The Project Gutenberg EBook of USDA Leaflet No. 160: Crimson Clover (1938), by 
Eugene Amos Hollowell

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most
other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions
whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of
the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at
www.gutenberg.org.  If you are not located in the United States, you'll have
to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook.

Title: USDA Leaflet No. 160: Crimson Clover (1938)

Author: Eugene Amos Hollowell

Release Date: September 10, 2020 [EBook #63169]

Language: English


*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK USDA LEAFLET NO. 160 (1938) ***




Produced by Tom Cosmas from files generously made available
by USDA through The Internet Archive. All resultant
materials are placed in the Public Domain.









Transcriber Note

Emphasis is denoted as _Italics_ and =Bold=.




=CRIMSON CLOVER=





LEAFLET No. 160

U.S.DEPARTMENT of AGRICULTURE


Issued June 1938.




=CRIMSON CLOVER=


By E. A. Hollowell, _senior agronomist, Division of Forage Crops and
Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry_




=Growth and Distribution=


Crimson clover (_Trifolium incarnatum_) is the most important winter
annual legume of the central section of the Eastern States (fig. 1).
Besides being an excellent hay plant and furnishing an abundance of
early spring pasture, it affords protection to the soil during the fall,
winter, and spring, prevents soil washing, and provides green manure for
soil improvement. This legume has the distinct advantage of being a heavy
producer of seed, which can be easily harvested and sown without the use
of expensive machinery.

[Illustration: Figure 1.--Principal crimson clover region of the United
States.]

Crimson clover is a native of Europe and is widely grown in France,
Hungary, and other central and southern European countries. Seed was
introduced into this country as early as 1819, but it was not until 1880
that the plant became of agricultural importance. During the last 6 years
the annual commercial consumption of seed in the United States has ranged
from 2 to 4 million pounds. In addition, large quantities of home-grown
seed are used and handled from farm to farm.

The common name of this clover is derived from the distinctive bright
crimson color of the blossoms. Other common names, such as German clover
and scarlet clover, are frequently heard in different localities. In
general the leaves and stems of crimson clover resemble red clover, but
are distinguished by the rounding of the tips of the leaves and a greater
covering of hair on both leaves and steins. When it is planted in the
fall the leaves develop from the crown and form a rosette, which enlarges
whenever weather conditions are favorable. In late spring flower stems
develop rapidly and terminate their growth with elongated flower heads.
Seed forms and the plant dies with the advent of hot summer weather. The
seed is yellow, slightly larger, and more rounding than red clover seed.




=Adaptation=


Crimson clover is adapted to cool, humid weather and is tolerant of winter
conditions where the temperature does not become severe or too variable.
In this region (fig. 1) it should be planted in late summer or early fall,
since early establishment and growth are favorable to its winter survival.
It will thrive on both sandy and clay soils and is tolerant of ordinary
soil acidity. On extremely poor soils, stands are difficult to obtain and
the growth is stunted. The use of manure and phosphate fertilizers on such
soils will improve the chances of obtaining good stands.

Crimson clover may also be successfully grown as a summer annual in Maine,
northern Michigan, and Minnesota. The winter culture of this clover
may be extended into Kentucky, southern Missouri, and southern Indiana
provided the seed is sown in fertile soil early in August. Production may
be successfully extended southward with an increase of soil fertility and
with seeding delayed until soil-moisture conditions are favorable.




=Seedbed Preparation=


The most important and difficult phase of successful production of crimson
clover is getting a stand. Sufficient soil moisture to germinate the seed
and to establish the seedlings is the greatest factor in obtaining a
stand, which when established usually produces a good crop.

Seedings are usually made in late August or early September between
the rows of cultivated crops. Under such conditions an ideal seedbed
is difficult to prepare, therefore careful preparation is necessary.
Furthermore, the crop plants in the row shade the clover seedlings and
seriously compete with them for the available moisture. Increasing the
distance between the rows and planting the row crop more thinly will
afford better opportunity for the establishment of the clover. When
planted between the rows of other crops, the seed is usually broadcast on
the surface and covered by cultivating or harrowing (fig. 2). Drilling
the seed after the soil surface has been stirred will usually give more
complete stands than broadcasting, and it may be done with a small
one-horse drill. The seed should not be planted more than one-half to
three-fourths of an inch deep, respectively, in clay and sandy soils.

[Illustration: Figure 2.--Seeding crimson clover in corn.]

Crimson clover is often seeded following a grain crop, and this is a
surer method of establishing a stand than planting between the rows of
cultivated crops, providing the seedbed is well prepared. After the grain
crop is removed the soil is plowed or disked and allowed to settle. This
is followed by light harrowing or disking when necessary to kill weed
seedlings. Before the clover is seeded the soil should be firmly packed,
because a loose cloddy seedbed is the forerunner of failure. The seed may
be either drilled or broadcast, but drilling will give more uniform stands.




=Fertilizers=


When the crop is planted on extremely poor soils, good stands and
growth cannot be expected. Such soil conditions may be improved by the
application of manure and phosphate fertilizers or by turning under such
crops as cowpeas, soybeans, or lespedeza. In many soils of low fertility
the use of 50 to 100 pounds per acre of a nitrogen fertilizer will
encourage early seedling growth and establishment. On the fertile soils of
this region crimson clover may be successfully grown without fertilizer,
but on most soils applications of 200 pounds of phosphate fertilizer per
acre are profitable in obtaining stands and vigorous growth (fig. 3). The
use of potash is recommended when a deficiency is known to exist.

[Illustration: Figure 3.--Effect of phosphate application on good soil:
Treated (left); untreated (right).]




=Seed Sources=


Of the total amount of seed normally used approximately 60 percent is
of foreign origin, coming principally from Hungary and France. Most of
the domestic crimson clover seed offered on the market is produced in
south-central Tennessee. While white-flowered strains and others differing
in maturity have been isolated, they are little used. Claims have been
made that locally grown seed is superior to seed from other sources
including that of foreign origin. Further experiments are needed to
determine whether such differences actually exist.




=Rate and Time of Seeding=


Under ordinary conditions 15 to 18 pounds of hulled seed will give good
stands unless there is a deficiency of soil moisture. Depending upon the
amount of foreign material 45 to 60 pounds of unhulled seed is comparable
to a 15-pound seeding rate of hulled seed. Crimson clover may be sown from
the middle of August until October 1 with the expectation of securing a
good stand. The later it is seeded the less growth can be expected and
the more readily winterkilling occurs. The early establishment of the
plants becomes more important as plantings are extended northward. Seeding
crimson clover, if possible, either immediately before or following heavy
rains will increase its chances of making a stand. The spring planting of
crimson clover in or south of the Corn Belt usually results in a short,
stunted growth followed by meager blossoming and an unprofitable yield.




=Inoculation=


In many parts of the crimson clover region it is not necessary to
inoculate the seed; but if clover has not been successfully grown on a
soil, inoculation of the seed is good insurance. If the plants are not
inoculated they will develop slowly, become yellow, and die. Inoculated
plants are able to obtain about two-thirds of their nitrogen from the air
through their root nodules. The plants may be artificially inoculated by
applying pure cultures of the bacteria to the seed or by scattering soil
from a field where inoculated crimson clover has been grown. Two hundred
to three hundred pounds per acre of such soil evenly distributed at
seeding time is sufficient.




=Unhulled Seed=


The use of unhulled seed offers the distinct advantage of increasing
the chance of obtaining thick stands. With the prevalence of dry soil
conditions, light rainfall does not cause the unhulled seed to germinate,
but hulled seed germinates readily and the seedlings may die from lack of
moisture before they can become established.

Its bulky nature makes unhulled seed more difficult to distribute
uniformly than hulled seed. It must be broadcast and may be harrowed in.
It is also difficult to market and is not generally handled by the seed
trade. But farmers can harvest seed for their own use and save the expense
of having it hulled.




=Companion Crops=


Rye, vetch, Italian ryegrass, and fall-sown grain crops are often seeded
with crimson clover. Besides making a valuable addition to the clover
(fig. 4), these companion crops help bolster up a thin stand. Such crops
are seeded from one-half to one-third the normal crop rate and the crimson
clover is seeded at the normal rate. Planting is done at the same time,
but, as a greater depth is required for most of the seed of the companion
crops, two seeding operations are necessary. In Tennessee, farmers often
use a mixture of 5 pounds of red clover and 10 pounds of crimson clover
per acre with excellent results. The first growth of the mixture may be
grazed or harvested for hay or for crimson clover seed, while the second
crop is wholly red clover.

[Illustration: Figure 4.--Crimson clover and rye, an excellent
green-manure combination.]




=Diseases and Insects=


The only serious disease that affects crimson clover is stem rot. The
effect of this disease is seen in the early spring and is characterized by
the plants dying in patches. The stems rot at the surface of the soil or
where they join the crown. The occurrence of continued damp cool weather
during early spring favors the development of the disease. Exclusion of
clover and other legumes from the rotation for a period of 2 to 5 years is
the best control method.

Sandy soils in the southern part of the crimson clover belt are often
infested with nematodes. Nematode injury results in a stunting and
yellowing of the plants and is most prevalent in the southern part of the
region. While the clover-seed chalcid, the pea aphid, and other insects
sometimes become numerous in crimson clover, insects do not ordinarily
cause appreciable damage.




=Utilization=


Crimson clover grows rapidly in early spring and furnishes an abundance
of early grazing (fig. 5). If planted early and an abundant fall growth
is made, the clover may also be grazed during the fall and winter months.
Such a practice has been successfully followed in Tennessee, where crimson
clover has provided the winter pasturage. The grazing, however, should be
restricted to periods when the soil is relatively dry, otherwise damage
may result from trampling. Animals grazing on crimson clover seldom bloat;
however, it is advisable not to turn them into clover fields for the
first time when they are hungry. Bloat is less likely to occur when a
mixture of clover and grass or grain is grazed than when the clover alone
is grazed. As crimson clover reaches maturity the hairs of the heads and
stems become hard and tough. When grazed continuously or when fed as
hay at this stage of maturity large masses of the hairs are liable to
form into hair balls in stomachs of horses and mules. Occasionally the
hair balls are responsible for the death of animals. If small amounts of
other feeds, particularly roughages, are fed along with the clover, the
formation of these balls will be reduced. Cattle, sheep, and swine do not
seem to be affected.

[Illustration: Figure 5.--Crimson clover provides an abundance of early
spring grazing.]

Crimson clover makes excellent hay when cut at the early bloom stage
although the yield may be slightly reduced. For maximum yields it should
be harvested in full bloom. The hay is easily cured either in the swath
or in the windrow. Fewer leaves are lost and less bleaching occurs in
windrowed hay. Although yields as high as 2½ tons per acre are not
uncommon on fertile soil, 1½ to 2 tons is an ordinary production.

Crimson clover is an ideal green-manure crop. For the best result it
should be plowed under 2 to 3 weeks before planting the succeeding crop.
This gives sufficient time for decomposition, which is rapid unless the
crop is mature when plowed under. Occasionally, strips are plowed in which
row crops are planted, allowing the clover between the plowed strips
to mature. Seed may be harvested by hand from the clover between the
row crop, and the remaining clover straw allowed to mat and serve as a
mulch, or the entire plant may be permitted to form a mulch. A volunteer
seeding may be secured in this way, especially in the northern part of
this region, but attempts to follow such a practice should be tried on a
small scale until experience is gained. When used in orchards, crimson
clover is often allowed to mature, after which it is disked into the soil.
Occasionally a volunteer seeding may be obtained in the fall.




=Seed Production=


Crimson clover is a prolific seed-producing plant and yields of 5 to
10 bushels per acre are common, depending upon the thickness of the
stand, the amount of growth that is produced, and the care exercised in
harvesting the seed. The florets are self-fertile, but bees are effective
in tripping and transferring the pollen, with a consequent increase in the
number of seed per head. The placing of colonies of honeybees adjacent
to blooming fields will effectively increase pollination. More seed is
usually produced on soils of medium fertility than on rich soils, since
fertile soils seem to stimulate the growth of stems and leaves at the
expense of flower-head development.

Large yields and ease of harvesting crimson clover seed are the principal
reasons why crimson clover is such an ideal legume crop. Farmers may save
seed with very little expense other than their own labor. When the seed
heads are mature they readily shatter and are easily harvested either by
hand stripping or by using horse-drawn homemade strippers. One bushel of
unhulled seed contains about 2 pounds of hulled seed, and although bulky
in nature, it can be easily stored on the farm until fall.

[Illustration: Figure 6.--Cutting a crimson clover seed crop with a mower
equipped with a bunching attachment.]

When the seed is mature the crop is cut with a mower, which may be
equipped with a bunching or windrowing attachment (fig. 6) or it may be
harvested with a combine. During wet seasons difficulties in combining the
seed from standing plants may be experienced. Under such conditions the
plants may be cut and windrowed and then threshed by the combine from the
windrow. As crimson clover shatters easily when ripe, cutting with the
mower when the heads are damp with dew or rain is recommended. If allowed
to stand too long after it is ripe a beating rain will shatter much of
the seed. After a few days of curing, the seed is hulled with an ordinary
clover huller or a grain separator equipped with hulling attachments. The
less the clover is handled, the less seed will be lost by shattering.

Troublesome weeds are encountered in growing crimson clover seed; field
peppergrass (_Lepidium campestre_) and wintercress (_Barbarea praecox_)
are probably the worst, as their separation from the clover seed is
difficult. Little barley (_Hordeum pusillum_) is objectionable in unhulled
seed, and the use of unhulled seed will naturally increase the prevalence
of this weed.


U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1938

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. -- Price 5
cents


       *       *       *       *       *


=Transcriber Note=


Illustrations moved to avoid splitting paragraphs and closer to references
in the text. Minor typos may have been corrected.





End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of USDA Leaflet No. 160: Crimson Clover
(1938), by Eugene Amos Hollowell

*** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK USDA LEAFLET NO. 160 (1938) ***

***** This file should be named 63169-8.txt or 63169-8.zip *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:
        http://www.gutenberg.org/6/3/1/6/63169/

Produced by Tom Cosmas from files generously made available
by USDA through The Internet Archive. All resultant
materials are placed in the Public Domain.

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will
be renamed.

Creating the works from print editions not protected by U.S. copyright
law means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works,
so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United
States without permission and without paying copyright
royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part
of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm
concept and trademark. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark,
and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks, unless you receive
specific permission. If you do not charge anything for copies of this
eBook, complying with the rules is very easy. You may use this eBook
for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports,
performances and research. They may be modified and printed and given
away--you may do practically ANYTHING in the United States with eBooks
not protected by U.S. copyright law. Redistribution is subject to the
trademark license, especially commercial redistribution.

START: FULL LICENSE

THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK

To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full
Project Gutenberg-tm License available with this file or online at
www.gutenberg.org/license.

Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works

1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or
destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your
possession. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a
Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound
by the terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the
person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph
1.E.8.

1.B. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See
paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this
agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works. See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the
Foundation" or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection
of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Nearly all the individual
works in the collection are in the public domain in the United
States. If an individual work is unprotected by copyright law in the
United States and you are located in the United States, we do not
claim a right to prevent you from copying, distributing, performing,
displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as
all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. Of course, we hope
that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting
free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm
works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the
Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work. You can easily
comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the
same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when
you share it without charge with others.

1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are
in a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States,
check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this
agreement before downloading, copying, displaying, performing,
distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any
other Project Gutenberg-tm work. The Foundation makes no
representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any
country outside the United States.

1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other
immediate access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear
prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work
on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed,
performed, viewed, copied or distributed:

  This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and
  most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no
  restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it
  under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this
  eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org. If you are not located in the
  United States, you'll have to check the laws of the country where you
  are located before using this ebook.

1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is
derived from texts not protected by U.S. copyright law (does not
contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the
copyright holder), the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in
the United States without paying any fees or charges. If you are
redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work, you must comply
either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 or
obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm
trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any
additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms
will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works
posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the
beginning of this work.

1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including
any word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access
to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format
other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official
version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site
(www.gutenberg.org), you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense
to the user, provide a copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means
of obtaining a copy upon request, of the work in its original "Plain
Vanilla ASCII" or other form. Any alternate format must include the
full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
provided that

* You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
  the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
  you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is owed
  to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he has
  agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project
  Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments must be paid
  within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are
  legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. Royalty
  payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project
  Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in
  Section 4, "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg
  Literary Archive Foundation."

* You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
  you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
  does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
  License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all
  copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue
  all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm
  works.

* You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of
  any money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
  electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of
  receipt of the work.

* You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
  distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than
are set forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing
from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and The
Project Gutenberg Trademark LLC, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm
trademark. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.

1.F.

1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
works not protected by U.S. copyright law in creating the Project
Gutenberg-tm collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may
contain "Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate
or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other
intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or
other medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or
cannot be read by your equipment.

1.F.2. LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right
of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal
fees. YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT
LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE
PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH 1.F.3. YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE
TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.

1.F.3. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a
defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium
with your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you
with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in
lieu of a refund. If you received the work electronically, the person
or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second
opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If
the second copy is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing
without further opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO
OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE.

1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of
damages. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement
violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement, the
agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or
limitation permitted by the applicable state law. The invalidity or
unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the
remaining provisions.

1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in
accordance with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the
production, promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works, harmless from all liability, costs and expenses,
including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of
the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this
or any Project Gutenberg-tm work, (b) alteration, modification, or
additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any
Defect you cause.

Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of
computers including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It
exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations
from people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future
generations. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help, see
Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation information page at
www.gutenberg.org



Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by
U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is in Fairbanks, Alaska, with the
mailing address: PO Box 750175, Fairbanks, AK 99775, but its
volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous
locations. Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West, Salt
Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887. Email contact links and up to
date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and
official page at www.gutenberg.org/contact

For additional contact information:

    Dr. Gregory B. Newby
    Chief Executive and Director
    [email protected]

Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To SEND
DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular
state visit www.gutenberg.org/donate

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations. To
donate, please visit: www.gutenberg.org/donate

Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project
Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be
freely shared with anyone. For forty years, he produced and
distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of
volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as not protected by copyright in
the U.S. unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not
necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper
edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search
facility: www.gutenberg.org

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.