abdael.

“I am fairly answered,” said the prince. Soon after, the feast was
finished, and the strangers were about to take their leave. “A word
with thee,” said the prince, to Abdael; and taking him aside, he spoke
as follows: “Your conduct, young soldier, has impressed me favorably;
may I ask an honest answer to an honest question?”

“Surely,” said Abdael.

“I see that thou hast some charm which gives thee wisdom above mankind
in general. Wilt thou tell me what it is that thus guides thee, and
makes thee superior to other men; which, indeed, makes a young soldier
the master of a prince who is famous for his craftiness?”

“A father’s counsel,” was the reply.

“And who is thy father?” said the prince.

“A poor peasant of Parthia.”

“And what is this magic counsel of which thou speakest?”

“It lies in few words--_do thy duty_.”

“Indeed! And is this the simple exposition of a riddle that I could
not solve? And yet I feel it to be true. Young man, thy father,
however poor, is happy--and may well be the envy of a prince. He can
give wise counsel, and he possesses a son who can follow it. I confess
that thou and he have this day taught me a lesson: I owe thee
something, and I will pay the debt by frankness. Thy father’s advice,
and thine own steadfast fidelity have secured thy life, and that of
thy companions. There was a poison in that wine, that had proved
mortal to him whose lips had tasted it. I say this to encourage thee
in thy career of virtue; for however, being a prince, I may seek to
destroy my enemies by poison, as is my privilege, I can still perceive
virtue and approve of it, in others.”

Abdael departed, and, with his companions, proceeded on his journey.
They travelled with great industry, but such were the difficulties
they encountered, that their progress was not rapid. They were
sustained, however, by hope, and seemed actually to derive energy from
the obstacles that beset them. They were usually in health; all their
faculties were in full exercise; their limbs and their minds were
vigorous and active. They were also cheerful; when there was no
pressing occasion for circumspection, the laugh and the joke went
round, and they were all the better, that they were excited by that
kind of wit which springs from knowledge and experience. Their very
adventures and dangers became to them the fruitful sources of pleasing
and lively reflections.

It was at the end of a month that Abdael reached the capital. This was
a short time for performing the journey, and seldom, if ever, had it
been accomplished in so brief a space: but still, he had every reason
to suppose that Phalax had arrived before him, and that he was going
to a scene rather of humiliation than triumph. He entered the city
with a beating heart. His companions, as well as himself, were silent.
They went straight to the palace, and found Phalax and his party
there. They had arrived about an hour before, and Abdael met them in
the hall of entrance, waiting an audience.

Phalax was admitted first; Genghis received his message, and heard his
story. “You have been a long time,” said the king, “in performing your
journey. Was no other messenger despatched?”

“Yes, sire,” said Phalax, “Abdael was sent by the route of the
mountains.”

“Has he arrived?” said the king.

“This moment,” was the reply.

“You arrived first?” said the king.

“I did, sire,” said Phalax.

The young prince was now dismissed, and as he passed Abdael in the
hall, he darted upon him a look of insolent triumph. The latter was
immediately ushered into the presence of the king. He told his story
briefly and modestly, and took his leave. The next day, the two young
men were summoned before the Khan. As both stood in his presence, the
king noticed the calm but modest demeanor of Abdael, and contrasted it
with the evident doubt and fear, which lay beneath a veil of
assurance, upon the face of Phalax. At last, Genghis spoke as follows:

“I have seen your companions, young gentlemen, and learned the history
of your adventures from them. Phalax reached the city first, but only
by an hour; yet his route was the easier by at least a fortnight. Let
him remember that success is not the evidence of merit. He arrived
before his rival, yet he neglected his duty, and violated his trust;
nay, more--he has exalted himself in his own account, beyond the
truth: besides, he has come with one of his party missing--and he has
not dared to tell the reason!”

The king looked keenly at the young prince--who first reddened, then
turned pale, and finally kneeled before the king. “Speak not!” said
Genghis, sternly--“I know it all; it had been better for thee, if thou
hadst not glossed over thy madness and folly, for confession may
palliate, if it cannot excuse, guilt. Thy doom is perpetual
banishment! Abdael, thou hast done nobly; not only hast thou excelled
in prudence, energy, and devotion to thy duty, but thou hast excelled
in modesty also. In thy brief and simple story, thou hast rather
hidden than exaggerated, thine own merits; it shall be mine to make
them known. I hereby make thee a captain of my guard.” Saying this,
the monarch hung a rich sash of silk, glittering with costly jewels,
around Abdael’s neck, as a mark of his special favor.

“And now, tell me, my friend,” said the king, “how is it that thou
hast performed such worthy deeds, and set so good an example?”

“By following the advice of a good and wise father,” said Abdael.

“Send for him,” said the king, “he shall be the steward of my
household. Is there anything else thou wouldst desire?”

“One thing, sire,”--said Abdael, with a subdued voice.

“Name it,” said the king.

“That thou wouldst recall thy sentence of banishment against Phalax.”

“For what good reason dost thou make this request?”

“He has been less fortunate than myself: while I have been nursed in
adversity, hardened by toil, trained by necessity to self-denial and
self-government, he has been bred at the court and treated with
indulgence; while I enjoyed wholesome lessons of prudence and wisdom,
enforced by poverty, he has been seduced, by the false tongue of
flattery, and the deceitful allurements of riches and pleasure. Let me
ask forgiveness, then, oh king, for the errors of youth, occasioned by
the misfortune of his noble birth and exalted station.”

“This is strange, indeed,” said the king; “that wealth and rank, and
power are looked upon, by a plebeian, as misfortunes, which are to
excuse wickedness and folly; and yet, I can hardly gainsay it. Abdael,
thy request is granted: Phalax is restored--he shall be of thy troop,
a private under thee, and it shall be thy duty to teach him the art of
self-government. But not till he has shown, by his own example, that
rank and fortune may rather bless than curse the possessor, shall I
consent to see him at court. Farewell!”

This story was told in an interesting manner, by the merchant, and all
present listened to it with attention; but Alexis was attracted by
something in the speaker, which he could not readily explain. The
voice, the manner, and the looks of the merchant, now seemed familiar
to him, or, at least, he felt assured that he had seen him before; but
when or where, he could not divine.

The dinner party soon broke up, but the eyes of Alexis followed the
merchant so closely that the latter observed it. Coming near to the
young man, he said in an under-tone, “You know me--yet you do not know
me.”

“True,” said Alexis; “I feel sure that we have met before--but I
cannot tell upon what occasion; will you be so kind as to help me out
of my perplexity?”

“And myself into a greater difficulty, ha! What is the penalty which
the emperor bestows upon an exile, who dares to return to his
country?”

“It is death--inevitable death!”

“And yet you wish Count Zimsky, the hermit of the banks of the
Lena--the man who dug you out of the snow, and saved your life--to
confess that he has smuggled himself on board of a Russian ship of
war, and goes to St. Petersburgh to beard the emperor in his palace!”

“Yes, yes,” said Alexis, in profound astonishment--for he now
recognised the hermit--“I understand you; I know you; but I must not
seem to recognise you. Alas, alas, my dear sir, to what certain peril
do you expose yourself! you not only violate the edict of your
banishment, but will it not heighten your offence, that you take
passage in a government ship, under this disguise?”

“No doubt; but the desperate man, has nothing to fear. I prefer death
and torture, to exile in Siberia. I have determined to go to St.
Petersburgh, to face the emperor, and let him do with me as he
pleases.” At this point of the interview, the parties were
interrupted.


                             CHAPTER XIII.

While the ship continued steadily on her voyage, Alexis found abundant
sources of amusement. It might seem that being shut up in a ship was a
kind of imprisonment, but our young Sable-Hunter did not feel it to be
so. He often talked with Suvarrow, of Tobolsk, of home, of his father,
and, above all, of his sister. Upon this latter subject, Suvarrow did
not say much, but he spoke in such terms of tender interest as at once
to bind the young officer to his heart, and, at the same time, to
assure him that he was sincerely attached to Katrina.

The disguised merchant often took occasion to converse with Alexis,
and while he cautioned him to keep his secret, he spoke of his plans
and wishes. “I desire,” said he, “once more to see the princess
Lodoiska; I desire to bid her farewell; and then I am ready to lay my
head on the block, if the emperor wishes to take my life. At all
events, death, imprisonment, the rack--anything is preferable to
Siberia. To live in that chill, lonely, desolate exile; to waste, drop
by drop, the blood of life; to see existence creep away with the slow
ticking of the clock; to gnaw one’s own heart in very anguish--is what
I cannot and will not endure. I will see the princess--and then I will
go to the emperor; I will tell him that I once saved his life; and
now, if he chooses, he may take mine as a compensation?”

Alexis was almost awed by the energy and firmness of the Polish
nobleman; yet he looked upon his present enterprise as little better
than courting death. One thing led him to hope for better things: he
had sent the sable-skins designed for the princess, to Katrina,
requesting her to see them forwarded to Petersburgh. This, he had no
doubt, would be done; and, as it contained evidence that Count Zinski
was still living and entertained the deepest affection for the
princess, he fancied, with the fond ardor of a youthful mind, that she
would be incited to obtain his pardon.

Intent upon gathering knowledge, Alexis listened to the various
observations of the officers of the ship, several of whom were
intelligent men; and as Japan naturally became the subject of
discourse, while, for several weeks, they were sailing near the
Japanese islands, he learnt a good deal about it. One day, one of the
officers told him the following story:

“The people of Japan, like many other nations, pretend that their
nation has existed for ages, and they tell of rulers that lived
millions of years ago. Yet they were entirely unknown to Europe, till
discovered by the Portuguese navigators, who were the first to explore
that portion of the world. The government of Portugal was then eager
to take advantage of intercourse with these eastern nations, and,
accordingly, they sent ships and ambassadors to Japan. They also
despatched missionaries to introduce the Catholic religion into that
country.

“At first these were kindly received, and, in the space of sixty
years, about one half of the whole empire was converted to
Christianity. Had the Europeans conducted wisely, they might have
effected the complete introduction of Christianity into Japan, and the
permanent establishment of intercourse between that country and other
civilized nations of Europe. But, instead of that, their conduct was
licentious, and they meddled, improperly, in political matters.
Accordingly, in 1617, the missionaries were banished forever from the
country, and the Japanese, who had become Christians, were subjected
to the most cruel persecution. These were continued for forty years,
and several millions of people were sacrificed to the fury of the
storm. It is a story of this persecution that I am now going to tell
you.

“It was long after the missionaries had been banished, that there
lived a rich Japanese merchant in the great city of Jesso. This is on
the island of Niphon, and the capital of the empire. It contains as
many inhabitants as London, but the houses are generally small.

“The name of this merchant was Nanky; he was greatly esteemed for his
good character, his kindness to the poor, and his observance of all
the duties of religion and society. His wealth was almost boundless.
It is true, he had no ships, for the Japanese have little commerce on
the sea, their vessels being small and only able to creep along the
margins of their own islands. But he owned vast landed estates, and as
the cultivation of the soil is the most honorable occupation there, he
chose to be called a farmer, and brought up his only son to that
occupation.

“This young man, named Sado, was now about twenty years old, and lived
upon a fine estate situated in a valley, called Noorki, at the foot of
Mount Fusi. This is the loftiest peak in all Japan, and its top is so
high as to be always covered with snow. The estate of young Sado,
however, had a warm and delightful climate; in winter it was not so
cold as to injure the orange trees, and in midsummer, the breezes came
down from the top of old Fusi with a refreshing coolness. Here the
young man dwelt, beloved and respected by all around.

“At a little distance from the valley Of Noorki, lived a nobleman by
the name of Gasaki. Like many of the nobles of Japan, he was poor and
proud. He pretended to be of celestial origin, his remote ancestors
being, as he claimed, divine beings.

“He dwelt in a castle, once of great strength, but now in a ruinous
condition. He, however, affected all the pomp and circumstance of the
loftiest peer; he collected his taxes and enforced his authority on
all the people around him with severity; and required the utmost
nicety of etiquette to be observed by all who came to his castle. It
is true, that, with all this pretence, his celestial descent, his
ancient castle, and his great authority, Gasaki was obliged to carry
on a manufactory of baskets and varnished boxes, to increase his
scanty income and supply his necessities. This, however, was done as
secretly as possible, and no one was permitted to allude to the
circumstance.

“Gasaki had two children, a son named Lofo, and a daughter named
Soonki. The former was now required to live at Jeddo, in the palace of
the Cobi, or king of Japan, as a hostage, to ensure the good conduct
of his father towards the government: it being understood that if
Gasaki should do anything to offend the king, Lofo must die. Such is
the custom of Japan, and all the chiefs or nobles are thus obliged to
keep a part of their families at court, as hostages, and pledges for
their good behavior.

“Now Soonki was one of the most beautiful girls that ever was seen;
and as women in Japan have as much freedom as among us, she often met
young Sado, whose estate was near her father’s castle. They
accordingly became well acquainted, and in time they loved each other
very tenderly.

“I must tell you that near the foot of Mount Fusi was a shaded glen,
in which were a number of deep and dark caves. Into one of these, a
Catholic priest had retired during the persecutions, and here he had
continued to dwell. Only a few persons knew of his residence there;
these were some who still held the Christian faith. It was necessary
for them to cover their opinions with the utmost secrecy, for
exposure, or suspicion even, would have subjected them to cruel
torture and agonizing death.

“Among these followers of the hermit priest, was one of the seven
wives of Gasaki and she was the mother of Soonki. She had carefully
educated her daughter in her own faith, and more than once, they had
both stolen to the glen and held religious interviews with the now
aged and decrepit father. It seems to be a fact that a religious faith
is only loved the more, if it bring danger and trial upon its votary;
and therefore the youthful maiden received the faith of the cross with
all the fervor of youth, and all the devotion of a martyr.

“It was not long after the acquaintance between young Sado and Soonki
had commenced, before he avowed his affection, and asked her hand in
marriage. She replied evasively at first, and then stated that a fatal
obstacle to their union existed. Sado urged her to explain, but for a
long time she refused. At last she confessed the fact that she was a
Christian. Sado was shocked, and for a time the intercourse of the
lovers was suspended; it was, however, renewed; the cause of
separation became the topic of discussion, and, under the tutelage of
Soonki, Sado became a Christian. He was also accepted by her as her
lover. He now applied for the consent of the haughty father, and
received the following reply:

“‘Is it possible, that a young man, whose father is a merchant, should
hope to match himself with a maiden who is descended through ten
thousand generations from the immortal Tensio Dai Sir? Have you, whose
name is but of yesterday, the audacity to ask to ally yourself with a
family that ranks among its members the many-headed idol Quanwan;
Amida, the judge of departed souls; Temacco, the keeper of the door of
the damned, and Driso, the commander in chief of purgatory? Young man,
you aspire to an honor of which peers and princes might be proud: but
sir, I am not only a peer of Japan, with the oldest and best blood of
the empire in my veins, but I am a father. Soonki is my only daughter,
and she rules my heart. She says her happiness is allied to yours:
take her and make her blest!’ The old man now made sixteen stately
bows, nearly to the ground, and backed himself out of the room, as is
the custom of Japan. Sado retired, and Gasaki was left rubbing his
hands with delight to think that his daughter was to wed the richest
youth living in sight of old Fusi’s lofty peak.

“Gasaki was so much elated that he determined to make a pilgrimage to
Meaco, a famous city, where are a great many temples, and where the
Dairi, the spiritual chief of the empire, resides. He was very anxious
to swell his retinue, for a Japanese peer is estimated according to
the number of his followers. Both Soonki and Sado sought to avoid this
expedition, but the chief insisted on their going, and required Sado
also to muster as many of his own men as possible, and to join his
train. This being done, they set out with about four thousand people.
Couriers were despatched to go before the company, and engage lodgings
and provisions at the taverns, which are numerous along the road.

“The chief persons of the party, as Gasaki, several of his wives, his
daughter, Sado and others, rode in small carriages drawn by oxen,
buffaloes, or little horses. There were no asses, camels, mules, or
elephants, for these are not used in Japan. The train was attended by
thousands of dogs, which are held almost sacred by the Japanese; and
left to their own pleasure, they barked, howled, snapped and fought
with each other, making such a din as almost to drown every other
sound. Add to this the lowing of the oxen and buffaloes, the neighing
of the little horses, the gabble of the men and women, and the prayers
and petitions of thousands of beggars that lined the road, and you may
imagine the turmoil and confusion of the scene.

“The road on which they travelled was of great width, and nicely
fenced; on all sides, the lands seemed burthened with the richest
crops of vegetation. Every inch of ground was cultivated like a
garden; even the steep hill sides were supported with terraces,
yielding their harvest of fruits.

“As the pilgrims moved along, they met other parties returning, some
from Meaco, and some from Isje, the seat of the temple of Tensio Dai
Sir, the chief of the celestial spirits. It might seem strange that so
many thousand people, passing and repassing, could find support: but
it must be understood that in Japan they reject meat, milk, butter and
cheese; and live, with wonderful frugality, upon vegetables alone.

“Gasaki and his party at last arrived at Meaco, and proceeded to the
great temple of Fokosi. This is a vast edifice, one thousand feet in
length, paved with squares of white marble, adorned with a hundred
columns of cedar, and having a colossal idol of Budda, eighty feet in
height. Having performed their religious services here, the party went
to the temple of Kwanwan, and paid their reverence to the goddess of
thirty-three hands, and the little deities arranged on shelves, of
which there are thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty-three.

“Having spent some time at Meaco, which is a vast city, twice as large
as New York, and the centre of Japanese trade; and having not only
performed their religious ceremonies, but paid all due obeisance to
the Dairi, the spiritual king of Japan, Gasaki and his vast retinue
returned home. All had passed off well, and the old chief was
delighted, particularly as Sado had paid the expenses of the
expedition, and, by his liberality, had even left some broad pieces of
gold unexpended in his treasury.

“But events soon occurred to darken the prospects of Gasaki and those
who were connected with him. A few days after his return from Meaco, a
messenger arrived from the Dairi, commanding his immediate presence at
Meaco. The chief was alarmed, for he knew that such a summons
portended danger; yet he dared not refuse obedience. He went
accordingly, and was immediately conducted to the Dairi’s palace. This
place was itself like a town, it being of immense extent, surrounded
with walls, and containing several thousand people. Gasaki was taken
into the presence of the Dairi, who is a descendant of the ancient
emperors, and who still claims the sovereignty of the empire. But the
Cobi, having gradually usurped all political authority and power, the
Dairi is only permitted to interfere in religious matters; but in
these he is supreme.

“The Dairi immediately proceeded to accuse the chief of harboring
Christianity in his family. This accusation struck him with horror,
for he knew that no crime was equal to the faith of the cross. He
therefore denied it, and challenged his accusers to adduce the proof.
The Dairi then proceeded to state that his favorite wife Leos and her
daughter Soonki as well as her betrothed lover, young Sado, were all
observed to avoid trampling on the cross before the great temple of
Fokosi, and also to omit many of the essential ceremonies of that holy
temple.

“Gasaki grew pale, for he knew that in religious persecution,
suspicion is as fatal as proof; and beside, he had himself noticed
some peculiarities in the persons accused, which made him fear that
the awful charge was true. But a Japanese chief never fails in courage
and independence, he therefore declared his own innocence and
expressed his hope, nay his confidence, that his wife and daughter as
well as Sado, were all free from the imputed guilt. But this could not
relieve the chief from suspicion; he was therefore ordered into
prison, where he was chained, and confined in a dark room.

“Now it happened that in Meaco, and in the Dairi’s palace, and among
his own servants, there were several persons, who still cherished, in
secret, the religion of Christ. These soon learnt what was going
forward, and they sent swift messages to Sado, communicating the
tidings of what had taken place. He went immediately to Gasaki’s
castle, and told Leos and her daughters of the appalling events. What
was to be done? They knew that a mandate for their appearance at Meaco
would soon come, and then nothing but torture and death could be their
lot. Several plans were prepared, one of which was to fly and find
safety with the hermit in the caverns of Fusi. But this would confirm
the suspicions of the Dairi as to Gasaki, and he and his son were sure
to be sacrificed. The fidelity of friendship in Japan, is true to the
last--and after praying for divine aid, they went severally to their
employments, determined to wait for events, and yield to the decrees
of heaven.

“It was not long before the anticipated summons arrived, and Leos,
Soonki, and Sado, being taken into custody, were escorted by a body of
some twenty soldiers, mounted on horses, towards Meaco. It was now the
latter part of August, and the heat was excessive, until the party
began to wind through the ravines that lay at the foot of Mount Fusi.
Here, sheltered by the overhanging cliffs, and refreshed by the
breezes that came down to fan the heated lowlands, the party proceeded
with a reluctant step, as if enchanted by the wild, yet lovely, scenes
around. While they were still treading their way through the glen, a
dark cloud began to gather over the top of Fusi, and the thunders to
come muttering down its sides. The lightning was soon seen, darting
from cliff to cliff, and the peals of thunder, growing louder and
louder, seemed to shake the mountain to its very foundation.

“There is no part of the world where such fierce thunder storms are
experienced as in Japan; and on the present occasion it seemed as if
the elements were striving to display their utmost fury. The air grew
dark, almost as night; the winds died away, save only an occasional
gust that wrung the heavy trees, like so many wisps, and then left
them still and silent. The lightning came flash on flash, and the
thunder, peal on peal. The startled horses dashed away from their
masters, and the trembling men stood horror-struck on the spot. Near
by was a post with a board, having the appearance of a cross, but the
board moved on a pivot, and was used by the Japanese as a praying
machine; though in fact it stood before the hermit’s cave, and was
looked upon by him as a cross. Several of the soldiers ran to this,
and turned the board rapidly round, hoping to appease the angry deity
of the mountain and the storm, by the abundance of their petitions;
each revolution of the board being deemed a prayer!

“At last the rain began to fall, and the water came down the mountain
in torrents: at the same time, the wind burst like a hurricane upon
all around--the trees were dashed to the earth--the darkness
thickened--there was a fearful roar. This lasted but a few moments,
and the tempest was over. The soldiers, who had fallen to the ground,
now rose and looked around. They were all unhurt--but where were the
prisoners? Not one of them was to be seen. In vain did the soldiers
examine the rocks around: in vain did they inspect the rivulet that
now foamed and fretted at the bottom of the glen. They were gone, and
no trace of them could be discovered. It was plainly a miracle; the
accused were innocent, and the offended genius of Fusi had sent the
storm, not only to rescue them, but to confound their accusers!

“The story was carried to the Dairi, by the soldiers. These were put
to the torture; but as they all persisted in the same tale; and,
moreover, as news soon came that Leos, Soonki, and Sado were all
safely at home, as if nothing had happened, their account was
believed, and their interpretation of the matter was adopted. Gasaki
was set at liberty; a large deputation was sent to turn round the
board at the foot of Fusi, thirty-three thousand three hundred and
thirty-three times, so as to ensure the pacification of the mountain
god; and the whole matter ended. Soonki and Sado, who, with the mother
of the former, had fled into the hermit’s glen, during the storm, were
united in the Japanese fashion, the bride lighting a torch at the fire
of one of the altars, and he lighting another at hers. They were
afterwards married, according to the rules of the church, in the cave
of the priest, and while they adhered to their Christian faith, they
lived and died among the Japanese, as those who were under the
guardianship of celestial beings.”

While the Russian officer was telling this tale, the mysterious
merchant came up and listened to it with apparent interest. After it
was finished, he said, “Your story of Japan reminds me of a Chinese
legend, which, with your leave, I will tell. China, though often
associated in the mind with Japan, is still a very different country.
It is true that the Japanese appear to have sprung from the same stock
as the Chinese; they have the same small, half-open eyes; the same
soft and sleepy expression; the same yellow skin; and to some extent
the same religion. But the government, manners and customs are very
different. China has but one chief, and he is sole emperor; Japan has
two--the Dairi, who is king in spiritual matters, and the Cobi, who is
king in all other affairs. China has mandarins, who are considered
noble, but they are wholly dependent on the emperor; the nobles of
Japan live in strong castles, collect revenues of the people, claim
the exclusive right to the soil, and assert their independence in many
things. The Chinese are mean, cowardly, selfish and treacherous; the
Japanese are frank, brave, friendly and faithful, preferring torture
and death, to the betrayal or desertion of a friend. The Chinese have
no honor, no self-respect; the Japanese are sensitive of their honor,
keenly alive to disgrace, and, when sentenced to death, ask and obtain
leave to plunge the deadly knife into their bowels, rather than to die
by the hand of the executioner.

“To all this it may be added that while the policy of the Chinese has
led them to exclude foreigners and avoid intercourse with foreign
nations, the Japanese have only adopted this custom since the
intrigues of the Portuguese and Dutch interfered in the affairs of
their government, and led to the same jealous system which has
attached to China for ages.

“But though there are so many points of difference between these two
great nations, there is one in which they resemble each other: they
both claim great antiquity, and furnish long lists of kings, who, if
their historians are to be believed, existed some thousands of years
before the world began. China is, doubtless, the oldest of Asiatic
countries, and indeed their records go back, with pretty good
authority, some two thousand years before Christ, when Yee, an emperor
nine feet high, is said to have lived, and during whose sway, we are
told that it rained gold for three days in succession. The Chinese
wall, which is by far the greatest existing monument of human labor,
was built more than two hundred years before Christ; it is fifteen
hundred miles long, and in some places forty feet high. The stones of
which it is composed, are sufficient to construct a wall seven feet in
height around the entire world. A work so immense, proves that China
was a vast empire long before Rome had reached the zenith of its power
and splendor.

“It is not my purpose to relate the history of China; but these
details are necessary as a preface to my story. It is matter of
history that China, as well as Japan, was visited by Catholic
missionaries, soon after these countries were discovered in the
fifteenth century. Some of them penetrated to Pekin, and a
considerable number of persons here were converted to Christianity. To
this day there are Catholic missionaries in China, though, when they
have once entered the country, they are doomed to continue there
during their lives. There are also several thousand Chinese converts
to Christianity, in different parts of the empire.

“Well, I must go back to the year 1625, when a holy father of the
church was travelling in the district of Shensy, which lies on the
border of Tartary. Here, at the foot of a range of lofty mountains
flows a beautiful stream called Hoei-ho, a branch of the Hoan-ho, and
situated upon its banks is a great city called Singan-fou. As the
priest was approaching this place, he saw a temple or pagoda dedicated
to the Chinese god Fo. It looked, at a little distance, like a steeple
of four stories, with arched openings in each story, and the whole
terminated by a conical point. It was built upon a slope of the
mountain, at the foot of which swept the bright waters of the Hoei-ho.
Immediately around, the scenery was peculiarly wild, while farther off
all was art and cultivation. The city lay at a little distance, and
covered a large space of the valley; while every elevation around it
was occupied with villas, many of them exceedingly beautiful, and all
kept in a state of perfect neatness.

“The holy father proceeded to ponder upon the scene, and to reflect
upon the vastness and antiquity of an empire, which had attained so
great a population, and reached such a pitch of civilization, as, even
among the hidden and remote borders of Tartary, to present such a
scene as this. While he was thinking of these things, the skies grew
dark, and in the space of a few minutes the whole scene was shadowed
with a thick thunder cloud, and large drops of rain began to fall. He
therefore hastened forward, and took refuge in the temple I have
before mentioned. He found it to be filled with all manner of images,
bearing no small resemblance, in this and other respects, to a
Catholic church in his own country.

“There was no person in the temple, and as the storm continued with
great fury, the priest remained there for shelter, until at last the
shadows of night began to fall around. It was soon quite dark, and the
father saw that it was his lot to spend the night in the place. He
therefore groped about till he found a sort of niche in the wall,
sheltered from the blast, and here he sat down. His mind wandered from
one thing to another, until, at last, he fancied himself at home, in
his own country! A priest is, after all, a man, and has his affections
as well as others. The idea of being once more in the land of his
fathers, so engrossed his mind, that, when at last he fell asleep, his
dreams were tissues woven out of the fond remembrances of father and
mother, of brother and sister; of merry childhood, and ardent youth.
Holy father as he was, he dreamed--though in his sleep he crossed
himself--of a maiden whom he loved in his youthful days, and whose
lips, in a moment of madness, met his own. His dream went on--he wooed
the maiden; he won her heart; he asked her hand, and she gave her
consent.

“Alas, that man should be thus cheated!--that a priest, who had sworn
to take no wife to his bosom; to devote all his affections to the
church; a Jesuit, who had forsaken his home forever; a missionary, who
wandered in hopeless exile in a remote region of the earth; one who
even now was crouching beneath the dark arches of a heathen temple,
unknowing and unknown--alas, that such a being could be deluded, even
in a dream, by scenes so improbable, so impossible, as these! But so
it is--the priest’s heart had now painted upon it a bright picture of
other days--and he yielded to the spell. He dreamed that he was about
to be married--and to one he loved. He fancied that he and his bride
had entered the church; they were at the altar; the music was pealing
through the aisles and arches--when--he awoke! He crossed himself
again and muttered several prayers; for the holy man felt it to be
sinful for one of his profession even to dream of the pleasures of the
world.

“But while he sat there crossing himself, real music, such as he had
heard in his native land, and such as was unknown in China, came full
and sweet upon his ears. He now looked abroad; the tempest had ceased,
but amid the intense darkness, he saw lights flashing in the glen, and
a procession moving slowly towards the temple. The priest rubbed his
eyes, and shook himself, and then took a cord that was tied round his
body, and thrashed it across his back smartly, to assure himself that
he was fully awake. Still the music, soft, but sweet, came swelling
toward the temple; the lights advanced, beaming brighter and brighter,
and the procession moved steadily onward, through the gloom. The
father was in a maze. ‘Is it a reality,’ said he mournfully, ‘or a
fiction of the Evil One to tempt me to some mortal sin?’ While he was
pondering upon this fearful question, the procession entered the
temple; they proceeded to an arched recess on one side of the space,
where, by the light of the torches, the father saw the dim outline of
a cross, cut in bass-relief on the rock of the wall.

“There were two youthful figures in the party; one a female in white,
and closely veiled; the other a young man, attired in the fashion of
other climes. They knelt before the altar: a man who seemed a priest,
read from a book. The youthful pair joined hands; the whole party now
knelt; a fervent prayer was uttered by the priest, and the responses
came from the numerous attendants. The torches were waved in the air;
sweet music was diffused, and then a strain of music so deep, so
sweet, so lovely, was poured forth, that the priest who all this time
sat in his niche, in a sort of waking trance, found the tears
streaming down his cheeks. In spite of his holy vows, his prayers, his
penance, his heart was melted with the thoughts of home, brought back
by this scene so much like the marriage rites of his native land. ‘And
yet,’ said he to himself, ‘it is all an illusion. Even in this lone
land, where I am lost to my country and my kindred, the devil has
pursued me, and now seeks to seduce me; to turn my heart from my high
purpose of scattering the seeds of Christianity in this mighty empire,
by presenting the fond images of my early days--and thus sickening my
heart with this desolate banishment, this weary exile. But he shall
not triumph; I will wrestle like Jacob, I will prevail like Israel!’

“Saying this, the holy father crossed himself, counted his beads, and
ran over his prayers. While he was thus occupied, the wedding party
crossed the temple, and proceeded to a place in front of a hideous
image of Fo, at least forty feet in height. It had a resemblance to a
man overgrown with flesh, and besotted with indulgence. Seen in the
waning light of the torches, the face had a horrid expression of
vulgar mirth and satisfaction. The father looked at it, and fancied
that it was laughing at him; he imagined that he could see the twinkle
of triumph in his swinish eye, and a curl of derision upon his thick
and brutish lip.

“It was an awful moment--and the priest paused. The party, at least a
hundred in number, bowed in the Eastern fashion before the gigantic
image, and proceeded to perform the marriage ceremony in behalf of the
youthful couple, according to the heathen rites of the temple. ‘Alas!
alas!’ said the priest--‘they taunt me with this infamous spectacle;
they perform the holy rites of Christian marriage to tempt me to
abandon my duty; and now they perform the wicked incantations of their
heathen faith, to drive me from the land in despair. And behold that
fearful image standing there, looking me in the face, and shaking his
sides at my confusion! But the artifice shall fail.’--

“Saying this, the father leaped from his niche, and sprung at once
into the very midst of the party. He lifted his arms to heaven, with a
wooden cross in his hand, and exclaimed:--‘Avaunt--avaunt! ye spirits
of darkness! in the name of the holy Catholic church, I bid you depart
to the regions of the accursed. Down, down, Lucifer, and all your
hosts!’

“All this was uttered in a hoarse and hollow voice--while the red
blaze of the torch-light fell full upon the image of the priest--one
arm lifted to heaven, and the other pointing downward; at the same
time his face was haggard as death, and his eye wild as that of a
demon. There was a single shriek of terror and surprise from the
party, and then--they fled. The torches vanished in a moment; the
music was hushed; the pageant gone. Darkness and stillness reigned
around: the hideous image of Fo was invisible, and the holy father was
left alone in the temple. In the morning, he departed on his way,
assured that a miracle had been wrought by his hand; and confident
that he was more than an overmatch for the Evil One, with all his arts
and wiles. He pursued his career, and was one of those devoted and
successful missionaries who planted the cross in China, where it still
remains.

“But after all, it seems that the vision of the temple was a reality;
for a few years after, another missionary, travelling in the vicinity
of the temple of Sin-gan-fou, discovered a cross of stone, and an
abstract of the Christian law, together with the names of seventy-two
Nestorian preachers inscribed beneath the date, A. D. 640. On further
inquiry, he found that a tradition existed among the people, that some
foreigners, of fair hair and blue eyes, had visited China at the above
date--and introduced a new and strange religion among the people. This
still lingered in the country, though it was now generally mixed with
the prevailing pagan worship of the land, and had imparted to the
rites of Fo a curious resemblance to the ceremonies of the Romish
Church.

“This, with some other facts, cleared up the miracle of the holy
father, of which I have given an account. It seems that the Nestorians
had still certain followers, who so far retained the traces of
Christianity, as to perform some of its rites, while they were willing
to place the religion of Fo on an equal footing. But as Christianity
was not a popular or safe religion at the period of our story, they
selected a dark and stormy night for the performance of a marriage
ceremony, according to its creed.”




THE fogs in England have been always complained of by foreigners. A
Spanish ambassador told a friend who was going to Spain, to give his
compliments to the sun, whom he had not seen since he had been in
England. A Neapolitan minister used to say that the only ripe fruit he
had seen in England were _roasted apples_; and he took the liberty of
saying once, when conversing with the king, that he preferred the
_moon_ of Italy to the _sun_ of England.

       *       *       *       *       *

“NO.” The celebrated John Randolph, in one of his letters to a young
relative, says, “I know nothing that I am so anxious you should
acquire as the faculty of saying ‘no.’ You must expect unreasonable
requests to be preferred to you every day of your life, and must
endeavor to deny with as much facility and kindness as you acquiesce.”




                             Varieties.


The following ludicrous description of the effects of influenza, is an
extract from a letter by the celebrated writer, Charles Lamb.

“Did you ever have a bad cold, with a total irresolution to submit to
a water gruel diet? My fingers drag heavily over the paper; I have not
a single thing to say to you; I am flatter than a denial or a pancake;
duller than a stage when the actors have gone. I am weary of the world
and the world is weary of me. I can’t distinguish veal from mutton. I
have not volition enough to dot my i’s; my brains are gone out, and
did not say when they would come back; I acknowledge life only by an
occasional cough. Yet do I try everything I can to cure this obstinate
cold, but they only seem to make me worse, instead of better.”

      *       *       *       *       *

THE mahogany tree, which grows in the tropical parts of America, is
said to be 200 years in attaining its growth. Its trunk sometimes
measures four feet in diameter, and the timber of a single tree is
sometimes worth 4 or 5000 dollars, when brought to market.

      *       *       *       *       *

THE following verse in the book of Ezra contains all the letters of
the alphabet but one: “And I, even I, Artaxerxes, do make a decree to
all the treasurers which are beyond the river, that whatsoever Ezra
the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of Heaven shall require
of you, it be done speedily.”

      *       *       *       *       *

AN Irish post-boy, having driven a gentleman a great many miles,
during torrents of rain, the gentleman said to Patrick, “Are you not
very wet, my lad?” “Arrah, I don’t care about being very _wet_, but,
please your honor, I’m very _dry_!”

      *       *       *       *       *

THE almond tree resembles the peach both in leaves and blossoms; it
grows spontaneously only in warm countries, as Spain and Barbary. It
flowers early in the spring, and produces fruit in August. Almonds are
of two sorts, sweet and bitter. The fruit of both is contained in a
hard shell, that is enclosed in a tough sort of cotton skin.

      *       *       *       *       *

A gentleman nearly a century old, on hearing that a neighbor of his
had died at 85 years of age, remarked that all his family were
_short-lived_!

      *       *       *       *       *

IN Kentucky, a traveller on the other side of the table at a hotel,
will address you with, “I say, stranger, give us a leetle sprinkle of
that bread, if you please.”

      *       *       *       *       *

A MAN seeing an oyster seller pass by, called out, “Hallo! give me a
pound of oysters.” “We sell oysters by measure, not by weight,”
replied the other. “Well, then give me a yard of them!”

      *       *       *       *       *

A lady passing through New Hampshire observed the following notice on
a board: “Horses taken in to grass; long tails three shillings and
sixpence; short tails two shillings.” She asked the owner of the land
the difference of the price. He answered, “Why, you see, marm, the
long tails can brush away the flies, but the short ones are so
tormented by them that they can hardly eat at all.”

      *       *       *       *       *

THOMAS WILSON, who was Bishop of the Isle of Man about a century
since, was a particularly benevolent man. To supply the poor with
clothing, he kept in constant employment at his own house several
tailors and shoemakers. On one occasion, in giving orders to one of
his tailors to make him a cloak, he directed that it should be very
plain, having simply a button and loop to keep it together. “But, my
lord,” said the tailor, “what would become of the poor button-makers,
if every one thought in that way? they would be starved outright.” “Do
you say so, John?” replied the bishop; “why then button it all over,
John.”

      *       *       *       *       *

TEMPERANCE.--Temperance puts wood on the fire, flour in the barrel,
meat in the tub, vigor in the body, intelligence in the brain, and
_spirit_ in the whole composition of man.

      *       *       *       *       *

THE following anecdote was told by Lord Mansfield, a celebrated
English judge. He had turned away his coachman for certain small
thefts, and the man begged his lordship to give him a character that
he might obtain another place.

“What kind of a character can I give you?” said his lordship.

“Oh, my lord, any character your lordship pleases to give me, I shall
most thankfully receive.”

His lordship accordingly sat down and wrote as follows:

“The bearer, John ----, has served me three years in the capacity of
coachman. He is an able driver and a sober man. I discharged him
because he cheated me. Mansfield.”

John thanked his lordship and went off. A few mornings afterwards,
when his lordship was stepping into his coach, a man in a handsome
livery made him a low bow. To his surprise, he recognised his late
coachman.

“Why, John,” said his lordship, “you seem to have got an excellent
place; how could you manage this with the character I gave you?”

“Oh! my lord,” said John, “it was an exceedingly good character; my
new master, on reading it, said he observed your lordship recommended
me for a good driver and a sober man.” “These,” said he, “are just the
qualities I want in a coachman. I observe his lordship adds that he
discharged you for cheating him. Hark you, sirrah, I’m a Yorkshireman;
I defy you to cheat me.”

      *       *       *       *       *

WHEN Capt. Clapperton, the African traveller, breakfasted with the
Sultan Bautsa, he was treated with a large broiled water rat, and
alligators’ eggs both fried and stewed.

      *       *       *       *       *

GOOD MEASURE.--“I don’t know how it is,” said a person who was fond of
writing poetry for the public journals, but whose productions had
always met with a rejection--“I have written a great deal, but my
pieces have never been published.”

“Perhaps,” replied his friend, “there were faults in your effusions
that you were not aware of, but which were easily detected by the
hawk-eyed editors. The measure might not have been correct.”

“There it is now,” rejoined the disappointed poet; “I can always write
the first line well enough; but I am often perplexed about the second.
Now, this is poetry, but it don’t seem to jingle to my satisfaction.

   ‘Tread lightly, stranger, o’er this hallowed dust, For if you don’t
   mend your ways--lay like me you must.’”

“Pshaw!” exclaimed the critic, “that’s bad measure.”

“Bad measure! why, man, you’re mistaken, it’s very good measure--it’s
more than enough!”

      *       *       *       *       *

“BOY,” said a gentleman to a lad in the West, “boy, is there any game
where you live?” “Yes,” said the lad, “there’s a _power_ of turkies, a
_heap_ of squirrels, and a _right smart sprinkle_ of deer.”

      *       *       *       *       *

A RETORT.--An old miser, owning a farm, found it impossible one day to
do his work without assistance and accordingly offered any man food
for performing the requisite labor. A half-starved pauper hearing of
the terms, accepted them. Before going into the fields in the morning,
the farmer invited his help to breakfast; after finishing the meal,
the old skin-flint thought it would be saving time if they should
place the dinner upon the breakfast-table. This was readily agreed to
by the unsatisfied stranger, and dinner was soon despatched. ‘Suppose
now,’ said the frugal farmer, ‘we take supper; it will save time and
trouble, you know.’ ‘Just as you like,’ said the eager eater, and at
it they went. ‘Now we will go to work,’ said the satisfied and
delighted employer. ‘Thank you,’ replied the delighted laborer, ‘I
never work after supper!’

      *       *       *       *       *

AN ILLUSTRATION.--There was once a converted Indian, who, being asked
if he believed in the Trinity, said he did. He was then asked his
reason. He said he would answer in his Indian way. ‘We go down to the
river in winter, and we see it covered with snow; we dig through the
snow and we come to ice; we chop through the ice and we come to
water;--snow is water, ice is water, and water is water,’ said he;
‘therefore the three are one.’

      *       *       *       *       *

THE SCOTTISH THISTLE.--The origin of this national badge is thus
handed down by tradition:--When the Danes invaded Scotland, it was
deemed unwar-like to attack an enemy in the pitch darkness of night,
instead of a pitched battle by day; but on one occasion the invaders
resolved to avail themselves of this stratagem; and, in order to
prevent their tramp from being heard, they marched bare-footed. They
had thus neared the Scottish force unobserved, when a Dane unluckily
stepped with his naked foot upon a superbly prickled thistle, and
instinctively uttered a cry of pain, which discovered the assailants
to the Scots, who ran to their arms, and defeated the foe with a
terrible slaughter. The thistle was immediately adopted as the
insignia of Scotland.

      *       *       *       *       *

OSCEOLA.--It is stated that the name of Osceola was given to that
famous chief by an old lady in a frontier village, who had newly
arrived in the country, and had never seen an Indian. On his approach,
she broke forth in utter astonishment--“_Oh see! oh la!_ what a funny
looking man!”




                         To Correspondents.


                    _College Hill Poughkeepsie, July 30th, 1842._
     MR. MERRY:--

     I have made out the following answers to some of your
     puzzles in the August No. of the Museum, which it will be
     gratifying to me to know are correct.
                         Yours respectfully.
                                                    WILLIAM ----.

     To the first, of 6 letters,--_Stable_.
     To the second, of 16 letters,--_Washington Irving_.
     To the third, of 13 letters,--_North Carolina_.
     To the fourth, of 15 letters,--_Marie Antoinette_.

☞ Our friend William is a good Yankee, and has, therefore, guessed
 right.


     MR. MERRY:--

     SIR,--If you think the following puzzle worthy a place in
     your excellent magazine, by inserting it you will confer a
     great favor on
                                                    A SUBSCRIBER.

                     I am a word of 16 letters.

     My 4, 5, 13, 15, 8, 13, is a city in Spain.
     My 13, 14, 12, is a river in Russia.
     My 1, 2, 16, 3, 5, 1, is a part of the body.
     My 4, 11, 1, 2, is a very troublesome insect.
     My 7, 8, 9, 9, 8, 5, 4, is a boy’s name.
     My 10, 8, 13, is what all are guilty of.
     My 6, 12, 3, 7, is something very common in cold weather.
     My whole is a person who has created some excitement of late.
 




                           MERRY’S MUSEUM.