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Title: The Jute Industry: From Seed to Finished Cloth

Author: T. Woodhouse and P. Kilgour

Release Date: May 26, 2004 [EBook #12443]

Language: English


*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE JUTE INDUSTRY ***









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THE JUTE INDUSTRY




[Advertisement 11: Pitman's Commodities and Industries Series
(Book List)]



PITMAN'S COMMON COMMODITIES AND INDUSTRIES SERIES



THE JUTE INDUSTRY
FROM SEED TO FINISHED CLOTH

BY T. WOODHOUSE

  HEAD OF THE WEAVING AND DESIGNING DEPARTMENT, DUNDEE
  TECHNICAL COLLEGE AND SCHOOL OF ART

  FORMERLY MANAGER MESSRS. WALTON & CO., LINEN MANUFACTURERS,
  BLEACHERS AND FINISHERS, KNARESBOROUGH.
  AUTHOR   OF "THE FINISHING OF JUTE AND LINEN FABRICS,"
  "HEALDS AND   REEDS FOR WEAVING: SETTS AND PORTERS,"
  JOINT AUTHOR OF
    "JUTE AND LINEN WEAVING MECHANISM,"
    "TEXTILE DESIGN: PURE AND APPLIED,"
    "JUTE AND JUTE SPINNING,"
    "CORDAGE AND CORDAGE HEMP AND FIBRES,"
    "TEXTILE MATHEMATICS,"
    "TEXTILE DRAWING," ETC.,

AND

P. KILGOUR

  HEAD OF THE SPINNING DEPARTMENT,
    DUNDEE TECHNICAL   COLLEGE AND SCHOOL OF ART
  FORMERLY MANAGER BELFAST ROPE WORKS.
  JOINT AUTHOR OF
    "JUTE AND JUTE SPINNING,"
    "CORDAGE AND CORDAGE HEMP AND FIBRES," ETC.



1921



[Advertisement 12: George Hattersley & Sons, LTD.,]




PREFACE

  The sub-title of this little volume indicates that practically
  all the processes involved in the cultivation of jute plants,
  the extraction of the fibre, and the transformation of the fibre
  into useful commodities, have been considered. In addition, every
  important branch of this wide industry is liberally illustrated,
  and the   description, although not severely technical, is
  sufficiently so to enable students, or those with no previous
  knowledge of the subject, to follow the operations intelligently,
  and to become more or less acquainted with the general routine
  of jute manufacture. As a matter of fact, the work forms a medium
  of study for textile students, and a suitable introduction to the
  more detailed literature by the authors on these textile subjects.

              T. WOODHOUSE.
              P. KILGOUR.

     March, 1921.


[Advertisement 13: J. M. Adam & Co.]

CONTENTS

  CHAP.
        PREFACE
     I. INTRODUCTORY
    II. CULTIVATION
   III. RETTING
    IV. ASSORTING AND BALING JUTE FIBRE.
     V. MILL OPERATIONS
    VI. BATCHING
   VII. CARDING
  VIII. DRAWING AND DRAWING FRAMES
    IX. THE ROVING FRAME
     X. SPINNING
    XI. TWISTING AND REELING.
   XII. WINDING: ROLLS AND COPS
  XIII. WARPING, BEAMING AND DRESSING.
   XIV. TYING-ON, DRAWING-IN AND WEAVING
    XV. FINISHING
        INDEX


[Advertisement 14: James F. Low & Co., LTD.]


ILLUSTRATIONS

  FIG.
   1. NATIVES PLOUGHING THE GROUND
   2. BREAKING UP THE SOIL OR "LADDERING"
   3. PHOTOMICROGRAPHS OF CROSS-SECTIONS OF A JUTE PLANT
   4. NATIVES CARRYING SMALL BALES OF JUTE FIBRE
        FROM BOAT TO PRESS-HOUSE
   5. NATIVES BAILING JUTE FIBRE IN A
        WATSON-FAWCETT CYCLONE PRESS
   6. VESSEL LADEN WITH JUTE AT QUAY-SIDE
        ADJOINING JUTE SEEDS IN DUNDEE HARBOUR
   7. HARBOUR PORTERS REMOVING BALES OF JUTE
        FROM VESSEL SHOWN IN FIG. 6
   8. BALE OPENER (MESSRS. URQUHART, LINDSAY & CO., LTD.)
   9. BALE OPENER (MESSRS. CHARLES PARKER, SONS & CO., LTD)
  10. HAND-BATCHING DEPARTMENT WITH UNPREPARED
        AND PREPARED FIBRE
  11. SOFTENING MACHINE WITHOUT BATCHING APPARATUS
  12. BATCHING APPARATUS
  13. SOFTENING MACHINE WITH BATCHING APPARATUS
  14. MODERN BREAKER CARD
  15. FINISHER CARD WITH DRAWING HEAD
  16. WASTE TEAZER
  17. PUSH-BAR DRAWING FRAME
  18. ROVING FRAME
  19. FAIRBAIRN'S ROVING FRAME IN WORK
  20. AN INDIAN SPINNING FLAT
  21. A LINE OF SPINNING FRAMES
  22. BOBBIN WINDING MACHINE (FROM HANKS)
  23. ROLL WINDER FOR LARGE ROLLS
  24. ROLL WINDING MACHINE (FROM HANKS)
  25. COP WINDING MACHINE (MESSRS. DOUGLAS FRASER & SONS, LTD.)
  26. COP WINDING MACHINE (MESSRS URQUHART, LINDSAY & CO., LTD.)
  27. A ROW OF MODERN WARPING MILLS.
  28. POWER CHAIN OR WARP LINKING MACHINE
  29. WINDING-ON OR DRY BEAMING MACHINE
  30. A MODERN YARN--DRESSING MACHINE WITH SIX STEAM-HEATED CYLINDERS
  31. DRESSING MACHINE FOR PREPARING TWO WARPS SIMULTANEOUSLY
  32, SIX DISTINCT KINDS OF TYPICAL JUTE FABRICS
  33. POINT-PAPER DESIGNS SHOWING WEAVES FOR VARIOUS CLOTHS.
  34. DIAGRAMMATIC VIEWS OF THE STRUCTURE OF PLAIN CLOTH
  35. WEAVING SHED WITH BELT-DRIVEN LOOMS.
  36. LOOMS DRIVEN WITH INDIVIDUAL MOTORS
  37. BOBBY LOOM
  38. BRUSSELS AND WILTON CARPET LOOM
  39. THE OLD WAY
  40. THE NEW WAY
  41. CROPPING MACHINE AT WORK
  42. DOUBLE CROPPING MACHINE
  43. DAMPING MACHINE
  44. CALENDER
  45. HYDRAULIC MANGLE
  46. FOLDING, LAPPING OR PLEATING MACHINE
  47. CRISPING, CREASING OR RIGGING MACHINE
  48, SEMI-MECHANICAL BAG OR SACK CUTTING MACHINE
  49. OVERHEAD (LAING) SACK SEWING MACHINE.
  50. SACK PRINTING MACHINE.




THE JUTE INDUSTRY

FROM SEED TO FINISHED CLOTH




CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTORY

The five main fibres used for ordinary textile purposes are cotton,
flax, jute, silk and wool; in this group jute has been considered in
general as being of the least value, not only in regard to price,
but also in regard to utility. It is only under phenomenal
conditions which arise from a great upheaval such as that which took
place during the world's great war from 1914 onwards that, from a
commercial point of view, the extreme importance of the jute fibre
and its products are fully realized. Millions of sand bags were made
from the year 1914 to the year 1918 solely for military purposes,
while huge quantities of jute cloth were utilized as the covering
material for food stuffs of various kinds, thus liberating the other
textile fibres and cloth for equally important purposes. It is on
record that in one short period of fourteen days, 150,000,000
sand-bags were collected, packed and despatched from Dundee to be
used as protective elements in various ways and seats of conflict.

A glance into the records of the textile industries will reveal the
fact that the jute fibre was practically unknown in these islands a
hundred years ago. Unsuccessful attempts were certainly made to
import the fibre into Great Britain in the latter part of the 18th
century, and it has been used in India for centuries in the making
of cord, twine and coarse fabrics, because the fibre is indigenous
to that country. And since all the manufacturing methods there, for
a considerable time were manual ones, the industry--if such it could
be called--moved along slowly, providing employment only for the
needs of a small section of the community on the Eastern shores.

The first small imports of jute fibre were due to the instigation of
Dr. Roxburgh and the East India Company, but it was only after
repeated requests that any attempt was made to utilize the samples
of jute for practical experiments The fibre was so unlike any of the
existing staples that those interested in textiles were not anxious
to experiment with it, but ultimately they were persuaded to do so;
these persistent requests for trials, and the interest which was
finally aroused, formed the nucleus of the existing important jute
industry.

Apart from the above-mentioned efforts, the introduction of the jute
fibre into Great Britain was delayed until 1822, when the first
small consignment reached Dundee--now the Western home of the jute
industry. This quantity was imported into this country with the
special object of having it treated by mechanical means, much in the
same way as flax fibre was being treated. At this period Dundee was
a comparatively important textile centre in regard to the spinning
and weaving of flax and hemp; it was, in consequence, only natural
that the longer, but otherwise apparently similar and coarser, jute
fibre should be submitted to the machinery in vogue for the
preparation and spinning of flax and hemp. When we say similar, we
mean in general appearance; it is now well-known that there is a
considerable difference between jute fibre and those of hemp and flax,
and hence the modifications in preparation which had ultimately to
be introduced to enable the jute fibre to be successfully treated.
These modifications shall be discussed at a later stage.

It might be stated that while only 368 cwt. of jute fibre was
reported as being shipped from Calcutta to this country in 1828, the
imports gradually increased as time passed on. The yarns which were
made from the fibre were heavier or thicker than those in demand for
the usual types of cloth, and it was desirable that other types of
cloth should be introduced so that these yarns could be utilized.
About the year 1838, representatives of the Dutch Government placed
comparatively large orders with the manufacturers for jute bags to
be used for carrying the crop of coffee beans from their West Indian
possessions. The subsequent rapid growth of the industry, and the
demand for newer types of cloth, are perhaps due more to the above
fortunate experiment than to any other circumstance.

By the year or season 1850-51, the British imports of jute fibre had
increased to over 28,000 tons, and they reached 46,000 tons in the
season 1860-61. Attention meanwhile had been directed to the
possibility of manufacturing jute goods by machinery in India--the
seat of the cultivation and growth of the fibre. At least such a
probability was anticipated, for in the year 1858 a small
consignment of machinery was despatched to Calcutta, and an attempt
made to produce the gunny bags which were typical of the Indian
native industry.

The great difference between the more or less unorganized hand
labour and the essential organization of modern mills and factories
soon became apparent, for in the first place it was difficult to
induce the natives to remain inside the works during the period of
training, and equally difficult to keep the trained operatives
constantly employed. Monetary affairs induced them to leave the
mills and factories for their more usual mode of living in the
country.

In the face of these difficulties, however, the industry grew in
India as well as in Dundee. For several years before the war, the
quantity of raw jute fibre brought to Dundee and other British ports
amounted to 200,000 tons. During the same period preceding the war,
nearly 1,000,000 tons were exported to various countries, while the
Indian annual consumption--due jointly to the home industry and the
mills in the vicinity of Calcutta--reached the same huge total of
one million tons.

The growth of the jute industry in several parts of the world, and
consequently its gradually increasing importance in regard to the
production of yarns and cloth for various purposes, enables it to be
ranked as one of the important industries in the textile group, and
one which may perhaps attain a much more important position in the
near future amongst our national manufacturing processes. As a
matter of fact, at the present time, huge extensions are
contemplated and actually taking place in India.




CHAPTER II.  CULTIVATION

_Botanical and Physical Features of the Plant_. Jute fibre is
obtained from two varieties of plants which appear to differ only in
the shape of the fruit or seed vessel. Thus, the fruit of the
variety _Corchorus Capsularis_ is enclosed in a capsule of
approximately circular section, whereas the fruit of the variety
_Corchorus Olitorius_ is contained in a pod. Both belong to the
order _Tiliacea_, and are annuals cultivated mostly in Bengal and
Assam.

Other varieties are recorded, e.g. the _Corchorus Japonicus_ of Japan,
and the _Corchorus Mompoxensis_ used in Panama for making a kind of
tea, while one variety of jute plant is referred to in the book of
job as the Jew's Mallow; this variety _C. Olitorius_, has been used
in the East from time immemorial as a pot herb.

The two main varieties _C. Capsularis_ and _C. Olilorius_ are
cultivated in Bengal for the production of fibre, while for seed
purposes, large tracts of land are cultivated in Assam, and the
seeds exported for use principally in Mymensingh and Dacca.

The above two varieties of the jute plant vary in height from 5 to
15 feet, and, in a normal season, reach maturity in about four
months from the time of sowing. In some districts the stems of jute
plants are sometimes rather dark in colour, but, in general, they are
green or pink, and straight with a tendency to branch. The leaves
are alternate on the stems, 4 to 5 inches in length, and about 1-1/2
inches in breadth with serrated edges. Pale yellow flowers spring
from the axil (axilla) of the leaves, and there is an abundance of
small seeds in the fruit which, as mentioned, is characteristic of
the variety.

While many attempts have been made to cultivate jute plants in
various parts of the world, the results seem to indicate that the
necessary conditions for the successful cultivation of them are
completely fulfilled only in the Bengal area, and the geographical
position of this province is mainly responsible for these conditions.
On referring to a map of India, it will be seen that Bengal is
directly north of the bay of that name, and is bounded on the north
by the great Himalayan mountains.

During the winter period when the prevailing winds are from the north,
large areas of the mountainous regions are covered with snow, but
when the winds change and come from the south, and particularly
during the warmer weather, the moist warm air raises the general
temperature and also melts much of the snow on the mountain tracts.
The rain and melted snow swell the two great rivers on the east and
west of Bengal--the Patna and the Brahmaputra--and the tremendous
volume of water carries down decayed vegetable and animal matter
which is ultimately spread on the flat areas of Bengal as alluvial
deposits, and thus provides an ideal layer of soil for the
propagation of the jute plants.

The cultivation of land for the growing of jute plants is most
extensively conducted in the centres bordering on the courses of the
rivers, and particularly in Mymensingh, Dacca, Hooghly and Pabna,
and while 90 per cent. of the fibre is produced in Bengal, Orissa
and Bihar, there is 10 per cent. produced outside these areas.

The _Corchorus Capsularis_ variety is usually cultivated in the
higher and richer soils, while the _Corchorus Olitorius_ variety is
most suited for the lower-lying alluvial soils, and to the districts
where the rainfall is irregular; indeed, the _C. Olitorius_ may be
grown in certain other districts of India which appear quite
unsuitable for the _C. Capsularis_.

The farming operations in India are rather simple when compared with
the corresponding operations in this country; there is evidently not
the same necessity for extensive working of the Indian soil as there
is for the heavier lands; another reason for the primitive Eastern
methods may be the absence of horses.

The ploughs are made of wood and faced with iron. Bullocks, in teams
of two or more, are harnessed to the plough as shown in Fig. 1 where
a field is being ploughed as a preliminary process in jute
cultivation. The bullocks draw the plough in much the same way as
horses do in this country.

The operation of ploughing breaks up the soil, while the rough clods
may be broken by hand mallets or by the use of the "hengha"--a piece
of tree boll harnessed at the ends to a pair of bullocks.

The breaking up of the land prepares it for the cleaning process
which is performed by what are termed "ladders"; these ladders are
made of a few bamboos fixed cross-wise and provided with projecting
pins to scratch or open the soil, and to collect the roots of the
previous crop; they are the equivalent of our harrows, and may be
used repeatedly during the winter and spring seasons so that a fine
tilth may be produced.

When manure is essential, it is applied in the later ploughings, but
other large areas have artificial or chemical manures added at
similar stages in the process. Farm-yard manure is preferred, but
castor-cake and the water hyacinth--a weed--constitute good
substitutes.


After the soil has been satisfactorily prepared, the seed is sown by
hand at the period which appears most suitable for the particular
district. The usual sowing time is from February to the end of May,
and even in June in some districts where late crops can be obtained.

[Illustration: FIG. 1 NATIVES PLOUGHING THE GROUND]

There are early and late varieties of the plants, and a carefully
judged distribution of the varieties of seed over the districts for
the growing period will not only yield a succession of crops for
easy harvesting, but will also help the farmer in the selection of
seeds for other areas where atmospheric conditions differ.


It is a good practice, where possible, to sow the seed in two
directions at right angles to each other, and thus secure as uniform
a distribution as possible. The amount of seed used depends partly
upon the district, and in general from 10 lbs. to 30 lbs. per acre
are sown. The seed may cost about 8 annas or more per ser (about 2
lbs.).

[Illustration: FIG. 2 BREAKING UP THE SOIL, OR "LADDERING"]

Plants should be specially cultivated for the production of seed in
order to obtain the best results from these seeds for fibre plants.
Many of the ryots (farmers) use seed which has been collected from
plants grown from inferior seed, or from odd and often poor plants;
they also grow plants year after year on the same soil. The fibres
obtained, as a rule, and as a result of this method of obtaining
seeds, gradually deteriorate; much better results accrue when
succession of crops and change of seed are carefully attended to.

If the weather conditions are favourable, the seeds will germinate in
8 to 10 days, after which the plants grow rapidly. The heat and
showers of rain combined soon form a crust on the soil which should
be broken; this is done by means of another ladder provided with
long pins, and Fig. 2 illustrates the operation in process. This
second laddering process opens up the soil and allows the moisture
and heat to enter. The young plants are now thinned, and the ground
weeded periodically, until the plants reach a sufficient height or
strength to prevent the words from spreading.

The space between the growing plants will vary according to the
region; if there is a tendency to slow growth, there is an abundance
of plants; whereas, the thinning is most severe where the plants
show prospects of growing thick and tall.

In a normal season the plants will reach maturity in about 3 1/2 to
4 months from the time of sowing. Although different opinions are
held as to the best time for harvesting, that when the fruits are
setting appears to be most in favour; plants harvested at this stage
usually yield a large quantity of good fibre which can be perfectly
cleaned, and which is of good spinning quality.

The plants are cut down by hand and with home-made knives; in general,
these knives are of crude manufacture, but they appear to be quite
suitable for the purpose. A field of jute plants ready for cutting
will certainly form a delightful picture, but the prospect of the
operation of cutting indicates a formidable piece of work since it
requires about 10 to 14 tons of the green crop to produce about 10 to
15 cwt. of clean dry fibre.




CHAPTER III.  RETTING

The method of separating the bast layer (in which the fibres are
embedded) from the stem of the plant requires a large supply of water,
since the plants must be completely submerged in the water for a
period varying from 8 to 30 days; such time is dependent upon the
period of the year and upon the district in which the operation is
performed.

The above operation of detaching the bast layer from the stem is
technically known as "retting," and a good type of retting or
steeping place is an off-set of a run, branch, or stream where the
water moves slowly, or even remains at rest, during the time the
plants are under treatment.

The disintegration of the structural part of the plant is due to a
bacterial action, and gas is given off during the operation. The
farmer, or ryot, and his men know what progress the action is making
by the presence of the air bells which rise to the surface; when the
formation of air bells ceases, the men examine the plants daily to
see that the operation does not go too far, otherwise the fibrous
layer would be injured, and the resulting fibre weak. The stems are
tested in these examinations to see if the fibrous layer, or bast
layer, will strip off clean from the wood or stem. When the ryot
considers that the layers are separated from the core sufficiently
easy, the work of steeping ceases, and the process of stripping is
commenced immediately. This latter process is conducted in various
ways depending upon the practice in vogue in the district.


In one area the men work amongst the water breaking up the woody
structure of the retted plants by means of mallets and cross rails
fixed to uprights in the water; others break the stems by hand;
while in other cases the stems are handed out of the water to women
who strip off the fibrous layer and preserve intact the central core
or straw to be used ultimately for thatching. The strips of fibre
are all cleaned and rubbed in the water to remove all the vegetable
impurities, and finally the fibre is dried, usually by hanging it
over poles and protecting it from the direct rays of the sun.

If the water supply is deficient in the vicinity where the plants
are grown, it may be advantageous to convey the fibrous layers to
some other place provided with a better supply of water for the
final washing and drying; imperfect retting and cleaning are apt to
create defects in the fibre, and to cause considerable trouble or
difficulties in subsequent branches of the industry.

Fig. 3 illustrates photomicrographs of cross sections of a jute plant.
The lower illustration represents approximately one quarter of a
complete cross section. The central part of the stem or pith is
lettered A; the next wide ring B is the woody matter; the outer
covering or cuticle is marked C; while the actual fibrous layer
appears between the parts B and C, and some of the fibres are
indicated by D. The arrows show the corresponding parts in the three
distinct views. The middle illustration shows an enlarged view of a
small part of the lowest view, while the upper illustration is a
further enlarged view of a small section of the middle view. It will
be seen that each group of fibres is surrounded by vegetable matter.

[Illustration: FIG. 3 PHOTOMICROGRAPHS OF CROSS SECTIONS OF A JUTE
PLANT]

Another method of stripping the fibrous layer off the stems or stalks,
and one which is practised in certain districts with the object of
preserving the straws, consists in breaking off a small portion, say
one foot, at the top end of the stem; the operative then grasps the
tops by the hand and shakes the plants to and fro in the water, thus
loosening the parts, after which the straws float out, leaving the
fibrous layer free. The straws are collected for future use, while the
fibre is cleaned and washed in the usual way.




CHAPTER IV.  ASSORTING AND BALING JUTE FIBRE

The Indian raw jute trade is conducted under various conditions. The
method of marketing may be of such a nature that the farmers in some
districts may have to make a rough assortment of the fibre into a
number of qualities or grades, and these grades are well known in
the particular areas; on the other hand, the farmers may prefer to
sell the total yield of fibre at an overhead price per maund. A
maund is approximately equal to 8 lbs., and this quantity forms a
comparatively small bundle. In other cases, the fibre is made up into
what is known as a "drum"; this is a hand-packed bale of from 1 1/2
to 3 or 3 1/2 maunds; it is a very convenient size for transit in
India.

Practically one half of the total jute crop, of 9 to 10 million
bales of 400 lbs. each, is used in India, and the remaining half is
baled for export to the various parts of the world; a little over
one million bales are exported annually to Great Britain, the bulk
of this fibre comes to Dundee.

It is practically impossible for foreign purchasers to see the
material at the assorting stations, but the standardized method of
assorting and grading enables a purchaser to form a very good idea
of the quality of the fibre, and its suitability or otherwise for
special types of yarn and cloth. Thus, a form of selecting and
grading has been established on a basis that provides a very large
amount of jute each year of a quality which is known as "a first mark."
A mark, in general, in reference to fibre, is simply some symbol,
name, letter, monogram or the like, or a combination of two or
more, oft-times with reference to some colour, to distinguish the
origin of the fibre, the baler, or the merchant.

In normal years there is also a large quantity of fibre of a better
quality than what is known as "first mark," and this better quality
is termed "fine jute"; while there is yet a further lot, the quality
of which is below these good ones. Since there are hundreds of
different marks which are of value only to those connected directly
with the trade, it is unnecessary to dwell on the subject. The
following list, however, shows quotations of various kinds, and is
taken from the Market Report of the Dundee Advertiser of March, 1920.
The price of jute, like almost everything else, was at this date
very high, so in order to make comparisons with the 1920 and normal
prices, we introduce the prices for the corresponding grade, first
marks, for the same month in the years 1915 onwards.


     JUTE PRICES, IN MARCH
          First Marks

   Year.       Price per ton.

           £. s. d.      £. s. d.
  1915    27         to 35 15
  1916    44
  1917    42 10
  1918    51
  1919    49
  1920    70        (spot)


It is necessary to state that the assorting and balings are
generally so uniform that the trade can be conducted quite
satisfactorily with the aid of the usual safeguards under contract,
and guarantees regarding the properties of the fibre.

After these assorting operations are completed, the jute fibre is
made up into bundles or "bojahs" of 200 lbs. each, and two of these
200 lb. bundles are subsequently made up into a standard bale, the
weight of which is 400 lbs. This weight includes a permitted
quantity of binding rope, up to 6 lbs. in weight, while the
dimensions in the baling press of the 400 lb. bale are 4'1" X 1'6" X 1'
4".

[Illustration: FIG. 4 NATIVES CARRYING SMALL BALES OF JUTE FIBRE
FROM BOAT TO PRESS HOUSE]

Large quantities of the smaller and loosely-packed bales are
conveyed from the various places by boats to the baling houses or
press houses as they are termed. These are very large establishments,
and huge staffs of operatives are necessary to deal rapidly and
efficiently with the large number of bales. In Fig. 4 scores of
natives, superintended by a European, are seen carrying the smaller
bales on their heads from the river boat to the press house. It is,
of course, unnecessary to make the solid 400 lb. bales for Indian
consumption; this practice is usually observed only for jute which
is to be exported, and all such bales are weighed and measured at
the baling station by a Chamber of Commerce expert.

Most of the baling presses used in the press houses in the Calcutta
district are made in Liverpool, and are provided with the most
efficient type of pumps and mechanical parts. Fig. 5 illustrates one
of these huge presses with a number of natives in close proximity.
Two or three distinct operations are conducted simultaneously by
different groups of operatives, and ingenious mechanism is essential
for the successful prosecution of the work. Two such presses as that
illustrated in Fig. 5 are capable, under efficient administration, of
turning out 130 bales of 400 lbs. each in one hour. The fibre is
compressed into comparatively small bulk by hydraulic pressure equal
to 6,000 lbs. per square inch, and no packed bale must exceed in
cubical capacity 11 cubic feet after it leaves the press; it is
usual for freight purposes to reckon 5 bales or 55 cubic feet per ton.
(Now changed to 50 cubic feet.)

The jute bales are loaded either at the wharf or in the river from
barges into large steamers, many of which carry from 30,000 to
46,000 bales in one cargo to the European ports. One vessel brought
70,000 bales.

As already mentioned, jute is sold under guarantees as to quality,
and all disputes must be settled by arbitration.  Although this is
the usual method of sale, it is not uncommon for quantities of jute
to be shipped unsold, and such quantities may be disposed of on the
"Spot." It is a common practice to sell a number of bales to sample,
such number depending generally upon the extent of the quantity, or
"parcel," as it is often called. The contract forms are very complete,
and enable the business to be conducted to the satisfaction of all
concerned in the trade.

[ILLUSTRATION: FIG. 5 NATIVES BAILING JUTE FIBRE IN A WATSON-FAWCETT
CYCLONE PRESS]

It will be understood that, in the yearly production of such a large
quantity of jute fibre from various districts, and obtained from
plants which have been grown under variable climatic and
agricultural conditions, in some cases the fibre will be of the
finest type procurable, while in other cases it will be of a very
indifferent type and unsuitable for use in the production of the
ordinary classes of yarns and fabrics. On the other hand, it should
be stated that there is such a wide range of goods manufactured, and
additional varieties occasionally introduced, that it appears
possible to utilize all the kinds of fibre in any year; indeed, it
seems as if the available types of fibre each season create demands
for a corresponding type of manufactured product.

The crops produced will, obviously, vary in amount and value annually,
but a few figures will help the reader to estimate in some degree
the extent of the industry and its development in various parts of
the world.


                EXPORTS OF JUTE FROM INDIA

            Year.     Tons.       Bales.

            1828        18      300 lbs/bale
            1832       182      300 lbs/bale
            1833       300      300 lbs/bale
            1834       828      300 lbs/bale
            1835     1,222      300 lbs/bale
            1836        16      300 lbs/bale
            1837       171      300 lbs/bale


[Illustration: FIG. 6 VESSEL LADEN WITH JUTE AT QUAY-SIDE ADJOINING
JUTE SHEDS IN DUNDEE HARBOUR]

              JUTE PRODUCTION IN INDIA

             Season.      Tons.    Bales (400 lbs.).

            1850-51.     28,247       158,183
            1860-61.     46,182       258,619
            1862-63.    108,776       609,146
            1863-64.    125,903       707,056
            1872-73.    406,335     2,275,476
            1880-81.    343,596     1,924,137
            1886-87.    413,664     2,316,518
            1892-93.    586,258     3,083,023
            1896-97.    588,141     3,293,591
            1902-03.    580,967     3,253,414
            1906-07.    829,273     4,643,929
            1907-08.  1,761,982     9,867,100
            1908-09.  1,135,856     6,360,800
            1909-10.  1,302,782     7,295,580
            1910-11   1,434,286     8,032,000
            1911-12.  1,488,339     8,334,700
            1912-13.  1,718,180     9,621,829
            1913-14.  1,580,674     8,851,775
            1914-15.  1,898,483    10,631,505
            1915-16.  1,344,417     7,528,733
            1916-17.  1,493,976     8,366,266
            1917-18.  1,607,922     9,004,364
            1918-19.  1,278,425     7,159,180
            1919-20.  1,542,178     8,636,200


A large vessel containing bales of jute is berthed on the quay-side
adjoining the jute sheds in Fig. 6. The bales are raised quickly
from the hold by means of a hydraulic-engine, scarcely visible in Fig.
6 since it is at the far end of the vessel, but seen clearly in Fig.
7. When the bales are raised sufficiently high, they are guided to
the comparatively steep part of a chute from which they descend to
the more horizontal part as exemplified in Fig. 7. They are then
removed by means of hand-carts as shown, taken into the shed, and
piled or stored in some suitable arrangement with or without the aid
of a crane. Motor and other lorries are then used to convey the bales
to the various mills where the first actual process in what is termed
spinning takes place. It will be understood that the bales are stored
in the spinner's own stores after having been delivered as stated.

[Illustration: FIG. 7. HARBOUR PORTERS REMOVING BALES OF JUTE FROM
THE VESSEL SHOWN IN FIG. 6]




CHAPTER V.  MILL OPERATIONS

_Bale Opening_. Each spinner, as already indicated, stores his
bales of jute of various "marks," i.e. qualities, in a convenient
manner, and in a store or warehouse from which any required number
of bales of each mark can be quickly removed to the preparing
department of the mill.

In the woollen industry, the term "blending" is used to indicate the
mixing of different varieties of material (as well as different
kinds of fibres) for the purpose of obtaining a mixture suitable for
the preparing and spinning of a definite quality and colour of
material. In much the same way, the term "batching" is used in the
jute industry, although it will be seen shortly that a more
extensive use is made of the word. A "batch," in its simplest
definition, therefore indicates a number of bales which is suitable
for subsequent handling in the Batching Department. This number may
include 5, 6, 7 or more bales of jute according to the amount of
accommodation in the preparing department.

All the above bales of a batch may be composed of the same standard
quality of jute, although the marks may be different. It must be
remembered that although the marks have a distinct reference to
quality and colour, they actually represent some particular firm or
firms of balers or merchants. At other times, the batch of 5 to 10
bales may be composed of different qualities of jute, the number of
each kind depending partly upon the finished price of the yarn,
partly upon the colour, and partly upon the spinning properties of
the combination.

It will be understood that the purpose for which the finished yarn
is to be used will determine largely the choice of the bales for any
particular batch. For example, to refer to a simple differentiation,
the yarn which is to be used for the warp threads in the weaving of
cloth must, in nearly every case, have properties which differ in
some respects from the yarn which is to be used as weft for the same
cloth.

On the whole, it will be found advantageous, when the same grade of
jute is required, to select a batch from different balers' marks so
that throughout the various seasons an average quality may be
produced. The same class of yarn is expected at all times of the year,
but it is well known that the properties of any one mark may vary
from time to time owing to the slight variations in the manipulation
of the fibre at the farms, and to the variations of the weather
during the time of growth, and during the season generally.

A list of the bales for the batch is sent to the batching department,
this list being known as a "batch-ticket." The bales are, of course,
defined by their marks, and those mentioned on the batch-ticket must
be rigidly adhered to for one particular class of yarn; if there is
any chance of one kind running short, the condition should be
notified in time so that a suitable mark may be selected to take its
place without effecting any great change in the character or quality
of the yarn.

When the number and kind of bales have been selected and removed
from the groups or parcels in the store or warehouse, they are
conveyed to the batching department, and placed in a suitable
position near the first machine in the series. It need hardly be
mentioned that since the fibre, during the operation of baling, is
subjected to such a high hydraulic pressure, the bale presents a
very solid and hard appearance, see Fig. 7, for the various
so-called "heads" of fibre have been squeezed together and forced
into a very small bulk. In such a state, the heads are quite
unfitted for the actual batching operation; they require to be opened
out somewhat so that the fibres will be more or less separated from
each other. This operation is termed "opening" and the process is
conducted in what is known as a "bale opener," one type of which is
illustrated in Fig. 8, and made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co.,
Ltd., Dundee.

The various bales of the batch are arranged in a suitable manner
near the feed side of the machine, on the left in the view, so that
they can be handled to the best advantage. The bands or ropes, see
Fig. 7, are removed from the bale in order that the heads or large
pieces of jute can be separated. If any irregularity in the
selection of the heads from the different bales of the batch takes
place in this first selection of the heads of jute, the faulty
handling may affect subsequent operations in such a way that no
chance of correcting the defect can occur; it should be noted at
this stage that if there are slight variations of any kind in the
fibres, it is advisable to make special efforts to obtain a good
average mixture; as a matter of fact, it is wise to insist upon a
judicious selection in every case. The usual variations are--the
colour of the fibre, its strength, and the presence of certain
impurities such as stick, root, bark or specks; if the pieces of jute,
which are affected adversely by any of the above, are carefully
mixed with the otherwise perfect fibre, most of the faults may
disappear as the fibre proceeds on its way through the different
machines.

[Illustration: FIG. 8 BALE OPENER _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart,
Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.]

The layers of heads are often beaten with a heavy sledge hammer in
hand batching, but for machine batching a bale opener is used, and
this operation constitutes the preliminary opening. As already
indicated, the heads of jute are fed into the machine from the left
in Fig. 8, each head being laid on a travelling feed cloth which
carries the heads of jute successively between a pair of feed
rollers from which they are delivered to two pairs of very
deeply-fluted crushing rollers or breakers. The last pair of
deep-fluted rollers is seen clearly on the right in the figure.
These two pairs of heavy rollers crush and bend the compressed heads
of jute and deliver them in a much softer condition to the delivery
sheet on the right. The delivery sheet is an endless cloth which has
a continuous motion, and thus the softened heads are carried to the
extreme right, at which position they are taken from the sheet by
the operatives. The upper rollers in the machine may rise in their
bearings against the downward pressure of the volute springs on the
bearings; this provision is essential because of the thick and thin
places of the heads.

A different type of bale opener, made by Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons, &
Co., Dundee, and designed from the Butchart patent is illustrated in
Fig. 9. It differs mainly from the machine illustrated in Fig. 8 in
the shape of the crushing or opening rollers.

It will be seen on referring to the illustration that there are
three crushing rollers, one large central roller on the top and
situated between two lower but smaller rollers. Each roller has a
series of knobs projecting from a number of parallel rings. The
knobs are so arranged that they force themselves into the hard
layers of jute, and, in addition to this action, the heads of jute
have to bend partially round the larger roller as they are passing
between the rollers. This double action naturally aids in opening up
the material, and the machine, which is both novel and effective,
gives excellent results in practice. The degree of pressure provided
for the top roller may be varied to suit different conditions of heads
of jute by the number of weights which are shown clearly in the
highest part of the machine in the form of two sets of heavy discs.

[Illustration: FIG. 9 BALE OPENER _By permission of Messrs. Charles
Parker, Sons, & Co_.]

The driving side, the feed cloth, and the delivery cloth in this
machine are placed similarly to the corresponding parts of the
machine illustrated in Fig. 8, a machine which also gives good
results in practice.

In both cases the large heads are delivered in such a condition that
the operatives can split them up into pieces of a suitable size
quite freely.

The men who bring in the bales from the store take up a position
near the end of the delivery cloth; they remove the heads of jute as
the latter approach the end of the table, and then pass them to the
batchers, who split them. The most suitable size of pieces are 2-1/2
to 3 lbs. for a piece of 7 feet to 8 feet in length, but the size of
the pieces is regulated somewhat by the system of feeding which is
to be adopted at the breaker-card, as well as by the manager's
opinion of what will give the best overall result.

After the heads of jute have been split up into suitable smaller
pieces, they are placed in any convenient position for the batcher
or "striker-up" to deal with. If the reader could watch the above
operation of separating the heads of jute into suitable sizes, it
would perhaps be much easier to understand the process of
unravelling an apparently matted and crossed mass of fibre. As the
loosened head emerges from the bale-opener, Figs. 8 or 9, it is
placed over the operative's arm with the ends of the head hanging,
and by a sort of intuition acquired by great experience, she or he
grips the correct amount of fibre between the fingers, and by a
dexterous movement, and a simultaneous shake of the whole piece, the
handful just comes clear of the bulk and in much less time than it
takes to describe the operation.

As the pieces are thus detached from the bulk, they are laid on
stools or tables, or in stalls or carts, according to the method by
means of which the necessary amount of oil and water is to be added
for the essential process of lubrication; this lubrication enables
the fibre to work freely in the various machines.




CHAPTER VI.  BATCHING

_Softening and Softening Machines_. Two distinct courses are
followed in the preparation of the jute fibre after it leaves the
bale opener, and before it is carded by the breaker card. These
courses are designated as--

      1. Hand Batching.
      2. Machine Batching.

In the former process, which is not largely practised, the pieces of
jute are neatly doubled, while imparting a slight twist, to
facilitate subsequent handling, and laid in layers in large carts
which can be wheeled from place to place; if this method is not
convenient, the pieces are doubled similarly and deposited in large
stalls such as those illustrated in Fig. 10.

On the completion of each layer, or sometimes two layers, the
necessary measured amount of oil is evenly sprayed by hand over the
pieces from cans provided with suitable perforated outlets--usually
long tubes. After the oil has been added, water, from a similar
sprayer attached by tubing to a water tap, is added until the
attendant has applied what he or she considers is the proper quantity.
The ratio between a measured amount of oil and an unmeasured amount
of water is thus somewhat varied, and for this reason the above
method is not to be commended. A conscientious worker can, however,
with judgment, introduce satisfactory proportions which are, of
course, supplied by the person in charge. In Fig. 10, the tank on
the right is where the oil is stored, while the oil can, and the
spray-pipe and tube for water, are shown near the second post or
partition on the right.

[ILLUSTRATION: FIG. 10 HAND-BATCHING DEPARTMENT WITH UNPREPARED AND
PREPARED FIBRE]

The first stall--that next to the oil tank--in Fig. 10 is filled
with the prepared pieces, and the contents are allowed to remain
there for some time, say 24 hours, in order that the material may be
more or less uniformly lubricated or conditioned. At the end of this
time, the pieces are ready to be conveyed to and fed into the
softening machines where the fibres undergo a further process of
bending and crushing.

All softening machines for jute, or softeners as they are often
called, are similar in construction, but the number of pairs of
rollers varies according to circumstances and to the opinions of
managers. Thus, the softener illustrated in Fig. 11, which, in the
form shown, is intended to treat jute from the above-mentioned stalls,
is made with 47, 55, 63 or 71 pairs of rollers or any other number
which, minus 1, is a measure of 8. The sections are made in 8's. The
illustration shows only 31 pairs.

The first pair of rollers--that next to the feed sheet in the
foreground of Fig. 11--is provided with straight flutes as clearly
shown. All the other rollers, however, are provided with oblique
flutes, such flutes making a small angle with the horizontal. What
is often considered as a standard softening machine contains 63
pairs of fluted rollers besides the usual feed and delivery rollers.
As mentioned above, this number is varied according to circumstances.

The lubricated pieces of jute are fed on to the feed roller sheet,
and hence undergo a considerable amount of bending in different ways
before they emerge from the delivery rollers at the other end of the
machine.

[Illustration: Fig. 11 Softening machine without batching apparatus]

Machine batching is preferred by many firms because the application
of oil and water, and the proportion of each, are much more uniform
than they are by the above mentioned process of hand batching. On the
other hand, there is no time for conditioning the fibre because the
lubrication and the softening are proceeding simultaneously,
although conditioning may proceed while the fibre remains in the
cart after it has left the softener.

The mechanical apparatus as made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co.,
Ltd., Dundee, for depositing the oil and water on the pieces or
"stricks" of jute is illustrated in Fig. 12. The actual lubricating
equipment is situated on the top of the rectangular frame in the
centre of the illustration. This frame is bolted to the side frames
of the softening machine proper, say that shown in Fig. 11. Its
exact position, with respect to its distance from the feed, is a
matter of choice, but the liquid is often arranged to fall on to the
material at any point between the second and twelfth rollers.

In Fig. 12 the ends of 13 rollers of the upper set are seen clearly,
and these upper rollers are kept hard in contact with the stricks or
pieces of jute by means of the powerful springs shown immediately
above the roller bearings and partially enclosed in bell-jars.

Outside the rectangular frame in Fig. 12 are two rods, one vertical
and the other inclined. The straight or vertical rod is attached by
suitable levers and rods to the set-on handles at each end of the
machine and to the valve of the water pipe near the top of the frame,
while the upper end of the inclined or oblique rod is fulcrumed on a
rod projecting from the frame. The lower or curved end of the
oblique rod rests against the boss of one of the upper rollers.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

The water valve is opened and closed with the starting and stopping
of the machine, but the oblique rod is moved only when irregular
feeding takes place. Thus, the upper rollers rise slightly against
the pressure of the springs when thick stricks appear; hence, when a
thick place passes under the roller which is in contact with the
curved end of the oblique rod, the end moves slightly clockwise, and
thus rotates the fulcrum rod; this results in an increased quantity
of oil being liberated from the source of supply, and the mechanism
is so arranged that the oil reaches the thick part of the strick.
When the above-mentioned upper roller descends, due to a decrease in
the thickness of the strick, the oblique rod and its fulcrum is
moved slightly counter-clockwise, and less oil is liberated for the
thin part of the strick. It will be understood that all makers of
softening machines supply the automatic lubricating or batching
apparatus when desired.

A view of a softener at work appears in Fig. 13. The bevel wheels at
the end of the rollers are naturally covered as a protection against
accidents. In many machines safety appliances are fitted at the feed
end so that the machine may be automatically stopped if the
operative is in danger. The batching apparatus for this machine is
of a different kind from that illustrated in Fig. 12; moreover, it
is placed nearer the feed rollers than the twelfth pair. The feed
pipes for the oil and the water are shown coming from a high plane,
and the supply is under the influence of chain gearing as shown on
the right near the large driving belt from the drum on the shafting.

The feed roller in this machine is a spirally fluted one, and the
nature of the flutes is clearly emphasized in the view. The barrow
of jute at the far end of the machine is built up from stricks which
have passed through the machine, and these stricks are now ready for
conditioning, and will be stored in a convenient position for future
treatment.


[Illustration: Fig. 13 Softening machine with batching apparatus]

While the jute as assorted and baled for export from India is graded
in such a way that it may be used for certain classes of yarn
without any further selection or treatment, it may be possible to
utilize the material to better advantage by a judicious selection
and treatment after it has undergone the operation of batching.

What are known as cuttings are often treated by a special machine
known as a "root-opener." The jute cuttings are fed into the
machines and the fibre rubbed between fixed and rotating pins in
order to loosen the matted ends of stricks. Foreign matter drops
through the openings of a grid to the floor, and the fibre is
delivered on to a table, or, if desired, on to the feed sheet of the
softener.

The root ends of stricks are sometimes treated by a special machine
termed a root-comber with the object of loosening the comparatively
hard end of the strick. A snipping machine or a teazer may also be
used for somewhat similar purposes, and for opening out ropes and
similar close textures.

The cuttings may be partially loosened by means of blows from a
heavy iron bar; boiling water is then poured on the fibre, and then
the material is built up with room left for expansion, and allowed
to remain in this condition for a few days. A certain quantity of
this material may then be used along with other marks of jute to
form a batch suitable for the intended yarn.

A very common practice is to cut the hard root ends off by means of
a large stationary knife. At other times, the thin ends of the
stricks are also cut off by the same instrument. These two parts are
severed when it is desired to utilize only the best part of the
strick. The root ends are usually darker in colour than the remainder,
and hence the above process is one of selection with the object of
securing a yarn which will be uniform in colour and in strength.




CHAPTER VII.  CARDING

_Breaker and Finisher Cards_. After the fibre from the softening
machine has been conditioned for the desired time, it is ready for
one of the most important processes in the cycle of jute manufacture;
this process is termed carding, and is conducted in two distinct
types of machines--


        1. The breaker card.
        2. The finisher card.


The functions of the two machines are almost identical; indeed, one
might say that the work of carding should be looked upon as one
continuous operation.

The main difference between the two types of machines is in the
method of feeding, and the degree of fineness or setting of the
small tools or pins which perform the work. In both cases the action
on the stricks of jute is equivalent to a combined combing and
splitting movement, and the pins in the various rollers move
relatively to each other so that while the pins of a slowly-moving
roller allow the strick or stricks (because there are several side
by side) to pass slowly and gradually from end to end, the pins of
another but quickly-moving roller perform the splitting and the
combing of the fibre. The pins of the slowly-moving roller hold, so
to speak, the strick, while the pins of the quickly-moving roller
comb out the fibres and split adhering parts asunder so as to make a
comparatively fine division.

The conditioned stricks from the softening machine are first
arranged in some suitable receptacle and within easy reach of the
operative at the back or feed side of the breaker card. A receptacle,
very similar to that used at the breaker card, appears near the far
end of the softening machine in Fig. 13.

A modern breaker card is illustrated in Fig. 14. The feed or back of
the card is on the extreme right, the delivery or front of the card
on the extreme left, while the gear side of the card is facing the
observer. The protecting cages were removed so that the wheels would
be seen as clearly as possible.

Some of the stricks of fibre are seen distinctly on the feed side of
the figure; they are accommodated, as mentioned, in a channel-shaped
stand on the far side of the inclined feed sheet, or feed cloth,
which leads up to and conveys the stricks into the grip of the
feeding apparatus. This particular type is termed a "shell" feed
because the upper contour of the guiding feed bracket is shaped
somewhat like a shell. There is a gradually decreasing and
suitably-sized gap between the upper part of the shell and the pins
of the feed roller.

The root ends of the pins in this roller lead, and the stricks of
fibre are gripped between the pins and the shell, and simultaneously
carried into the machine where they come into contact with the
points of the pins in the rapidly-revolving large roller, termed a
cylinder. The above-mentioned combing and splitting action takes
place at this point as well as for a distance of, say, 24 inches to
30 inches below. The fibres which are separated at this stage are
carried a little further round until they come into contact with the
points of the pins in the above-mentioned slowly-moving roller,
termed a "worker," and while the fibres are moving slowly forward
under the restraining influence of the worker, they are further
combed and split. A portion of the fibres is carried round by the
pins of the worker from which such fibres are removed by the
quicker moving pins of the second roller of the pair, termed a
"stripper," and in turn these fibres are removed from the pins of
the stripper by the much quicker moving pins of the cylinder.

[Illustration: FIG. 14 MODERN BREAKER CARD]

The above operations conducted by the first pair of rollers (worker
and stripper) in conjunction with the cylinder, are repeated by a
second and similar pair of rollers (worker and stripper), and ultimately
the thin sheet of combed and split fibres comes into contact with the
pins of the doffer from which it is removed by the drawing and pressing
rollers. The sheet of fibres finally emerges from these rollers into
the broad and upper part of the conductor. This conductor, made mostly
of tin and V-shaped, is shown clearly on the left of the machine in
Fig. 14. Immediately the thin film or sheet of fibres enters the
conductor, it is caused as a body gradually to contract in width and,
of course, to increase in thickness, and is simultaneously guided and
delivered to the delivery rollers, and from these to the sliver can,
distinctly seen immediately below the delivery rollers. The sliver is
seen emerging from the above rollers and entering the sliver can.

The fibres in this machine are thus combed, split and drawn forward
relatively to each other, in addition to being arranged more or less
parallel to each other. The technical term "draft" is used to
indicate the operation of causing the fibres to slip on each other,
and in future we shall speak about this attenuation or drawing out
of the fibres by this special term "draft."

It will be evident that, since the sliver is delivered into the can
at the rate of about 50 yards per minute, this constant flow will
soon provide a sufficient length of sliver to fill a sliver can,
although the latter may hold approximately 20 lbs. The machine must,
of course, deliver its quota to enable succeeding machines to be
kept in practically constant work. As a matter of fact, the machines
are arranged in what are termed "systems," so that this desirable
condition of a constant and sufficient feed to all may be
satisfactorily fulfilled.

The driving or pulley side of the breaker card is very similar to
that shown in Fig. 15 which, however, actually represents the pulley
side of one type of finisher card as made by Messrs. Douglas Fraser &
Sons, Ltd., Arbroath. All finisher cards are fed by slivers which
have been made as explained in connection with the breaker card, but
there are two distinct methods of feeding the slivers, or rather of
arranging the slivers at the feed side. In both cases, however, the
full width of the card is fed by slivers laid side by side, with,
however, a thin guide plate between each pair, and one at each
extreme end.

One very common method of feeding is to place 10 or 12 full sliver
cans--which have been prepared at the breaker card--on the floor and
to the right of the machine illustrated in Fig. 15. The sliver from
each can is then placed into the corresponding sliver guide, and
thus the full width of the machine is occupied. The slivers are
guided by the sliver guides on to an endless cloth or "feed sheet"
which, in turn, conveys them continuously between the feed rollers.
The feed apparatus in such machines is invariably of the roller type,
and sometimes it involves what is known as a "porcupine" roller. It
will be understood that the feeding of level slivers is a different
problem from that which necessitates the feeding of comparatively
uneven stricks.

[Illustration: By permission of Messrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd.
FIG. 15 FINISHER CARD WITH DRAWING-HEAD]

The slivers travel horizontally with the feed-sheet and enter the
machine at a height of about 4 feet from the floor. They thus form,
as it were, a sheet of fibrous material at the entrance, and this
sheet of fibres comes in contact with the pins of the various pairs
of rollers, the cylinder, and the doffer, in much the same way as
already described in connection with the breaker card. There are,
however, more pairs of rollers in the finisher card than there are
in the breaker card, for while the latter is provided with two pairs
of rollers, the former may be arranged with 3, 4, 5 or even 6 pairs
of rollers (6 workers and 6 strippers). The number of pairs of
rollers depends upon the degree of work required, and upon the
opinions of the various managers.

There are two distinct types of finisher cards, viz--

         1. Half-circular finisher cards.

         2. Full-circular finisher cards.

The machine illustrated in Fig. 15 is of the latter type, and such
machines are so-called because the various pairs of rollers are so
disposed around the cylinder that they occupy almost a complete
circle, and the fibre under treatment must move from pair to pair to
undergo the combing and splitting action before coming into contact
with the doffer. There are five pairs of rollers in the machine in
Fig. 15, and all the rollers are securely boxed in, and the wheels
fenced. The arrangement of the wheels on the gear side is very
similar to that shown in connection with the breaker card in Fig. 14,
and therefore requires no further mention. Outside the boxing comes
the covers, shown clearly at the back of the machine in Fig. 15, and
adapted to be easily and quickly opened when it is desired to
examine the rollers and other parts.

The slivers, after having passed amongst the pins of the various
rollers, and been subjected to the required degree of draft, are
ultimately doffed as a thin film of fibres from the pins of the
cylinder and pass between the drawing rollers to the conductor. The
conductor of a finisher card is made in two widths, so that half the
width of the film enters one section and the other half enters the
other section. These two parallel sheets, split from one common sheet,
traverse the two conductors and are ultimately delivered as two
slivers about 6 inches above the point or plane in which the 10 or 12
slivers entered, and on to what is termed a "sliver plate." The two
slivers are then guided by horns projecting from the upper surface
of the sliver plate, made to travel at right angles to the direction
of delivery from the mouths of the conductors, and then united to
pass as a single sliver between a pair of delivery rollers on the
left of the feed and delivery side and finally into a sliver can.

In special types of finishing cards, an extra piece of
mechanism--termed a draw-head--is employed. The machine illustrated
in Fig. 15 is provided with this extra mechanism which is supported
by the small supplementary frame on the extreme right. This special
mechanism is termed a "Patent Push Bar Drawing Head," and the
function which it performs will be described shortly; in the
meantime it is sufficient to say that it is used only when the
slivers from the finisher card require extra or special treatment. A
very desirable condition in connection with the combination of a
finisher card and a draw-head is that the two distinct parts should
work in unison. In the machine under consideration, the feed and
delivery rollers of the card stop simultaneously with the stoppage
of the draw-head mechanism.

One of the chief aims in spinning is that of producing a uniform
thread; uniform not only in section, but in all other respects. A
so-called level thread refers, in general, to a uniform diameter,
but there are other equally, if not more, important phases connected
with the full sense of the word uniform.

It has already been stated that in the batching department various
qualities of jute are mixed as judiciously as possible in order to
obtain a satisfactory mixture. Fibres of different grades and marks
vary in strength, colour, cleanness, diameter, length and suppleness;
it is of the utmost importance that these fibres of diverse
qualities should be distributed as early as possible in the process
so as to facilitate the subsequent operations.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. James F. Low & Co., Ltd. _
FIG. 16 WASTE TEAZER]

However skilfully the work of mixing the stricks is performed in the
batching department, the degree of uniformity leaves something to be
desired; further improvement is still desirable and indeed necessary.
It need hardly be said, however, that the extent of the improvement,
and the general final result, are influenced greatly by the care
which is exercised in the preliminary processes.

The very fact of uniting 10 or 12 slivers at the feed of the
finisher card mixes 10 or 12 distinct lengths into another new length,
and, in addition, separates in some measure the fibres of each
individual sliver. It must not be taken for granted that the new
length of sliver is identical with each of the individual lengths
and ten or twelve times as bulky. A process of drafting takes place
in the finisher card, so that the fibres which compose the combined
10 or 12 slivers shall be drawn out to a draft of 8 to 16 or even
more; this means that for every yard of the group of slivers which
passes into the machine there is drawn out a length of 8 to 16 yards
or whatever the draft happens to be. The resulting sliver will
therefore be approximately two-thirds the bulk of each of the
original individual slivers. The actual ratio between them will
obviously depend upon the actual draft which is imparted to the
material by the relative velocities of the feed and delivery rollers.

It is only natural to expect that a certain amount of the fibrous
material will escape from the rollers; this forms what is known as
card waste. And in all subsequent machines there is produced, in
spite of all care, a percentage of the amount fed into the machine
which is not delivered as perfect material. All this waste from
various sources, e.g. thread waste, rove waste, card waste, ropes,
dust-shaker waste, etc., is ultimately utilized to produce sliver
for heavy sacking weft.

The dust-shaker, as its name implies, separates the dust from the
valuable fibrous material, and finally all the waste products are
passed through a waste teazer such as that made by Messrs. J. F. Low &
Co., Ltd., Monifieth, and illustrated in Fig. 16. The resulting mass
is then re-carded, perhaps along with other more valuable material,
and made into a sliver which is used, as stated above, in the
production of a cheap and comparatively thick weft such as that used
for sacking.




CHAPTER VIII.  DRAWING AND DRAWING FRAMES

The operations of combing and splitting as performed in both the
breaker and finisher card are obviously due to the circular movement
of the pins since all these (with the single exception of those in
the draw-head mechanism of certain finisher cards) are carried on the
peripheries of rotating rollers. In the draw-head mechanism, the
pins move, while in contact with the fibres, in a rectilinear or
straight path. In the machines which fall to be discussed in this
chapter, viz., the "drawing frames," the action of the pins on the
slivers from the finisher card is also in a straight path; as a
matter of fact, the draw-head of a finisher card is really a small
drawing frame, as its name implies. Moreover, each row or rather
double row, of pins is carried separately by what is termed a
"faller." The faller as a whole consists of three parts:

        1. A long iron or steel rod with provision for being
        moved in a closed circuit.

        2. Pour or six brass plates, termed "gills" or
        "stocks," fixed to the rod.

        3. A series of short pins (one row sometimes about
        1/8 in. shorter than the second row), termed gill or
        hackle pins, and set perpendicularly in the above
        gills.

The numbers of fallers used is determined partly by the particular
method of operating the fallers, but mostly by the length of the
fibre. The gill pins in the fallers are used to restrain the
movements of the fibres between two important pairs of rollers.
There are actually about four sets of rollers from front to back of
a drawing frame; one set of three rollers constitute the "retaining"
rollers; then comes the drawing roller and its large pressing roller;
immediately after this pair is the "slicking" rollers, and the last
pair is the delivery rollers. The delivery rollers of one type of
drawing frame, called the "push-bar" drawing frame, and made by
Messsrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd., Arbroath, are seen distinctly
in Fig. 17, and the can or cans into which the slivers are
ultimately delivered are placed immediately below one or more
sections of these rollers and in the foreground of the illustration.
The large pressing rollers, which are in contact with the drawing
roller, occupy the highest position in the machine and near the
centre of same. Between these rollers and the retaining rollers are
situated the above-mentioned fallers with their complements of gill
pins, forming, so to speak, a field of pins.

Each sliver, and there maybe from four to eight or more in a set, is
led from its sliver can at the far side of the machine to the sliver
guide and between the retaining rollers. Immediately the slivers
leave the retaining rollers they are penetrated by the gill pins of
a faller which is rising from the lower part of its circuit to the
upper and active position. Each short length of slivers is
penetrated by the pins of a rising faller, these coming up
successively as the preceding one moves along at approximately the
same surface speed as that of the retaining rollers. The sheet of
pins and their fallers are thus continuously moving towards the
drawing rollers and supporting the slivers at the same time. As each
faller in succession approaches close to the drawing rollers, it is
made to descend so that the pins may leave the fibres, and from this
point the faller moves backwards towards the retaining roller until
it reaches the other end ready to rise again in contact with the
fibres and to repeat the cycle as just described. It will thus be
seen that the upper set of fallers occupy the full stretch between
the retaining rollers and the drawing rollers, but there is always
one faller leaving the upper set at the front and another joining
the set at the back.

[Illustration: Fig. 17 Push-bar drawing frame]

The actual distance between the retaining rollers and the drawing
rollers is determined by the length of the fibre, and must in all
cases be a little greater than the longest fibre. This condition is
necessary because the surface speed of the drawing roller is much
greater than that of the retaining rollers; indeed, the difference
between the surface speeds of the two pairs of rollers is the actual
draft.

Between the retaining and drawing rollers the slivers are embedded
in the gill pins of the fallers, and these move forward, as mentioned,
to support the stretch of slivers and to carry the latter to the nip
of the drawing rollers. Immediately the forward ends of the fibres
are nipped between the quickly-moving drawing rollers, the fibres
affected slide on those which have not yet reached the drawing
rollers, and, incidentally, help to parallelize the fibres. It will
be clear that if any fibre happened to be in the grip of the two
pairs of rollers having different surface speeds, such fibre would be
snapped. It is to avoid this rupture of fibres that the distance
between the two sets of rollers is greater than the longest fibres
under treatment. The technical word for this distance is "reach."

On emerging from the drawing rollers, the combed slivers pass
between slicking rollers, and then approach the sliver plate which
bridges the gap between the slicking rollers and the delivery rollers,
and by means of which plate two or more individual slivers are
diverted at right angles, first to join each other, and then again
diverted at right angles to join another sliver which passes
straight from the drawing rollers and over the sliver plate to the
guide of the delivery rollers. It will thus be seen that a number of
slivers, each having been drawn out according to the degree of draft,
are ultimately joined to pass through a common sliver guide or
conductor to the nip of the delivery rollers, and thence into a
sliver can.

The push-bar drawing illustrated in Fig. 17, or some other of the
same type, is often used as the first drawing frame in a set. With
the exception of the driving pulleys, all the gear wheels are at the
far end of the frame, and totally enclosed in dust-proof casing. The
set-on handles, for moving the belt from the loose pulley to the
fast pulley, or _vice versa_, are conveniently situated, as shown,
and in a place which is calculated to offer the least obstruction to
the operative. The machines are made with what are known as
"two heads" or "three heads." It will be seen from the large
pressing rollers that there are two pairs; hence the machine is a
"two-head" drawing frame.

The slivers from the first drawing frame are now subjected to a
further process of doubling and drafting in a very similar machine
termed the second drawing frame. The pins in the gills for this
frame are rather finer and more closely set than those in the first
drawing frame, but otherwise the active parts of the machines, and
the operations conducted therein, are practically identical, and
therefore need no further description. It should be mentioned,
however, that there are different types of drawing frames, and their
designation is invariably due to the particular manner in which the
fallers are operated while traversing the closed circuit. The names
of other drawing frames appear below.

  Spiral or screw gill;
  Open link chain;
  Rotary;
  Ring Carrier
  Circular.

For the preparation of slivers for some classes of yarn it is
considered desirable to extend the drawing and doubling operation in
a third drawing frame; as a rule, however, two frames are considered
sufficient for most classes of ordinary yarn.




CHAPTER IX.  THE ROVING FRAME

The process of doubling ends with the last drawing frame, but there
still remains a process by means of which the drafting of the
slivers and the parallelization of the fibres are continued. And, in
addition to these important functions, two other equally important
operations are conducted simultaneously, viz., that of imparting to
the drawn out sliver a slight twist to form what is known as a
"rove" or roving, and that of winding the rove on to a large rove
bobbin ready for the actual spinning frame.

The machine in which this multiple process is performed is termed a
"roving frame." Such machines are made in various sizes, and with
different types of faller mechanism, but each machine is provided
for the manipulation of two rows of bobbins, and, of course, with
two rows of spindles and flyers. These two rows of spindles, flyers,
and rove bobbin supports are shown clearly in Fig. 18, which
represents a spiral roving frame made by Messrs. Douglas Fraser &
Sons, Ltd., Arbroath.

Each circular bobbin support is provided with pins rising from the
upper face of the disc, and these pins serve to enter holes in the
flange of the bobbin and thus to drive the bobbin. The discs or
bobbin supports are situated in holes in the "lifter rail" or
"builder rail" or simply the "builder"; the vertical spindles pass
through the centre of the discs, each spindle being provided with a
"flyer," and finally a number of plates rest upon the tops of the
spindles.

[Illustration: FIG. 18 ROVING FRAME _By Permission of Messrs.
Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd_.]

A roving machine at work is shown in Fig. 19, and it will be seen
that the twisted sliver or rove on emerging from the drawing rollers
passes obliquely to the top of the spindle, through a guide eye,
then between the channel-shaped bend at the upper part of the flyer,
round the flyer arm, through an eye at the extreme end of either of
the flyer arms, and finally on to the bobbin. Each bobbin has its
own sliver can (occasionally two), and the sliver passes from this
can between the sides of the sliver guide, between the retaining
rollers, then amongst the gill pins of the fallers and between the
drawing (also the delivery) rollers. Here the sliver terminates
because the rotary action of the flyer imparts a little twist and
causes the material to assume a somewhat circular sectional form.
From this point, the path followed to the bobbin is that described
above.

As in all the preceding machines, the delivery speed of the sliver
is constant and is represented by the surface speed of the periphery
of the delivery rollers, this speed approximates to about 20 yards
per minute. The spindles and their flyers are also driven at a
constant speed, because in all cases we have--

  spindle speed = delivery x twist.

There is thus a constant length of yarn to be wound on the rove
bobbin per minute, and the speed of the bobbin, which is driven
independently of the spindle and flyer, is constant for any one
series of rove coils on the bobbin. The speed of the bobbin differs,
however, for each complete layer of rove, simply because the
effective diameter of the material on the bobbin changes with the
beginning of each new layer.

The eyes of the flyers always rotate in the same horizontal plane,
and hence the rove always passes to the bobbins at the same height
from any fixed point. The bobbins, however, are raised gradually by
the builder during the formation of each layer from the top of the
bobbin to the bottom, and lowered gradually by the builder during
the formation of each layer from bottom to top. In other words, the
travel of the builder is represented by the distance between the
inner faces of the flanges of the rove bobbin.

[Illustration: FIG. 19 ROVING FRAME FAIRBAIRN'S ROVING FRAME IN WORK]

Since every complete layer of rove is wound on the bobbin in virtue
of the joint action of the spindle and flyer, the rotating bobbin,
and the builder, each complete traverse of the latter increases the
combined diameter of the rove and bobbin shaft by two diameters of
the rove. It is therefore necessary to impart an intermittent and
variable speed to the bobbin. The mechanism by means of which this
desirable and necessary speed is given to the bobbin constitutes one
of the most elegant groups of mechanical parts which obtains in
textile machinery. Some idea of the intricacy of the mechanism, as
well as its value and importance to the industry, may be gathered
from the fact that a considerable number of textile and mechanical
experts struggled with the problem for years; indeed 50 years
elapsed before an efficient and suitable group of mechanical parts
was evolved for performing the function.

The above group of mechanical parts is known as "the differential
motion," and the difficulties in constructing its suitable gearing
arose from the fact that the speed of the rove passing on to the
various diameters must be maintained throughout, and must coincide
with the delivery of yarn from the rollers, so that the attenuated
but slightly twisted sliver can be wound on to the bobbin without
strain or stretch. The varying motion is regulated and obtained by a
drive, either from friction plates or from cones, and the whole gear
is interesting, instructive--and sometimes bewildering--two distinct
motions, a constant one and a variable one, are conveyed to the
bobbins from the driving shaft of the machine.

The machine illustrated in Fig. 18 is of special design, and the
whole train of gear, with the exception of a small train of wheels
to the retaining roller, is placed at the pulley end--that nearest
the observer. The gear wheels are, as shown, efficiently guarded,
and provision is made to start or stop the machine from any position
on both sides. The machine is adapted for building 10 in. X 5 in.
bobbins, i.e. 10 in. between the flanges and 5 in. outside diameter,
and provided with either 56 or 64 spindles, the illustration showing
part of a machine and approximately 48 spindles.

The machines for rove (roving frames) are designated by the size of
the bobbin upon which the rove is wound, e.g. 10 in. x 5 in. frame,
and so on; this means that the flanges of the bobbin are 10 in.
apart and 5 in. in diameter, and hence the traverse of the builder
would be 10 in. The 10 in. x 5 in. bobbin is the standard size for
the ordinary run of yarns, but 9 in. x 4-1/2 in. bobbins are
used for the roves from which finer yarns are spun. When the
finished yarn appears in the form of rove (often termed spinning
direct), as is the case for heavier sizes or thick yarns, 8 in. x 4
in. bobbins are largely used.

Provision is made on each roving frame for changing the size of rove
so as to accommodate it for the subsequent process of spinning and
according to the count of the required yarn; the parts involved in
these changes are those which affect the draft gearing, the twist
gearing, and the builder gearing in conjunction with the automatic
index wheel which acts on the whole of the regulating motion.




CHAPTER X.  SPINNING

The final machine used in the conversion of rove to the size of yarn
required is termed the spinning frame. The actual process of
spinning is performed in this machine, and, although the whole
routine of the conversion of fibre into yarn often goes under the
name of spinning, it is obvious that a considerable number of
processes are involved, and an immense amount of work has to be done
before the actual process of spinning is attempted. The nomenclature
is due to custom dating back to prehistoric times when the
conversion of fibre to yarn was conducted by much simpler apparatus
than it is at present; the established name to denote this
conversion of fibre to yarn now refers only to one of a large number
of important processes, each one of which is as important and
necessary as the actual operation of spinning.

A photographical reproduction of a large spinning flat in one of the
Indian jute mills appears in Fig. 20, showing particularly the wide
"pass" between two long rows of spinning frames, and the method
adopted of driving all the frames from a long line shaft. Spinning
frames are usually double-sided, and each side may contain any
practicable number of spindles; 64 to 80 spindles per side are
common numbers.

[Illustration: FIG 20. AN INDIAN SPINNING FLAT]

The rove bobbins, several of which are clearly seen in Fig. 20, are
brought from the roving frame and placed on the iron pegs of a creel
(often called a hake) near the top of the spinning frame-actually
above all moving parts of the machine. Each rove bobbin is free to
rotate on its own peg as the rove from it is drawn downwards by the
retaining rollers. The final drafting of the material takes place in
this frame, and a considerable amount of twist is imparted to the
drawn out material; the latter, now in the desired form and size of
yarn, is wound simultaneously on to a suitable size and form of
spinning bobbin.

When the rove emerges from the retaining rollers it is passed over a
"breast-plate," and then is entered into the wide part of the
conductor; it then leaves by the narrow part of the conductor by
means of which part the rove is guided to the nip of the drawing
rollers, The rove is, of course, drafted or drawn out between the
retaining and drawing rollers according to the draft required, and
the fibrous material, now in thread size is placed in a slot of the
"thread-plate," then round the top of the flyer, round one of the
arms of the flyer, through the eye or palm at the end of the flyer
arm and on to the spinning bobbin. The latter is raised and lowered
as in the roving frame by a builder motion, so that the yarn may be
distributed over the full range between the ends or flanges.

Each spindle is driven separately by means of a tape or band which
passes partially round the driving cylinder and the driven whorl of
the spindle, and a constant relation obtains between the delivery of
the yarn and the speed of the spindle during the operation of
spinning any fixed count or type of yarn. In this connection, the
parts resemble those in the roving frame, but from this point the
functions of the two frames differ. The yarn has certainly to be
wound upon the bobbin and at the same rate as it is delivered from
the drawing or delivery rollers, but in the spinning frame the bobbin,
which rotates on the spindle, is not driven positively, as in the
roving frame, by wheel gearing; each spinning bobbin is actually
driven by the yarn being pulled round by the arm of the flyer and
just sufficient resistance is offered by the pressure or tension of
the "temper band" and weight. The temper band is simply a piece of
leather or hemp twine to which is attached a weight, and the other
end of the leather or twine is attached to the builder rail.

[Illustration: FIG. 21 A LINE OF SPINNING FRAMES]

The front part of the builder rail is provided with grooves into one
of which the temper-band is placed so that the band itself is in
contact with a groove near the base of the bobbin flange. A varying
amount of resistance or tension on the bobbin is required in virtue
of the varying size of the partially-filled bobbin, and this is
obtained by placing the temper-band successively in different groves
in the builder so that it will embrace a gradually increasing arc of
the spinning bobbin, and thus impart a heavier drag or tension.

The spinning frames in Fig. 20 are arranged with the ends of the
frame parallel to the pass, whereas the end frames in Fig. 21 are at
right angles to the pass, and hence an excellent view of the chief
parts is presented. The full rove bobbins are seen distinctly on the
pegs of the creel in the upper part of the figure, and the rove
yarns from these bobbins pass downwards, as already described, until
they ultimately enter the eyes of the flyer arms to be directed to
and wound upon the spinning bobbins. The flyers--at one time termed
throstles--are clearly visible a little above the row of temper
weights. The chief parts for raising the builder--cam lever,
adjustable rod, chain and wheel--are illustrated at the end of the
frame nearest the observer.




CHAPTER XI.  TWISTING AND REELING

In regard to cloth manufacture, most yarns are utilized in the form
they leave the spinning frame, that is, as single yarns. On the
other hand, for certain branches of the trade, weaving included, it
is necessary to take two, three, or more of these single yarns and to
combine them by a process technically termed twisting, and sometimes
"doubling" when two single yarns only are combined.

Although the commonest method, so far as weaving requirements go, is
to twist two single yarns together to make a compound yarn, it is
not uncommon to combine a much higher number, indeed, sixteen or
more single yarns are often united for special purposes, but, when
this number is exceeded, the operation comes under the heading of
twines, ropes and the like. The twist or twine thus formed will have
the number of yarns regulated by the levelness and strength required
for the finished product. The same operation is conducted in the
making of strands for cordage, but when a number of these twines are
laid-up or twisted together, the name cord or rope is used to
distinguish them.[1]

[Footnote 1: See _Cordage and Cordage Hemp and Fibres_, by T.
Woodhouse and P. Kilgour.]

When two or three threads are united by twisting, the operation can
be conducted in a twisting frame which differs little from a
ordinary spinning frame, and hence need not be described. There may
be, however, appliances embodying some system of automatic stop
motion to bring the individual spindles to rest if one thread out of
any group which are being combined happens to break. When several
threads have to be twisted together, special types of twisting
frames are employed; these special machines are termed "tube twisters,"
and the individual threads pass through holes suitably placed in a
plate or disc before they reach the tube.

More or less elaborate methods of combining yarns are occasionally
adopted, but the reader is advised to consult the above-mentioned
work on Cordage and similar literature for detailed information.

When the yarn leaves the spinning frame, or the twisting frame, it
is made up according to requirements, and the general operations
which follow spinning and twisting are,--reeling, cop-winding, roll
or spool winding, mill warping or link warping. The type or class of
yarn, the purpose for which the yarn is to be used, or the equipment
of the manufacturer, determines which of these methods should be
used previous to despatching the yarn.

_Reeling_. Reeling is a comparatively simple operation, consisting
solely of winding the yarns from the spinning or twisting bobbins on
to a wide swift or reel of a suitable width and of a fixed diameter,
or rather circumference. Indeed, the circumference of the reel was
fixed by an Act of Convention of Estates, dating as far back as 1665
and as under:

"That no linen yarn be exported under the pain of confiscation, half
to the King and half to the attacher."

"That linen yarn be sold by weight and that no reel be shorter than
_ten quarters_."

The same size of reel has been adopted for all jute yarns. All such
yarns which are to be dyed, bleached, or otherwise treated must be
reeled in order that the liquor may easily penetrate the threads
which are obviously in a loose state. There are systems of dyeing
and bleaching yarns in cop, roll or beam form, but these are not
employed much in the jute industry. Large quantities of jute yarns
intended for export are reeled, partly because bundles form suitable
bales for transport, and partly because of the varied operations and
sizes of apparatus which obtain in foreign countries.

        YARN TABLE FOR JUTE YARNS

    90 inches,  or     2-1/2 yards    = 1 thread, or
                                         the circumference of the reel
   120 threads  or     300   yards    = 1 cut (or lea)
     2 cuts     or     600   yards    = 1 heer
    12 cuts     or   3,600   yards    = 1 standard hank
    48 cuts     or  14,400   yards    = 1 spyndle

Since jute yarns are comparatively thick, it is only the very finest
yarns which contain 12 cuts per hank. The bulk of the yarn is made
up into 6-cut hanks. If the yarn should be extra thick, even 6 cuts
are too many to be combined, and one finds groups of 4 cuts, 3 cuts,
2 cuts, and even 1 cut. A convenient name for any group less than 12
cuts is a "mill-hank," because the number used is simply one of
convenience to enable the mill-hank to be satisfactorily placed on
the swift in the winding frame.

The reeling operation is useful in that it enables one to measure
the length of the yarn; indeed, the operation of reeling, or forming
the yarn into cuts and hanks, has always been used as the method of
designating the count, grist or number of the yarn. We have already
seen that the count of jute yarn is determined by the weight in lbs.
of one spyndle (14,400 yds.).

For 8 lb. per spyndle yarn, and for other yarns of about the same
count, it is usual to have provision for 24 spinning bobbins on the
reel. As the reel rotates, the yarn from these 24 bobbins is wound
round, say,

6 in. apart, and when the reel has made 120 revolutions, or 120
threads at each place from each bobbin, there will be 24 separate
cuts of yarn on the reel. When 120 threads have been reeled as
mentioned, a bell rings to warn the attendant that the cuts are
complete; the reel is then stopped, and a "lease-band" is tied round
each group of 120 threads.

A guide rod moves the thread guide laterally and slowly as the
reeling operation is proceeding so that each thread or round may be
in close proximity to its neighbour without riding on it, and this
movement of the thread extends to approximately 6 in., to accommodate
the 6 cuts which are to form the mill-hank.

Each time the reel has made 120 revolutions and the bell rings, the
reeler ties up the several cuts in the width, so that when the
mill-hank is complete, each individual cut will be distinct. In some
case, the two threads of the lease-band instead of being tied, are
simply crossed and recrossed at each cut, without of course breaking
the yarn which is being reeled, although effectively separating the
cuts. At the end of the operation (when the quantity of cuts for the
mill-hank has been reeled) the ends of the lease-band are tied.

The object of the lease-band is for facilitating the operation of
winding, and for enabling the length to be checked with approximate
correctness.

When the reel has been filled with, say, twenty-four 6-cut hanks,
there will evidently be 3 spyndles of yarn on the reel. The 24
mill-hanks are then slipped off the end of the reel, and the hanks
taken to the bundling stool or frame. Here they, along with others
of the same count, are made up into bundles which weigh from 54 lb.
to 60 lb. according to the count of the yarn. Each bundle contains a
number of complete hanks, and it is unusual to split a hank for the
purpose of maintaining an absolutely standard weight bundle. Indeed,
the bundles contain an even number of hanks, so that while there
would be exactly 56 lb. per bundle of 7 lb. yarn, or 8 lb. yarn,
there would be 60 lb in a bundle of 7-1/2 lb. yarn, and 54 lb.
in a bundle of 9 lb. yarn.

The chief point in reeling is to ensure that the correct number of
threads is in each cut, i.e. to obtain a "correct tell"; this ideal
condition may be impracticable in actual work, but it is wise to
approach it as closely as possible. Careless workers allow the reel
to run on after one or more spinning bobbins are empty, and this
yields what is known as "short tell." It is not uncommon to
introduce a bell wheel with, say, 123 or 124 teeth, instead of the
nominal 120 teeth, to compensate for this defect in reeling.




CHAPTER XII.  WINDING: ROLLS AND COPS

The actual spinning and twisting operations being thus completed,
the yarns are ready to be combined either for more elaborate types
of twist, or for the processes of cloth manufacture. In its simplest
definition, a fabric consists of two series of threads interlaced in
such way as to form a more or less solid and compact structure. The
two series of threads which are interlaced receive the technical
terms of warp and weft--in poetical language, warp and woof. The
threads which form the length of the cloth constitute the warp,
while the transverse threads are the weft.

The warp threads have ultimately to be wound or "beamed" on to a
large roller, termed a weaver's beam, while the weft yarn has to be
prepared in suitable shape for the shuttle. These two distinct
conditions necessitate two general types of winding:

(_a_) Spool winding or bobbin winding for the warp yarns.

(_b_) Cop winding or pirn winding for the weft yarns.

For the jute trade, the bulk of the warp yarn is wound from the
spinning bobbin on to large rolls or spools which contain from 7 to
8 lb. of yarn; the weft is wound from the spinning bobbin into cops
which weigh approximately 4 to 8 ounces.

Originally all jute yarns for warp were wound on to flanged bobbins
very similar to, but larger than, those which are at present used
for the linen trade. The advent of the roll-winding machine marked a
great advance in the method of winding warp yarns as compared with
the bobbin winding method; indeed, in the jute trade, the latter are
used only for winding from hank those yarns which have been bleached,
dyed or similarly treated. Fig. 22 illustrates one of the modern
bobbin winding machines for jute made by Messrs. Charles Parker,
Sons & Co., Dundee. The finished product is illustrated by two full
bobbins on the stand and close to a single empty bobbin. There are
also two full bobbins in the winding position, and several hanks of
yarn on the swifts. Each bobbin is driven by means of two discs, and
since the drive is by surface contact between the discs and the
bobbin, an almost constant speed is imparted to the yarn throughout
the process. An automatic stop motion is provided for each bobbin;
this apparatus lifts the bobbin clear of the discs when the bobbin
is filled as exemplified in the illustration.

The distance between the flanges of the bobbin is, obviously, a
fixed one in any one machine, and the diameter over the yarn is
limited. On the other hand, rolls may be made of varying widths and
any suitable diameter. And while a bobbin holds about 2 lb. of yarn,
a common size of roll weighs, as already stated, from 7 to 8 lb.
Such a roll measures, about 9 in. long and 8 in. diameter; hence for
8 lb. yarn, the roll capacity is 14,400 yards.

Rolls very much larger than the above are made on special machines
adopted to wind about six rolls as shown in Fig. 23. It is built
specially for winding heavy or thick yarns into rolls of 15 in.
diameter and 14 in. length, and this particular machine is used
mostly by rope makers and carpet manufacturers. One roll only is
shown in the illustration, and it is winding the material from a 10
in. x 5 in. rove bobbin. The rove is drawn forward by surface or
frictional contact between the roll itself and a rapidly rotating
drum. The yarn guide is moved rapidly from side to side by means of
the grooved cam on the left, the upright lever fulcrumed near the
floor, and the horizontal rod which passes in front of the rolls and
upon which are fixed the actual yarn guides. This rapid traverse,
combined with the rotation of the rolls, enables the yarn to be
securely built upon a paper or wooden tube; no flanges are required,
and hence the initial cost as well as the upkeep of the foundations
for rolls is much below that for bobbins.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co_.
FIG. 22 BOBBIN WINDING MACHINE WITH HANKS]

Precisely the same principles are adopted for winding the ordinary 9
in. x 8 in. or 8 in. x 7 in. rolls for the warping and dressing
departments. These rolls are made direct from the yarn on spinning
bobbins, but the machines are usually double-sided, each side having
two tiers; a common number of spools for one machine is 80.

The double tier on each side is practicable because of the small
space required for the spinning bobbins. When, however, rolls are
wound from hank, as is illustrated in Fig. 24, and as practised in
several foreign countries even for grey yarn, one row only at each
side is possible. Both types are made by each machine maker, the one
illustrated in Fig. 24 being the product of Messrs. Charles Parker,
Sons & Co., Dundee.

In all cases, the yarns are built upon tubes as mentioned, the
wooden ones weighing only a few ounces and being practically
indestructible, besides being very convenient for transit; indeed it
looks highly probable that the use of these articles will still
further reduce the amount of yarn exported in bundle form.

[Illustration: FIG. 23 ROLL WINDER FOR LARGE ROLLS _By permission of
Messrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd_.]

The machine illustrated in Fig. 24, as well as those by other makers,
is very compact, easily adjustable to wind different sizes of rolls,
can be run at a high speed, and possesses automatic stop motions,
one for each roll.

A full roll and a partially-filled roll are clearly seen. A recent
improvement in the shape of a new yarn drag device, and an automatic
stop when the yarn breaks or the yarn on the bobbin is exhausted,
has just been introduced on to the Combe-Barbour frame.

[Illustration: FIG. 24 ROLL WINDING MACHINE (FROM HANKS) _By
permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co_.]

Weft Winding. A few firms wind jute weft yarn from the spinning
bobbins on to pirns (wooden centres). The great majority of
manufacturers, however, use cops for the loom shuttles. The cops are
almost invariably wound direct from the spinning bobbins, the
exception being coloured yarn which is wound from hank. There are
different types of machines used for cop winding, but in every case
the yarn is wound upon a bare spindle, and the yarn guide has a
rapid traverse in order to obtain the well-known cross-wind so
necessary for making a stable cop. The disposition of the cops in
the winding operation is vertical, but while in some machines the
tapered nose of the cop is in the high position and the spinning
bobbin from which the yarn is being drawn is in the low position, in
other machines these conditions are opposite. Thus, in the cop
winding frame made by Messrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd., Arbroath,
and illustrated in Fig. 25, the spinning bobbins are below the cops,
the tapered noses of the latter are upwards in their cones or shapers,
and the yarn guides are near the top of the machine. This view shows
about three-fourths of the full width of a 96-spindle machine, 48
spindles on each side, two practically full-length cops and one
partially built. The illustration in Fig. 26 is the above-mentioned
opposite type, and the one most generally adopted, with the spinning
bobbins as shown near the top of the frame, the yarn guides in the
low position, and the point or tapered nose of the cop pointing
downwards. Six spindles only appear in this view, which represents
the machine made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee,
but it will be understood that all machines are made as long as
desired within practicable and economic limits.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Douglas Fraser & Sons, Ltd_.
FIG. 25 COP WINDING MACHINE]

The spindles of cop machines are gear driven as shown clearly in Fig.
26; the large skew bevel wheels are keyed to the main shaft, while
the small skew bevel wheels are loose on their respective spindles.
The upper face of each small skew bevel wheel forms one part of a
clutch; the other part of the clutch is slidably mounted on the
spindle. When the two parts of the clutch are separated, as they are
when the yarn breaks or runs slack, when it is exhausted, or when
the cop reaches a predetermined length, the spindle stops; but when
the two parts of the clutch are in contact, the small skew bevel
wheel drives the clutch, the latter rotates the spindle, and the
spindle in turn draws forward the yarn from the bobbin, and in
conjunction with the rapidly moving yarn guide and the inner surface
of the cone imparts in rapid succession new layers on the nose of
the cop, and thus the formed layers of the latter increase the
length proportionately to the amount of yarn drawn on, and the
partially completed cop moves slowly away from its cup or cone until
the desired length is obtained when the spindle is automatically
stopped and the winding for that particular spindle ceases. Cops may
be made of any length and any suitable diameter; a common size for
jute shuttle is 10 in. long, and 1-5/8 in. diameter, and the
angle formed by the two sides of the cone is approximately 30 degrees.

[Illustration: FIG 26 COP WINDING MACHINE _By permission of Messrs.
Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.]




CHAPTER XIII.  WARPING, BEAMING AND DRESSING

There are a few distinct methods of preparing warp threads on the
weaver's beam. Stated briefly, the chief methods are--

1. The warp is made in the form of a chain on a warping mill, and
when the completed chain is removed from the mill it is transferred
on to the weaver's beam.

2. The warp is made in the form of a chain on a linking machine, and
then beamed on to a weaver's beam.

3. The warp yarns are wound or beamed direct from the large
cylindrical "rolls" or "spools" on to a weaver's beam.

4. The warp yarns are starched, dried and beamed simultaneously on
to a weaver's beam.

The last method is the most extensively adapted; but we shall
describe the four processes briefly, and in the order mentioned.

For mill warping, as in No. 1 method, from 50 to 72 full spinning
bobbins are placed in the bank or creel as illustrated to the right
of each large circular warping mill in Fig. 27. The ends of the
threads from these bobbins are drawn through the eyes of two leaves
of the "heck," and all the ends tied together. The heck, or
apparatus for forming what is known as the weaver's lease, drawer's
lease, or thread-by-thread lease, is shown clearly between the
bobbin bank and the female warper in the foreground of the
illustration. The heck is suspended by means of cords, or chains,
and so ranged that when the warping mill is rotated in one direction
the heck is lowered gradually between suitable slides, while when
the mill is rotated in the opposite direction the heck is raised
gradually between the same slides. These movements are necessary in
order that the threads from the bobbins may be arranged spirally
round the mill and as illustrated clearly on all the mills in the
figure. The particular method of arranging the ropes, or the gearing
if chains are used, determines the distance between each pair of
spirals; a common distance is about 1-1/2 in. There are about
42 spirals or rounds on the nearest mill in Fig. 27, and this number
multiplied by the circumference of the mill represents the length of
the warp.

[Illustration: FIG. 27 A ROW OF MODERN WARPING MILLS]

At the commencement, the heck is at the top, and when the weaver's
lease has been formed on the three pins near the top of the mill
with the 50 to 72 threads (often 56), the mill is rotated by means
of the handle and its connections shown near the bottom of the mill.
As the mill rotates, the heck with the threads descends gradually
and thus the group of threads is disposed spirally on the vertical
spokes of the mill until the desired length of the warp is reached.
A beamer's lease or "pin lease" is now made on the two lower pegs;
there may be two, three, four or more threads in each group of the
pin lease; a common number is 7 to 9. When this pin lease has been
formed, one section of the warp has been made, the proportion
finished being (50 to 72)/x where x is the total number of threads
required for the cloth. The same kind of lease must again be made on
the same two pins at the bottom for the beginning of the next
section of 50 to 72 threads, and the mill rotated in the opposite
direction in order to draw up the heck, and to cause the second
group of 50 to 72 threads to be arranged spirally and in close touch
with the threads of the first group. When the heck reaches the top of
the mill, the single-thread lease is again made, all the threads
passed round the end pin, and then all is ready for repeating the
same two operations until the requisite number of threads has been
introduced on to the mill. If it is impossible to accommodate all the
threads for the cloth on the mill, the warp is made in two or more
parts or chains. It will be noticed that the heck for the nearest
mill is opposite about the 12th round of threads from the bobbin,
whereas the heck for the second mill is about the same distance from
the top. A completed warp or chain is being bundled up opposite the
third mill. When the warp is completed it is pulled off the mill and
simultaneously linked into a chain.

A very similar kind of warp can be made more quickly, and often
better, on what is termed the linking machine mentioned in No. 2
method. Such a machine is illustrated in Fig. 28, and the full
equipment demands the following four distinct kinds of apparatus--a
bank capable of holding approximately 300 spools, a frame for
forming the weaver's lease and the beamer's lease, machine for
drawing the threads from the spools in the bank and for measuring
the length and marking the warp at predetermined intervals, and
finally the actual machine which links the group of threads in the
form of a chain.

In Fig. 28 part of the large bank, with a few rows of spools, is
shown in the extreme background. The two sets of threads, from the
two wings of the bank, are seen distinctly, and the machine or frame
immediately in front of the bank is where the two kinds of lease are
made when desired, i.e. at the beginning and at the end of the warp.
Between this leasing frame and the linking machine proper, shown in
the foreground, is the drawing, measuring and marking machine. Only
part of this machine is seen--the driving pulleys and part of the
frame adjoining them. All these frames and machines are necessary,
but the movements embodied in them, or the functions which they
perform, are really subsidiary to those of the linker shown in the
foreground of Fig. 28.

[Illustration: FIG. 28 POWER CHAIN OF WARP LINKING MACHINE]

Although the linking machine is composed of only a few parts, it is
a highly-ingenious combination of mechanical parts; these parts
convert the straight running group of 300 threads into a linked chain,
and the latter is shown distinctly descending from the chute on to
the floor in the figure. Precisely the same kind of link is made by
the hand wrappers when the warps indicated in Fig. 27 are being
withdrawn from the mills. Two completed chains are shown tied up in
Fig. 28, and a stock of rolls or spools appear against the wall near
the bank.

The completed chain from the warping mill or the linking machine is
now taken to the beaming frame, and after the threads, or rather the
small groups of threads, in the pin lease have been disposed in a
kind of coarse comb or reed, termed an veneer or radial, and
arranged to occupy the desired width in the veneer, they are
attached in some suitable way to the weaver's beam. The chain is
held taut, and weights applied to the presser on the beam while the
latter is rotated. In this way a solid compact beam of yarn is
obtained. The end of the warp--that one that goes on to the beam
last--contains the weaver's lease, and when the completed beam is
removed from the beaming or winding-on frame, this single-thread
lease enables the next operative to select the threads individually
and to draw the threads, usually single, but sometimes in pairs, in
which case the lease would be in pairs, through the eyes of the
camas or HEALDS, or to select them for the purpose of tying them to
the ends of the warp in the loom, that is to the "thrum" of a cloth
which has been completed.

Instead of first making a warp or chain on the warping mill, or on
the linking machine, and then beaming such warp on to the weaver's
beam or loom beam as already described, two otherwise distinct
processes of warping and beaming may be conducted simultaneously.
Thus, the total number of threads required for the manufacture of any
particular kind of cloth--unless the number of threads happens to be
very high--may be wound on to the loom beam direct from the spools.
Say, for example, a warp was required to be 600 yards long, and that
there should be 500 threads in all. Five hundred spools of warp yarn
would be placed in the two wings of a V-shaped bank, and the threads
from these spools taken in regular order, and threaded through the
splits or openings of a reed which is placed in a suitable position
in regard to the winding-on mechanism. Some of the machines which
perform the winding-on of the yarn are comparatively simple, while
others are more or less complicated. In some the loom beam rotates
at a fixed number of revolutions per minute, while in others the
beam rotates at a gradually decreasing number of revolutions per
minute. One of the latter types made by MESSRS Urquhart, Lindsay & Co.,
Ltd., Dundee, is illustrated in Fig. 29, and the mechanism displayed
is identical with that employed for No. 4 method of preparing warps.

The V-shaped bank with its complement of spools (500 in our example)
would occupy a position immediately to the left of Fig. 29. The
threads would pass through a reed and then in a straight wide sheet
between the pair of rollers, these parts being contained in the
supplementary frame on the left. A similar frame appears on the
extreme right of the figure, and this would be used in conjunction
with another V-shaped bank, not shown, but which would occupy a
position further to the right, i.e. if one bank was not large enough
to hold the required number of spools. The part on the extreme right
can be ignored at present.

The threads are arranged in exactly the same way as indicated in Fig.
28 from the bank to the reed in front of the rollers in Fig. 29,
and on emerging from the pair of rollers are taken across the
stretch between the supplementary frame and the main central frame,
and attached to the weavers beam just below the pressing rollers. It
may be advisable to have another reed just before the beam, so that
the width occupied by the threads in the beam may be exactly the
same as the width between the two flanges of the loom beam.

[Illustration: FIG. 29 WINDING-ON OR DRY BEAMING MACHINE _By
permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co. Ltd_.]

The speed of the threads is determined by the surface speed of the
two rollers in the supplementary frame, the bottom roller being
positively driven from the central part through the long horizontal
shaft and a train of wheels caged in as shown. The loom beam, which
is seen clearly immediately below the pressing rollers, is driven by
friction because the surface speed of the yarn must be constant;
hence, as the diameter over the yarn on the beam increases, the
revolutions per minute of the beam must decrease, and a varying
amount of slip takes place between the friction-discs and their
flannels.

As the loom beam rotates, the threads are arranged in layers between
the flanges of the loom beam. Thus, the 500 threads would be
arranged side by side, perhaps for a width of 45 to 46 in., and
bridging the gap between the flanges of the beam; the latter is thus,
to all intents and purposes, a very large bobbin upon which 500
threads are wound at the same time, instead of one thread as in the
ordinary but smaller bobbin or reel. It will be understood that in
the latter case the same thread moves from side to side in order to
bridge the gap, whereas in the former case each thread maintains a
fixed position in the width.

The last and most important method of making a warp, No. 4 method,
for the weaver is that where, in addition to the simultaneous
processes of warping and beaming as exemplified in the last example,
all the threads are coated with some suitable kind of starch or size
immediately they reach the two rollers shown in the supplementary
frame in Fig. 29. The moistened threads must, however, be dried
before they reach the loom beam. When a warp is starched, dried and
beamed simultaneously, it is said to be "dressed."

In the modern dressing machine, such as that illustrated in Fig. 30,
there are six steam-heated cylinders to dry the starched yarns
before the latter reach the loom beams. Both banks, or rather part
of both, can be seen in this view, from which some idea will be
formed of the great length occupied. Several of the threads from the
spools in the left bank are seen converging towards the back reed,
then they pass between the two rollers--the bottom one of which is
partially immersed in the starch trough--and forward to the second
reed. After the sheet of threads leaves the second reed, it passes
partially round a small guide roller, then almost wholly round each
of three cylinders arranged °o°, and finally on to the loom beam.
Each cylinder is 4 feet diameter, and three of them occupy a
position between the left supplementary frame, and the central frame
in Fig. 29, while the remaining three cylinders are similarly
disposed between the central frame and the supplementary frame of
the right in the same illustration.

The number of steam-heated cylinders, and their diameter, depend
somewhat upon the type of yarn to be dressed, and upon the speed
which it is desired to run the yarn. A common speed for
ordinary-sized jute is from 18 to 22 yards per minute.

[Illustration: FIG. 30 A MODERN YARN DRESSING MACHINE WITH SIX
STEAM-HEATED CYLINDERS]

A different way of arranging the cylinders is exemplified in Fig. 31.
This view, which illustrates a machine made by Messrs. Charles Parker,
Sons & Co., Dundee, has been introduced to show that if the warps
under preparation contain a comparatively few threads, or if the
banks are made larger than usual, two warps may be dressed at the
same time. In such a case, three cylinders only would be used for
each warp, and the arrangement would be equivalent to two single
dressing machines. The two weaver's beams, with their pressing
rollers, are shown plainly in the centre of the illustration. Some
machines have four cylinders, others have six, while a few have eight.
A very similar machine to that illustrated in Fig. 31 is made so that
all the six cylinders may be used to dry yarns from two banks, and
all the yarns wound on to one weaver's beam, or all the yarns may be
wound on to one of the beams in the machine in Fig. 31 if the number
of threads is too many for one bank.

[Illustration: FIG. 31 DRESSING MACHINE FOR PREPARING TWO WARPS
SIMULTANEOUSLY _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co_.]

Suppose it is desired to make a warp of 700 threads instead of 500,
as in the above example; then 350 spools would be placed in each of
the two banks, the threads disposed as already described to use as
much of the heating surface of the cylinder as possible, and one
sheet of threads passed partially round what is known as a measuring
roller. Both sheets of threads unite into one sheet at the centre of
the machine in Fig. 31, and pass in this form on to one of the loom
beams.

It has already been stated that the lower roller in the starch box
is positively driven by suitable mechanism from the central part of
the machine, Fig. 29, while the upper roller, see Fig. 30, is a
pressing roller and is covered with cloth, usually of a flannel type.
Between the two rollers the sheet of 350 threads passes, becomes
impregnated with the starch which is drawn up by the surface of the
lower roller, and the superfluous quantity is squeezed out and
returns to the trough, or joins that which is already moving upwards
towards the nip of the rollers. The yarn emerges from the rollers
and over the cylinders at a constant speed, which may be chosen to
suit existing conditions, and it must also be wound on to the loom
beam at the same rate. But since the diameter of the beam increases
each revolution by approximately twice the diameter of the thread,
it is necessary to drive the beam by some kind of differential motion.

The usual way in machines for dressing jute yarns is to drive the
beam support and the beam by means of friction plates. A certain
amount of slip is always taking place--the drive is designed for
this purpose--and the friction plates are adjusted by the yarn
dresser during the operation of dressing to enable them to draw
forward the beam, and to slip in infinitesimal sections, so that the
yarn is drawn forward continuously and at uniform speed.

During the operation, the measuring roller and its subsequent train
of wheels and shafts indicates the length of yarn which has passed
over, also the number of "cuts" or "pieces" of any desired length; in
addition, part of the measuring and marking mechanism uses an
ink-pad to mark the yarn at the end of each cut, such mark to act as
a guide for the weaver, and to indicate the length of warp which has
been woven. Thus if the above warp were intended to be five cuts,
each 120 yards, or 600 yards in all, the above apparatus would
measure and indicate the yards and cuts, and would introduce a mark
at intervals of 120 yards on some of the threads. And all this is
done without stopping the machine. At the time of marking, or
immediately before or after, just as desired, a bell is made to ring
automatically so that the attendant is warned when the mark on the
warp is about to approach the loom beam. This bell is shown in Fig.
29, near the right-hand curved outer surface of the central frame.

As in hand warping or in linking, a single-thread lease is made at
the end of the desired length of warp, or else what is known as a
pair of "clasp-rods" is arranged to grip the sheet of warp threads.

After the loom beam, with its length of warp, has been removed from
the machine, the threads are either drawn through the eyes or mails
of the cambs (termed gears, healds or heddles in other districts)
and through the weaving reed, or else they are tied to the ends of
the threads of the previous warp which, with the weft, has been
woven into cloth. These latter threads are still intact in the cambs
and reed in the loom.




CHAPTER XIV.  TYING-ON, DRAWING-IN, AND WEAVING

If all the threads of the newly-dressed warp can be tied on to the
ends of the warp which has been woven, it is only necessary, when
the tying-on process is completed, to rotate the loom beam slowly,
and simultaneously to draw forward the threads until all the knots
have passed through the cambs and the reed, and sufficiently far
forward to be clear of the latter when it approaches its full forward,
or beating up, position during the operation of weaving.

If, on the other hand, the threads of the newly-dressed, or
newly-beamed, warp had to be drawn-in and reeded, these operations
would be performed in the drawing-in and reeding department, and,
when completed, the loom beam with its attached warp threads, cambs
and reed, would be taken bodily to the loom where the "tenter,"
"tackler" or "tuner" adjusts all the parts preparatory to the actual
operation of weaving. The latter work is often termed "gaiting a web."

There is a great similarity in many of the operations of weaving the
simpler types of cloth, although there may be a considerable
difference in the appearance of the cloths themselves. In nearly all
the various branches of the textile industry the bulk of the work in
the weaving departments of such branches consists of the manufacture
of comparatively simple fabrics. Thus, in the jute industry, there
are four distinct types of cloth which predominate over all others;
these types are known respectively as hessian, bagging, tarpauling
and sacking. In addition to these main types, there are several
other simple types the structure of which is identical with one or
other of the above four; while finally there are the more elaborate
types of cloth which are embodied in the various structures of
carpets and the like.

It is obviously impossible to discuss the various makes in a work of
this kind; the commoner types are described in _Jute and Linen
Weaving Calculations and Structure of Fabrics_; and the more
elaborate ones, as well as several types of simple ones, appear in
_Textile Design: Pure and Applied_, both by T. Woodhouse and T.
Milne.

Six distinct types of jute fabrics are illustrated in Fig. 32. The
technical characteristics of each are as follows--

[Illustration: FIG. 32 SIX DISTINCT KINDS OF TYPICAL JUTE FABRICS]

H.--An ordinary "HESSIAN" cloth made from comparatively fine single
  warp and single weft, and the threads interlaced in the simplest
  order, termed "plain weave." A wide range of cloths is made from the
  scrims or net-like fabrics to others more closely woven than that
  illustrated.

B.--A "BAGGING" made from comparatively fine single warp arranged in
  pairs and then termed "double warp." The weft is thick, and the
  weave is also plain.

T.--A "TARPAULING" made from yarns similar to those in bagging,
  although there is a much wider range in the thickness of the weft.
  It is a much finer cloth than the typical bagging, but otherwise the
  structures are identical.

S.--A striped "SACKING" made from comparatively fine warp yarns,
  usually double as in bagging, but occasionally single, with medium
  or thick weft interwoven in 3-leaf or 4-leaf twill order. The weaves
  are shown in Fig. 33.

C.--One type of "CARPET" cloth made exclusively from two-ply or
  two-fold coloured warp yarns, and thick black single weft yarns. The
  threads and picks are interwoven in two up, two down twill, directed
  to right and then to left, and thus forming a herring-bone pattern,
  or arrow-head pattern.

P.-An uncut pile fabric known as "BRUSSELLETTE." The figuring warp
  is composed of dyed and printed yarns mixed to form an indefinite
  pattern, and works in conjunction with a ground warp and weft. The
  weave is again plain, although the structure of the fabric is quite
  different from the other plain cloths illustrated. The cloth is
  reversible, the two sides being similar structure but differing
  slightly in colour ornamentation.

As already indicated, there are several degrees of fineness or
coarseness in all the groups, particularly in the types marked H, B,
T and S. The structure or weave in all varieties of any one group is
constant and as stated.

All the weaves are illustrated in the usual technical manner in Fig.
33, and the relation between the simplest of these weaves and the
yarns of the cloth is illustrated in Fig. 34. In Fig. 33, the unit
weaves in A, B, C, D, E and F are shown in solid squares, while the
repetitions of the units in each case are represented by the dots.

[Illustration: FIG. 33 POINT-PAPER DESIGNS SHOWING WEAVERS FOR
VARIOUS CLOTHS]

[Illustration: FIG. 34 DIAGRAMMATIC VIEWS OF THE STRUCTURE OF PLAIN
CLOTH]

A is the plain weave, 16 units shown, and used for fabrics H and P,
Fig. 32.

B is the double warp plain wave, 8 units shown, and shows the method
of interlacing the yarns h patterns B and T, Fig. 32. When the warp
is made double as indicated in weave _B_, the effect in the cloth
can be produced by using the mechanical arrangements employed for
weave _A_. Hence, the cloths _H_, _B_ and _T_ can be woven without
any mechanical alteration in the loom.

_C_ is the 3-leaf double warp sacking weave and shows 4 units;
since each pair of vertical rows of small squares consists of two
identical single rows, they may be represented as at _D_. The actual
structure of the cloth _S_ in Fig. 32 is represented on design paper
at _C_, Fig. 33.

_D_ is the single warp 3-leaf sacking weave, 4 units shown, but
the mechanical parts for weaving both _C_ and _D_ remain constant.

_E_ is the double warp 4-leaf sacking, 2 units shown, while

_F_ is the single warp 4-leaf sacking, 4 units shown.

The patterns or cloths for _E_ and _F_ are not illustrated.

_G_ is a "herring-bone" design on 24 threads and 4 picks, two
units shown. It is typical of the pattern represented at _C_, Fig. 32,
and involves the use of 4 leaves in the loom.

The solid squares in weave _A_, Fig. 33, are reproduced in the
left-hand bottom corner of Fig. 34. A diagrammatic plan of a plain
cloth produced by this simple order of interlacing is exhibited in
the upper part by four shaded threads of warp and four black picks
of weft (the difference is for distinction only). The left-hand
intersection shows one thread interweaving with all the four picks,
while the bottom intersection shows all the four threads
interweaving with one pick. The two arrows from the weave or design
to the thread and pick respectively show the connection, and it will
be seen that a mark (solid) on the design represents a warp thread
on the surface of the cloth, while a blank square represents a weft
shot on the surface, and _vice versa_.

A weaving shed full of various types of looms, and all driven by
belts from an overhead shaft, is illustrated in Fig. 35. The loom in
the foreground is weaving a 3-leaf sacking similar to that
illustrated at _S_, Fig. 32. while the appearance of a full weaver's
warp beam is shown distinctly in the second loom in Fig. 35. There
are hundreds of looms in this modern weaving shed.

[Illustration: FIG. 35 WEAVING SHED WITH BELT-DRIVEN LOOMS]

During the operation of weaving, the shuttle, in which is placed a
cop of weft, similar to that on the cop winding machine in Fig. 25,
and with the end of the weft threaded through the eye of the shuttle,
is driven alternately from side to side of the cloth through the
opening or "shed" formed by two layers of the warp. The positions of
the threads in these two layers are represented by the designs, see
Fig. 33, and while one layer occupies a high position in the loom
the other layer occupies a low position. The threads of the warp are
placed in these two positions by the leaves of the camb (termed
healds and also gears in other districts) and it is between these
two layers that the shuttle passes, forms a selvage at the edge each
time it makes a journey across, and leaves a trail or length of weft
each journey. The support or lay upon which the shuttle travels
moves back to provide room for the shuttle to pass between the two
layers of threads, and after the shuttle reaches the end of each
journey, the lay with the reed comes forward again, and thus pushes
successively the shots of weft into close proximity with the ones
which preceded.

[Illustration: FIG. 36 LOOMS DRIVEN WITH INDIVIDUAL MOTORS _By
permission of The English Electric Co., Ltd._]

The order of lifting and depressing the threads of the warp is, as
already stated, demonstrated on the design paper in Fig. 33, and the
selected order determines, in the simplest cases, the pattern on the
surface of the cloth when the warp and weft yarns are of the same
colour. A great diversity of pattern can be obtained by the method
of interlacing the two sets of yarn, and a still greater variety of
pattern is possible when differently-coloured threads are added to
the mode of interlacing.

To illustrate the contrast in the general appearance of a weaving
shed in which all the looms are driven by belts from overhead
shafting as in Fig. 35, and in a similar shed in which all the looms
are individually driven by small motors made by the English Electric
Co., Ltd. we introduce Fig. 36. This particular illustration shows
cotton weaving shed, but precisely the same principle of driving is
being adopted in many jute factories.

A great variety of carpet patterns of a similar nature to that
illustrated at C, Fig. 32, can be woven in looms such as those
illustrated in Fig. 35; indeed, far more elaborate patterns than
that mentioned and illustrated are capable of being produced in
these comparatively simple looms. When, however, more than 4 leaves
are required for the weaving of a pattern, a dobby loom, of the
nature of that shown in Fig. 37, is employed; this machine is made
by Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co., Ltd., Dundee. The dobby itself,
or the apparatus which lifts the leaves according to the
requirements of the design, is fixed on the upper part of the
frame-work, and is designed to control 12 leaves, that is, it
operates 12 leaves, each of which lifts differently from the others.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co_.
FIG. 37 DOBBY LOOM]

A considerable quantity of Wilton and Brussels carpets is made from
jute yarns, and Fig. 38 illustrates a loom at work on this
particular branch of the trade. The different colours of warp for
forming the pattern me from small bobbins in the five frames at the
back of the loom (hence the term 5-frame Brussels or Wilton carpet)
and the ends passed through "mail eyes" and then through the reed.
The design is cut on the three sets of cards suspended in the
cradles in the front of the loom, and these cards operate on the
needles of the jacquard machine to raise those colours of yarn which
e necessary to produce the colour effect in the cloth t correspond
with the colour effect on the design paper made by the designer.
This machine weaves the actual Brussels and Wilton fabrics, and
these cloths are quite different from that illustrated at _P_, Fig.
32. In both fabrics, however, ground or foundation warps are
required. It need hardly be said that there is a considerable
difference between the two types of cloth, as well as between the
designs and the looms in which they are woven.[2]

[Footnote 2: For structure of carpets, _see_ pp. 394-114, _Textile
Design: Pure and Applied_, by T. Woodhouse and T. Milne.]

[Illustration: FIG. 38 BRUSSELS CARPET JACQUARD LOOM]

In the weaving department there are heavy warp beams to be placed in
the looms, and in the finishing department there are often heavy
rolls of cloth to be conveyed from the machines to the despatch room.
Accidents often happen when these heavy packages, especially the
warp beams, are being placed in position. In order to minimize the
danger to workpeople and to execute the work more quickly and with
fewer hands, some firms have installed Overhead Runway Systems, with
suitable Lifting Gear, by means of which the warp beams are run from
the dressing and drawing-in departments direct to the looms, and
then lowered quickly and safely into the bearings. Such means of
transport are exceedingly valuable where the looms are set close to
each other and where wide beams are employed; indeed, they are
valuable for all conditions, and are used for conveying cloth direct
from the looms as well as warp beams to the looms. Fig. 39 shows the
old wasteful and slow method of transferring warp beams from place
to place, while Fig. 40 illustrates the modern and efficient method.
The latter figure illustrates one kind of apparatus, supplied by
Messrs. Herbert Morris, Ltd., Loughborough, for this important
branch of the industry.

[Illustration: FIG. 39. THE OLD WAY]

[Illustration: FIG. 40. THE NEW WAY _By permission of Messrs.
Herbert Morris, Ltd_.]




CHAPTER XV.  FINISHING

The finishing touches are added to the cloth after the latter leaves
the loom. The first operation is that of inspecting the cloth,
removing the lumps and other undesirables, as well as repairing any
damaged or imperfect parts. After this, the cloth is passed through
a cropping machine the function of which is to remove all projecting
fibres from the surface of the cloth, and so impart a clean, smart
appearance. It is usual to crop both sides of the cloth, although
there are some cloths which require only one side to be treated,
while others again miss this operation entirely.

A cropping machine is shown in the foreground of Fig. 41, and in
this particular case there are two fabrics being cropped or cut at
the same time; these happen to be figured fabrics which have been
woven in a jacquard loom similar to that illustrated in Fig. 38. The
fabrics are, indeed, typical examples of jute Wilton carpets. The
illustration shows one of the spiral croppers in the upper part of
the machine in Fig. 41. Machines are made usually with either two or
four of such spirals with their corresponding fixed blades.

[Illustration: FIG. 41 CROPPING MACHINE AT WORK]

The cloth is tensioned either by threading it over and under a
series of stout rails, or else between two in a specially adjustable
arrangement by means of which the tension may be varied by rotating
slightly the two rails so as to alter the angle formed by the cloth
in contact with them. This is, of course, at the feed side; the
cloth is pulled through the machine by three rollers shown
distinctly on the right in Fig. 42. This view illustrates a double
cropper in which both the spirals are controlled by one belt. As the
cloth is pulled through, both sides of it are cropped by the two
spirals.[3] When four spirals are required, the frame is much wider,
and the second set of spirals is identical with those in the
machines illustrated.

[Illustration: FIG 42 DOUBLE CROPPING MACHINE _By permission of
Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co., Ltd_.]

[Footnote 3: For a full description of all finishing processes,
see _The Finishing of Jute and Linen Fabrics_, by T. Woodhouse.
(Published by Messrs. Emmott & Co., Ltd., Manchester.)]

The cropped cloth is now taken to the clamping machine, and placed
on the floor on the left of the machine illustrated in Fig. 43,
which represents the type made by Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons &, Co.,
Dundee. The cloth is passed below a roller near to the floor, then
upwards and over the middle roller, backwards to be passed under and
over the roller on the left, and then forwards to the nip of the
pulling rollers, the bottom one of which is driven positively by
means of a belt on the pulleys shown. While the cloth is pulled
rapidly through this machine, two lines of fine jets spray water on
to the two sides of the fabric to prepare it for subsequent processes
in which heat is generated by the nature of the finishing process.
At other times, or rather in other machines, the water is
distributed on the two sides of the cloth by means of two rapidly
rotating brushes which flick the water from two rollers rotating in
a tank of water at a fixed level. In both cases, both sides of the
fabric are "damped," as it is termed, simultaneously. The damped
fabric is then allowed to lie for several hours to condition, that is,
to enable the moisture to spread, and then it is taken to the
calender.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co.,
Ltd_. FIG. 43 DAMPING MACHINE]

The calenders for jute almost invariably contain five different
rollers, or "bowls," as they are usually termed; one of these bowls,
the smallest diameter one, is often heated with steam. A five-bowl
calender is shown on the extreme right in Fig. 41, and in the
background, while a complete illustration of a modern 5-bowl calender,
with full equipment, and made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd.,
Dundee, appears in Fig. 44.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.
FIG. 44 CALENDAR]

The cloth is placed on the floor between the two distinct parts of
the calender, threaded amongst the tension rails near the bottom
roller or bowl, and then passed over two or more of the bowls
according to the type of finish desired. For calender finish, the
bowls flatten the cloth by pressing out the threads and picks, so
that all the interstices which appear in most cloths as they leave
the loom, and which are exaggerated in the plan view in Fig. 34, are
eliminated by this calendering action. The cloth is then delivered
at the far side of the machine in Fig. 44. If necessary, the surface
speed of the middle or steam-heated roller may differ from the
others so that a glazed effect--somewhat resembling that obtained by
ordinary ironing--is imparted to the surface of the fabric. The
faster moving roller is the steam-heated one. For ordinary calender
finish, the surface speed of all the rollers is the same.

Another "finish" obtained on the calender is known as "chest finish"
or "round-thread finish." In this case, the whole length of cloth is
wound either on to the top roller, or the second top one, Fig. 44,
and while there is subjected to the degree of pressure required; the
amount of pressure can be regulated by the number of weights and the
way in which the tension belt is attached to its pulley. The two
sets of weights are seen clearly on the left in Fig. 44, and these
act on the long horizontal levers, usually to add pressure to the
dead weight of the top roller, but occasionally, for very light
finishes, to decrease the effective weight of the top bowl. After
the cloth has been chested on one or other of the two top bowls, it
is stripped from the bowl on to a light roller shown clearly with
its belt pulley in Fig. 41.

There are two belt pulleys shown on the machine in Fig. 44; one is
driven by an open belt, and the other by a crossed belt. Provision
is thus made for driving the calender in both directions. The
pulleys are driven by two friction clutches, both of which are
inoperative when the set-on handle is vertical as in the figure.
Either pulley may be rotated, however, by moving the handle to a
oblique position.

The compound leverage imparted to the bearings of the top bowl, and
the weights of the bowls themselves, result in the necessary pressure,
and this pressure may be varied according to the number of small
weights used. The heaviest finish on the calender, i.e. the
chest-finish on the second top roller, imitates more or less the
"mangle finish."

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd_.
FIG. 45 HYDRAULIC MANGLE]

A heavy hydraulic mangle with its accumulator and made by Messrs.
Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee, is illustrated in Fig. 45.
The cloth is wound or beamed by the mechanism in the front on to
what is termed a "mangle pin"; it is reality a thick iron bowl; when
the piece is beamed, it is automatically moved between two huge
rollers, and hydraulic pressure applied. Four narrow pieces are
shown in Fig. 45 on the pin, and between the two rollers. There are
other four narrow pieces, already beamed on another pin, in the
beaming position, and there is still another pin at the delivery
side with a similar number of cloths ready for being stripped. The
three pins are arranged thus o°o, and since all three are
moved simultaneously, when the mangling operation is finished, each
roller or pin is moved through 120°. Thus, the stripped pin will be
placed in the beaming position, the beamed pin carried into the
mangling position, and the pin with the mangled cloth taken to the
stripping position.

While the operation of mangling is proceeding, the rollers move
first in one direction and then in the other direction, and this
change of direction is accomplished automatically by mechanism
situated between the accumulator and the helical-toothed gearing
seen at the far end of the mangle. And while this mangling is taking
place, the operatives are beaming a fresh set, while the previously
mangles pieces are being stripped by the plaiting-down apparatus
which deposits the cloth in folds. This operation is also known as
"cuttling" or "faking." It will be, understood that a wide mangle,
such as that illustrated in Fig. 45. is constructed specially for
treating wide fabrics, and narrow fabrics are mangled on it simply
because circumstances and change of trade from time to time demand it.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Charles Parker, Sons & Co.
Ltd_. Fig 46 FOLDING, LAPPING OR PLEATING MACHINE]

The high structure on the left is the accumulator, the manipulation
of this and the number of wide weights which are ingeniously brought
into action to act on the plunger determine the pressure which is
applied to the fabrics between the bowls or rollers.

Cloths both from the calender and the mangle now pass through a
measuring machine, the clock of which records the length passed
through. There are usually two hands and two circles of numbers on
the clock face; one hand registers the units up to 10 on one circle
of numbers, while the slower-moving hand registers 10, 20, 30, up to
100. The measuring roller in these machines is usually one yard in
circumference.

If the cloth in process of being finished is for use as the backing
or foundation of linoleum, it is invariably wound on to a wooden
centre as it emerges from the bowls of the calender, measured as well,
and the winding-on mechanism is of a friction drive somewhat similar
to that mentioned in connection with the dressing machine. Cloths
for this purpose are often made up to 600 yards in length; indeed,
special looms, with winding appliances, have been constructed to
weave cloths up to 2,000 yards in length. Special dressing machines
and loom beams have to be made for the latter kind. When the
linoleum backing is finished at the calender, both cloth and centre
are forwarded direct to the linoleum works. The empty centres are
returned periodically.

Narrow-width cloths are often made up into a roll by means of a
simple machine termed a calenderoy, while somewhat similar cloth,
and several types of cloths of much wider width, are lapped or
folded by special machines such as that illustrated in Fig. 46. The
cloth passes over the oblique board, being guided by the discs shown,
to the upper part of the carrier where it passes between the two bars.
As the carrier is oscillated from side to side (it is the right hand
side in the illustration) the cloth is piled neatly in folds on the
convex table. The carriers may be adjusted to move through different
distances, so that any width or length of fold, between limits, may
be made.

Comparatively wide pieces can be folded on the above machine, but
some merchants prefer to have wide pieces doubled lengthwise, and
this is done by machines of different kinds. In all cases, however,
the operation is termed "crisping" in regard to jute fabrics. Thus,
Fig. 47, illustrates one type of machine used for this purpose, and
made by Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Ca., Ltd., Dundee. The
full-width cloth on the right has obviously two prominent
stripes--one near each side. The full width cloth passes upwards
obliquely a triangular board, and when the cloth reaches the apex it
is doubled and passed between two bars also set obliquely on the left.
The doubled piece now passes between a pair of positively driven
drawing rollers, and is then "faked," "cuttled," or pleated as
indicated. The machine thus automatically, doubles the piece, and
delivers it as exemplified in folds of half width. In other
industries, this operation is termed creasing and, rigging.  Some of
the later types of crisping or creasing machines double the cloth
lengthwise as illustrated in Fig. 47, and, in addition, roll it at
the same time instead of delivering it in loose folds.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart Lindsay & Co. Ltd_.
FIG. 47 CRISPING, CREASING OR RIGGING MACHINE]

If the cloth is intended to be cut up into lengths, say for the
making of bags of various kinds, and millions of such bags are made
annually, it is cut up into the desired lengths, either by hand,
semi-mechanically, or wholly mechanically, and then the lengths are
sewn at desired places by sewing machines, and in various ways
according to requirements.

[Illustration: _By permission of Messrs. Urquhart, Lindsay & Co. Ltd_
FIG 48 SEMI-MECHANICAL BAG OR SACK CUTTING MACHINE]

Fig. 48 illustrates one of the semi-mechanical machines for this
purpose; this particular type being made by Messrs. Urquhart,
Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee. About eight or nine different cloths
are arranged in frames behind the cutting machine, and the ends of
these cloths passed between the horizontal bars at the back of the
machine. They are then led between the rollers, under the cutting
knife, and on to the table. The length of cloth is measured as it
passes between the rollers, and different change pinions are
supplied so that practically any length may be cut. Eight or nine
lengths are thus passed under the knife frame simultaneously, and
when the required length has been delivered, the operative inserts
the knife in the slot of the knife frame, and pushes it forward by
means of the long handle shown distinctly above the frame and table.
He thus cuts eight or nine at a time, after which a further length
is drawn forward, and the cycle repeated. Means are provided for
registering the number passed through; from 36,000 yards to 40,000
yards can be treated per day.

The bags may be made of different materials, e.g. the first four in
Fig. 32. When hessian cloth, II, Fig. 32, is used, the sewing is
usually done by quick-running small machines, such as the Yankee or
Union; each of these machines is capable of sewing more than 2,000
bags per day. For the heavier types of cloth, such as sacking,
_S_, Fig. 32, the sewing is almost invariably done by the Laing or
overhead sewing machine, the general type of which is illustrated in
Fig. 49, and made by Mr. D. J. Macdonald, South St. Roque's Works,
Dundee. This is an absolutely fast stitch, and approximately 1,000
bags can be sewn in one day.

[Illustration: FIG. 49 OVERHEAD (LAING) SACK SEWING MACHINE _By
permission of Mr. D. J. Macdonald_]

The distinctive marks in bags for identification often take the form
of coloured stripes woven in the cloth, and as illustrated at
_S_, Fig. 32. It is obvious that a considerable variety can be
made by altering the number of the stripes, their position, and
their width, while if different coloured threads appear in the same
cloth, the variety is still further increased.

Many firms, however, prefer to have their names, trade marks, and
other distinctive features printed on the bags; in these cases, the
necessary particulars are printed on the otherwise completed bag by
a sack-printing machine of the flat-bed or circular roller type. The
latter type, which is most largely used, is illustrated in Fig. 50.
It is termed a two-colour machine, and is made by Mr. D. J. Macdonald,
Dundee; it will be observed that there are two rollers for the two
distinct colours, say red and black. Occasionally three and
four-colour machines are used, but the one-colour type is probably
the most common.

[Illustration: _By Permission of Mr. D. J. Macdonald_. FIG 50 SACK
PRINTING MACHINE]

The ownership of the bags can thus be shown distinctly by one of the
many methods of colour printing, and if any firm desires to number
their bags consecutively in order to provide a record of their stock,
or for any other purpose, the bags may be so numbered by means of a
special numbering machine, also made by Mr. D. J. Macdonald.

The last operation, excluding the actual delivery of the goods, is
that of packing the pieces or bags in small compass by means of a
hydraulic press. The goods are placed on the lower moving table upon
a suitable wrapping of some kind of jute cloth; when the requisite
quantity has been placed thereon, the top and side wrappers are
placed in position, and the pumps started in order to raise the
bottom table and to squeeze the content between it and the top fixed
table. From 1 1/2 ton to 2 tons per square inch is applied
according to the nature of the goods and their destination. While
the goods are thus held securely in position between the two plates,
the wrappers a sewn together. Then specially prepared hoops or metal
bands are placed round the bale, and an ingenious and simple system,
involving a buckle and two pins, adopted for fastening the bale. The
ends of the hoop or band are bent in a small press, and these bent
ends are passed through a rectangular hole in the buckle and the
pins inserted in the loops. As soon as the hydraulic pressure is
removed, the bale expands slightly, and the buckled hoop grips the
bale securely.

Such is in brief the routine followed in the production of the fibre,
the transformation of this fibre, first into yarn, and then into
cloth, and the use of the latter in performing the function of the
world's common carrier.




INDEX

ACCUMULATOR
Assorting jute fibre.

BAG-MAKING
Bale opener
     opening
Baling cloth
     house
     press
     station
Bast layer (see also Fibrous layer)
Batch
Batchers
Batching
     apparatus
     carts or stalls
Batch-ticket
Beamer's lease
Beaming
     (dry) direct from bank,
Blending
Bobbin winding
Bojah
Botanical features of jute plants
Breaker card
Brussels carpet
Bundle of jute.

CALCUTTA, jute machinery introduced into
Calender
     finish
Calenderoy
Carding
Card waste
Cargoes of jute
Chest finish
Clasp-rods
Conditioning fibre
Cops
Cop winding
Corchorus capsularis
     clitorius
Crisping and crisping machines
Cropping machine
Cultivation of jute
Cutting knife for jute fibre
Cuttings.

DAMPING machine
Defects in fibre and in handling
Designs or weaves
Differential motion
Dobby loom
Draft
Drafting
Drawing
  frames
    different kinds of
Drawing-in
Dressing and dressing machine
Drum
Drying jute fibre
Dust shaker.

EAST India Co.
Exports of jute from India.

FABRICS
Faller
Farming operations
Fibres,
  the five main
    imports of jute.


Fibrous layer
Finisher card
Finishing
folding machine.

Gaiting
Glazed finish
Grading jute fibre
Gunny bags.

Hand batching
Harvesting the plants
Height of jute plants
Hydraulic mangle
  press.

Identification marks on bags
Imports of jute.

Jacquard loom
Jute crop
  exports from India
  fabrics
  fibre, imports of
  industry
  knife
  plants, botanical and physical features of
  cultivation of
  height of
  marks.

Laddering
Ladders
Lapping machine
Linking machine
Linoleum
Looms
Lubrication of fibre.

Machine batching
Machinery for jute manufacture introduced into Calcutta
Mangle finish
  (hydraulic)
Marks of jute (_see_ jute marks)
Maund
Measuring and marking machine
  machine for cloth
  the warp
Methods of preparing warps
Multiple-colour printing machines.

Numbering machine for bags.

Opening jute heads
Overhead runway systems
  sewing machine (Laing's).

Packing goods
Physical features of jute plants
Pin-lease
Plaiting machine
Plants, thinning of
  weeding of
Ploughs for jute cultivation
Point-paper designs
Porcupine feed
Printing machine.

Reach
Reeling
Retting
Roller-feed
Rolls
Root-comber
  opener
Round-thread finish
Rove
Roving frame
Roxburgh, Dr.

Sack-cutting frame, semi-mechanical
Sack making
  printing machine
Sand bags
Seed
  per acre, amount of
  sowing of
Sewing machines
Shell-feed
Short-tell
Snipping machine
Softening machines
Spinning
Spool or roll winding
Spools (_see_ Rolls)
Standard bale
Starching (_see_ Dressing)
Steeping (_see_ Retting)
Striker-up (_see_ Batcher)
Stripping
Systems.

Teazer
Tell (of yarn)
Thinning of plants
Thrum
Time for harvesting the plants
Tube-twisters
Twist
Twisting
Two-colour printing machine
Tying-on
Typical jute fabrics.

Union Or Yankee sewing machine
Unloading bales of jute from ship.

Variations in jute
Varieties of jute fibre
  plants.

Warp
Warp dressing (_see_ Dressing)
Warping, beaming and dressing
  mill
Washing
Waste
  teazer
Weaves or designs
Weaving
Weaver's lease
Weeding of plants
Weft
  winding
Wilton carpet
Winding (bobbin) machine
  from hank
  (large roll) machine
  (ordinary size from hanks) machine
  rolls and cops
World's great war.

Yankee or Union sewing machine
Yarn table
Yield of fibre.



_Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., Bath, England_



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