Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos : or Quadripartite

By Claudius Ptolemy

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Title: Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos
       or Quadripartite

Author: Claudius Ptolemy

Translator: J. M. Ashmand

Release Date: May 24, 2023 [eBook #70850]

Language: English

Produced by: deaurider and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
    (This file was produced from images
             generously made available by The Internet Archive)


Transcriber’s Notes:

Underscores “_” before and after a word or phrase indicate _italics_
in the original text. Small capitals have been converted to SOLID
capitals. Illustrations have been moved so they do not break up
paragraphs. Old or antiquated spellings have been preserved.
Typographical and punctuation errors have been silently corrected.

                        PTOLEMY’S TETRABIBLOS
                             FOUR BOOKS
                               OF THE
                      _INFLUENCE OF THE STARS_

                    A PREFACE, EXPLANATORY NOTES
                            _AN APPENDIX_
                        AND THE WHOLE OF HIS
                            TOGETHER WITH
        _A Short Notice of Mr. Ranger’s Zodiacal Planisphere_
                      AND AN EXPLANATORY PLATE

                          By J. M. ASHMAND

                             NEW EDITION

         “Ye stars, which are the poetry of Heaven!
          If, in your bright leaves, we would read the fate
          Of men and empires,—’tis to be forgiven.”
                                                 LORD BYRON.

                     DEALERS IN SCIENTIFIC BOOKS

                 _Made and Printed in Great Britain_

                               TO THE
                       _AUTHOR OF “WAVERLEY”_
                          THIS TRANSLATION
                                OF A
                            IS DEDICATED
    _With the most profound admiration of his unrivalled Talents_
                                OF AN
                        _ANTIQUATED SCIENCE_


The use recently made of Astrology in the poetical machinery of certain
works of genius (which are of the highest popularity, and above all
praise), seems to have excited in the world at large a desire to learn
something of the mysteries of that science which has, in all former
ages, if not in these days, more or less engaged reverence and usurped
belief. The apparent existence of such a general desire has caused the
completion of the following Translation, and its presentation to the
public; although it was originally undertaken only in part, and merely
to satisfy two or three individuals of the grounds on which the now
neglected doctrines of Astrology had so long and so fully maintained


     CHAP.                                                         PAGE
                                BOOK I
        I. Proem                                                      1
       II. Knowledge may be acquired by Astronomy to a certain Extent 2
      III. That Prescience is useful                                  8
       IV. The Influences of the Planetary Orbs                      13
        V. Benefics and Malefics                                     14
       VI. Masculine and Feminine                                    14
      VII. Diurnal and Nocturnal                                     15
     VIII. The Influence of Position with regard to the Sun          16
       IX. The Influence of the fixed Stars                          16
        X. Constellations North of the Zodiac                        19
       XI. Constellations South of the Zodiac                        20
      XII. The Annual Seasons                                        21
     XIII. The Influence of the Four Angles                          21
      XIV. Tropical, Equinoctial, Fixed, and Bicorporeal Signs       23
       XV. Masculine and Feminine Signs                              23
      XVI. Mutual Configurations of the Signs                        24
     XVII. Signs commanding and obeying                              26
    XVIII. Signs beholding each other, and of equal Power            26
      XIX. Signs Inconjunct                                          27
       XX. Houses of the Planets                                     28
      XXI. The Triplicities                                          29
     XXII. Exaltations                                               31
    XXIII. The Disposition of the Terms                              32
     XXIV. The Terms (according to Ptolemy)                          35
      XXV. The Places and Degrees of every Planet                    36
     XXVI. Faces, Chariots, and other similar Attributes
               of the Planets                                        37
    XXVII. Application, Separation, and other Faculties              38

                                BOOK II
        I. General Division of the Subject                           40
       II. Peculiarities observable throughout every entire Climate  41
      III. The Familiarity of the Regions of the Earth with the
               Triplicities and the Planets                          43
       IV. The Familiarity of the Regions of the Earth with the
               Fixed Stars                                           52
        V. Mode of Particular Prediction in Eclipses                 52
       VI. The Regions or Countries to be considered as liable
               to be comprehended in the Event                       53
      VII. The Time and Period of the Event                          54
     VIII. The Genus, Class, or Kind, liable to be affected          55
       IX. The Quality and Nature of the Effect                      58
        X. Colours in Eclipses, Comets, and Similar Phenomena        62
       XI. The New Moon of the Year                                  63
      XII. The particular Natures of the Signs by which the
              different Constitutions of the Atmosphere are
              Produced                                               64
     XIII. Mode of Consideration for particular Constitutions
              of the Atmosphere                                      66
      XIV. The Signification of Meteors                              68

                               BOOK III
        I. Proem                                                     71
       II. The Conception, and the Parturition, or Birth;
               by which latter Event the Animal quits the Womb,
               and assumes another State of Existence                72
      III. The Degree Ascending                                      74
       IV. Distribution of the Doctrine of Nativities                75
        V. The Parents                                               77
       VI. Brothers and Sisters                                      81
      VII. Male or Female                                            82
     VIII. Twins                                                     83
       IX. Monstrous or Defective Births                             85
        X. Children not Reared                                       86
       XI. The Duration of Life                                      88
      XII. The Prorogatory Places                                    88
     XIII. The Number of Prorogators, and also the Part of Fortune   89
      XIV. Number of the Modes of Prorogation                        91
       XV. Exemplification                                           96
      XVI. The Form and Temperament of the Body                     100
     XVII. The Hurts, Injuries, and Diseases of the Body            106
    XVIII. The Quality of the Mind                                  107
      XIX. The Diseases of the Mind                                 114

                                BOOK IV
        I. Proem                                                    117
       II. The Fortune of Wealth                                    117
      III. The Fortune of Rank                                      118
       IV. The Quality of Employment                                120
        V. Marriage                                                 124
       VI. Children                                                 128
      VII. Friends and Enemies                                      130
     VIII. Travelling                                               132
       IX. The Kind of Death                                        134
        X. The Periodical Divisions of Time                         137

        I. Almagest, Book viii, Chap. 4                             144
       II. Extract from the Almagest, Book II, Chap. 9              147
           Table of Latitudes, from the Almagest                    151
           Extract from the Table of Ascensions, in the Almagest    152
      III. Ptolemy’s Centiloquy                                     153
       IV. The Zodiacal Planisphere, and plate                      161


Of all sciences, whether true or false, which have at any time engaged
the attention of the world, there is not one of which the real or
assumed principles are less generally known, in the present age, than
those of Astrology. The whole doctrine of this science is commonly
understood to have been completely overturned; and, of late, people
seem to have satisfied themselves with merely knowing the import of its
name. Such contented ignorance, in persons, too, sufficiently informed
in other respects, is the more extraordinary, since Astrology has
sustained a most conspicuous part throughout the history of the world,
even until days comparatively recent. In the East, where it first
arose, at a period of very remote antiquity,[1] and whence it came to
subjugate the intellect of Europe, it still even now holds sway. In
Europe, and in every part of the world where learning had “impress’d
the human soil,” Astrology reigned supreme until the middle of the
17th century. It entered into the councils of princes, it guided the
policy of nations, and ruled the daily actions of individuals. All this
is attested by the records of every nation which has a history, and
by none more fully than by those of England. Yet, with these striking
facts before their eyes, the present generation seem never, until now,
to have inquired on what basis this belief of their forefathers was
established, nor by what authority the delusion (if it was one) could
have been for so many ages supported. Among a thousand persons who
now treat the mention of Astrology with supercilious ridicule, there
is scarcely one who knows distinctly what it is he laughs at, or on
what plea his ancestors should stand excused for having, in their day,
contemplated with respect the unfortunate object of modern derision.

[1] Sir Isaac Newton has the following remarks in regard to the origin
of Astrology:—“After the study of Astronomy was set on foot for the use
of navigation, and the Ægyptians, by the heliacal risings and settings
of the stars, had determined the length of the solar year of 365 days,
and by other observations had fixed the solstices, and formed the
fixed stars into asterisms, all which was done in the reigns of Ammon,
Sesac, Orus, and Memnon,” (about 1000 years before Christ), “it may be
presumed that they continued to observe the motions of the planets,
for they called them after the names of their gods; and Nechepsos, or
Nicepsos, King of Sais,” (772 B.C.), “by the assistance of Petosiris, a
priest of Ægypt, invented astrology, grounding it upon the aspects of
the planets, and the qualities of the men and women to whom they were
dedicated;† and in the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar, King of
Babylon, about which time the Æthiopians, under Sabacon, invaded Ægypt”
(751 B.C.), “those Ægyptians who fled from him to Babylon, carried
thither the Ægyptian year of 365 days, and the study of astronomy and
astrology, and founded the æra of Nabonassar, dating it from the first
year of that king’s reign” (747 B.C.), “and beginning the year on the
same day with the Ægyptians for the sake of their calculations. So
Diodorus: ‘_they say that the Chaldæan in Babylon, being colonies of
the Ægyptians, became famous for astrology, having learned it from the
priests of Ægypt_.’”—Newton’s Chronology, pp. 251, 252.

Again, in p. 327: “The practice of observing the stars began in Ægypt
in the days of Ammon, as above, and was propagated from thence, in the
reign of his son Sesac, into Afric, Europe, and Asia, by conquest;
and then Atlas formed the sphere of the Libyans” (956 B.C.), “and
Chiron that of the Greeks (939 B.C.); and the Chaldæans also made a
sphere of their own. But astrology was invented in Ægypt by Nichepsos,
or Necepsos, one of the Kings of the Lower Ægypt, and Petosiris his
priest, a little before the days of Sabacon, and propagated thence into
Chaldæa, where Zoroaster, the legislator of the Magi, met with it: so

    ‘_Quique magos docuit mysteria vana Necepsos._’”

The arcana of Astrology constituted a main feature in the doctrines of
the Persian Magi; and it further appears, by Newton’s Chronology, p.
347, that Zoroaster (although the æra of his life has been erroneously
assigned to various remoter periods) lived in the reign of Darius
Hystaspis, about 520 B.C., and assisted Hystaspes, the father of
Darius, in reforming the Magi, of whom the said Hystaspes was Master.
Newton adds, p. 352, that “about the same time with Hystaspes and
Zoroaster, lived also Ostanes, another eminent Magus: Pliny places him
under Darius Hystaspis, and Suidas makes him the follower of Zoroaster:
he came into Greece with Xerxes about 480 B.C., and seems to be the
Otanes of Herodotus. In his book, called the Octateuchus, he taught the
same doctrine of the Deity as Zoroaster.”

Having quoted thus far from Newton, it seems proper to subjoin the
following extract from the “Ancient Universal History:”—“In the reign
of Gushtasp” (the oriental name of Darius Hystaspis), “King of Persia,
flourished a celebrated astrologer, whose name was Gjamasp, surnamed
Al Hakim, or the wise. The most credible writers say that he was the
brother of King Gushtasp, and his confidant and chief minister. He is
said to have predicted the coming of the Messiah; and some treatises
under his name are yet current in the East. Dr. Thomas Hyde, in
speaking of this philosopher, cites a passage from a very ancient
author, having before told us that this author asserted there had been
among the Persians ten doctors of such consummate wisdom as the whole
world could not boast the like. He then gives the author’s words: ‘Of
these, the sixth was Gjamasp, an astrologer, who was counsellor to
Hystaspis. He is the author of a book intitled _Judicia Gjamaspis_,
in which is contained his judgment on the planetary conjunctions. And
therein he gave notice that Jesus should appear; that Mohammed should
be born; that the Magian religion should be abolished, etc.; nor did
any astrologer ever come up to him.’ (_E. lib. Mucj. apud Hyde._) Of
this book there is an Arabic version, the title of which runs thus:
The Book of the Philosopher Gjamasp, containing Judgments on the Grand
Conjunctions of the Planets, and on the Events produced by them.
This version was made by Lali; the title he gave it in Arabic was Al
Keranai, and he published it A.D. 1280. In the preface of his version
it is said that, after the times of Zoroaster, or Zerdusht, reigned
Gushtasp, the son of Lohrasp,†† a very powerful prince; and that in his
reign flourished in the city of Balch, on the borders of Chorassan,
a most excellent philosopher, whose name was Gjamasp, author of this
book; wherein is contained an account of all the great conjunctions
of the planets which had happened before his time, and which were to
happen in succeeding ages; and wherein the appearances of new religions
and the rise of new monarchies were exactly set down. This author,
throughout his whole piece, styles Zerdusht, or Zoroaster, our Prophet.
(D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Gjamasp.) The notion of predicting
the rise and progress of religions from the grand conjunctions of the
planets, has been likewise propagated in our western parts: Cardan
was a bold assertor of this doctrine. The modern Persians are still
great votaries of astrology, and although they distinguish between
it and astronomy, they have but one word to express astronomer and
astrologer; viz. _manegjim_, which is exactly equivalent to the Greek
word αςτρολογος. Of all the provinces of Persia, Chorassan is the most
famous for producing great men in that art; and in Chorassan there is
a little town called Genabed, and in that town a certain family which,
for 6 or 700 years past, has produced the most famous astrologers
in Persia; and the king’s astrologer is always either a native of
Genabed, or one brought up there. Sir John Chardin affirms that the
appointments in his time for these sages amounted to six millions of
French livres per annum.—Albumazar of Balch scholar of Alkendi, a Jew,
who was professor of judicial astrology at Bagdad, in the Caliphate
of Almamoum††† became wonderfully famous. He wrote expressly from the
Persian astrologers, and it may be from the works of Gjamasp, since
he also reports a prediction of the coming of Christ in the following
words: viz. ‘In the sphere of Persia, saith Aben Ezra, there ariseth
upon the face of the sign Virgo a beautiful maiden, she holding two
ears of corn in her hand, and a child in her arm: she feedeth him,
and giveth him suck, &c. This maiden,’ saith Albumazar, ‘we call
Adrenedefa, the pure Virgin. She bringeth up a child in a place which
is called Abrie (the Hebrew land), and the child’s name is called Eisi
(Jesus).’ This made Albertus Magnus believe that our Saviour, Christ,
was born in Virgo; and therefore Cardinal Alliac, erecting our Lord’s
nativity by his description, casteth this sign into the horoscope.
But the meaning of Albumazar was, saith Friar Bacon, that the said
virgin was born, the Sun being in that sign, and so it is noted in the
calendar; and that she was to bring up her son in the Hebrew land.
(Mr. John Gregory’s Notes on various Passages of Scripture.)”—_Ancient
Universal History, vol. 5, pp. 415 to 419._

†It is maintained by astrologers, that the planets, _having been
observed_ to produce certain effects, were _consequently_ dedicated to
the several personages whose names they respectively bear.

††This caliph reigned in the earlier part of the 9th century, and
caused Ptolemy’s Great Construction to be translated into Arabic, as
hereafter mentioned.

†††This seems to be a mistake of the Arabian author, for Gushtasp was
identical with Darius Hystaspis, and Lohrasp (otherwise Cyaxares) was
father of Darius the Mede, who was overcome by Cyrus, 536 B.C.—See

The general want of information on these points, and the indifference
with which such want has been hitherto regarded, cannot surely be
attributed solely to the modern disrepute of the science; for mankind
have usually, in every successive age, exercised great industry in
tracing all previous customs, however trifling or obsolete, and in
examining all sorts of creeds, however unimportant or erroneous,
whenever there has appeared any striking connection between
such matters and historical facts; and, since astrology is most
unquestionably blended intimately with history, it therefore becomes
necessary to seek for some further hypothesis, by which this ignorance
and indifference may be accounted for.

Perhaps astrology has been conceived to have borne the same relation
to astronomy as alchymy did to chymistry. If such has been the notion,
it has certainly been adopted in error, for a modern chymist is still
almost an alchymist: it is true that he no longer delays his work in
deference to the planets, nor does he now try to make gold, nor to
distil elixir of earthly immortality; but nevertheless he still avails
himself, to a certain degree, of the same rules and the same means
as those of the old alchymist: he is still intent upon the subtle
processes of Nature, and still imitates her as far as he can. He
reduces the diamond to charcoal by an operation analogous to that by
which the alchymist sought to transmute lead into gold; and he mainly
differs from the alchymist only in having assured himself that there
is a point beyond which Nature forbids facsimiles. Not so slightly,
however, does the astronomer differ from the astrologer, but _toto
cœlo_: the astrologer considered the heavenly bodies and their motions
merely as the mechanism wherewith he was to weave the tissue of his
predictions; and astronomy is no more an integral part of astrology,
than the loom is of the web which has been woven by it. To have an idea
of what alchymy was, it is sufficient to have an idea of chymistry;
but astronomy, in itself, will never give a notion of astrology, which
requires additional and distinct consideration.

It may be urged, that in the present day a general idea of this
bygone and disused science is quite sufficient for everybody not
professedly antiquarian. Such an assertion would doubtless never be
controverted, provided the proposed general idea might comprehend the
truth. But the present actual general idea of astrology is by no means
so comprehensive; indeed, nothing can well be more inaccurate, or
even more false: it seems to have been adopted not from the elements
of the science itself, but from trite observations made by writers
against the science; and consequently the world now wonders at the
lamentable defect of understanding that could ever have permitted
belief in it—forgetting that astrology has been consigned to neglect,
not in consequence of any _primâ facie_ palpability in its imputed
fallacies, nor indeed of any special skill or acuteness on the part of
its professed adversaries, but rather in consequence of the sudden and
astonishing growth of other undoubted sciences, with which it has been
presumed to be incompatible, and which during the thousands of years
of the reign of astrology were either unborn, or still slumbering in
continued infancy.[2]

The words “professed adversaries,” which have just now been used, are
of course not intended to be applied to those mighty explorers of
Nature’s laws and man’s powers, who, in their lofty career, may have
made an incidental swoop at the pretensions of astrology. Directly
engaged in more exact pursuits, they stopped not to dissect this
their casual prey, which, after having been thus struck by eagles,
was left to regale crows and daws, and these, in their convivial
loquacity, accused their unfortunate victims of crimes incapable of
being committed, and of offences which had never been imagined. Of the
real faults of their victim these garrulous bipeds seem not to have
been aware, or, if aware, they seem to have considered them as not
sufficiently prominent. Nor was this want of candour or information
absolutely confined to the mere vulgar herd of vituperative scribblers,
for even the sparkling essay against astrology, written by Voltaire (in
his irrepressible desire to convince the world that he was _au fait_
in everything), proves only that the writer, though the most generally
informed man of his time, had mistaken the really assailable points of
the object of his attack.

[2] To this view of the case, the following remarks seem not
inapplicable: they are taken from a periodical work of deserved

“The study of astrology itself, as professing to discover, by celestial
phenomena, future mutations in the elements and terrestrial bodies,
ought, perhaps, not to be despised.† The theory of the tides, for
example, is altogether an astrological doctrine, and, long before the
days of Sir Isaac Newton, was as well understood as it is at this
moment. The correspondence alleged by the ancient physicians to exist
between the positions of the Moon and the stages of various diseases,
is so far from being rejected by the modern faculty, that it has been
openly maintained.”†† The writer then recounts sundry incidents,
asserted by the astrologers to be dependent on the Moon, and he
adds these words: “The fact of these allegations might be so easily
ascertained, that it is surprising they should still be pronounced
incredible, and _denied_ rather than _contradicted_.”

†“Sir Christopher Heydon’s Defence of Astrology, p. 2, edit. 1603.”

††“Dr. Mead on the Influence of the Sun and Moon upon Human Bodies.
See also Edinb. Rev. vol. 12, p. 36—Balfour on Sol-Lunar Influence.”
_Blackwood’s Magazine for Dec., 1821, Part 2, No. 59._

The author of the present Translation has no intention now of either
advocating or impugning the doctrines of the science of which his
Translation discourses: his purpose is a different one. He has that
sort of respect for “the dead, which are really dead,” which, although
it does not incline him to “praise” them “_more_ than the living, which
are yet alive,” is still sufficient to incite him to endeavour to avert
the imputation of idiot credulity, to which their faith in astrology
seems now to subject them in the general opinion of the enlightened
“living.” And, while he disclaims all idea of presuming to offer any
argument on either side of the question, as to the validity of the
science, he must still, at the same time, confess his admiration of the
ingenuity and contrivance manifest in its construction, and avow his
readiness to believe that all its harmonized complications might have
easily held dominion over some of the strongest minds in that darker
period when it flourished.

In executing here the desire of attempting to vindicate the ancient
credence in astrology, an elaborate disquisition would surely be not
only unnecessary, but misplaced: it seems sufficient to refer the
reader to the work of which the following is a translation, and to
these undisputed facts—that the science was formerly inculcated by the
highest and most erudite authorities of the period—that it was insisted
on by votaries in all parts of the world, attesting and producing
instances of its truth;—and, moreover, that it was so finely and
beautifully put together, as to cause the only deficiency of one small,
though most important, link in its whole chain of argument, to be
undetected by dull minds, and readily supplied by enthusiastic genius.
For centuries after centuries all branches of learning were either made
subservient to astrology, or carried on in close alliance with it; and
many of the illustrious names which it recalls to our recollection
are gratefully reverenced even by modern science. The genius of Roger
Bacon, although he was the first of that school of natural philosophy
which acknowledges none but experimented truths, was nevertheless bowed
to the doctrines of judicial astrology; and his greater Namesake, who
after an interval of several centuries succeeded to him in giving
proper direction to the mental energy, was still an arguer in favour of
celestial influences: it may be, therefore, fairly inferred, that the
subtle spell which had strength to enthrall “stuff” so “stern,” could
have been of no weak or vulgar order, but that it was sufficiently
potent and refined to interest and amuse even the present age.[3]

[3] In the 51st No. of the Quarterly Review, Art. “_Astrology and
Alchymy_,” the following observations are made:—

“Certainly, if man may ever found his glory on the achievements of
his wisdom, he may reasonably exult in the discoveries of astronomy;
but the knowledge which avails us has been created solely by the
absurdities which it has extirpated. Delusion became the basis of
truth. Horoscopes and nativities have taught us to place the planet in
its sure and silent path; and the acquirements which, of all others,
now testify the might of the human intellect, derived their origin from
weakness and credulity” (p. 181). Again; “Astrology, like alchymy,
derives no protection from sober reason; yet, with all its vanity
and idleness, it was not a corrupting weakness. Tokens, predictions,
prognostics, possess a psychological reality. All events are but the
consummation of preceding causes, clearly felt, but not distinctly
apprehended. When the strain is sounded, the most untutored listener
can tell that it will end with the key-note, though he cannot explain
why each successive bar must at last lead to the concluding chord. The
omen embodies the presentiment, and receives its consistency from our
hopes or fears.” (p. 208).

It may, perhaps, be difficult to assent to all of the propositions
involved in these extracts; but there are among them some which are
clearly unquestionable.

In this little volume will be found the whole of the elements of
astrology, and the entire ground-work of those stupendous tomes in
folio and quarto on the same subject, which were produced in myriads
during the 16th and 17th centuries, for the due mystification of the
then world. The present volume is addressed equally to the general
reader, as well as to the votary of pure astrology, if any such there
be; to the one it offers amusement; for the other, it should contain
the most glowing interest. Even to the speculative metaphysician it
will furnish food for contemplation; for, in addition to its peculiar
hypothesis of cause and effect, it develops many of those apparent
incongruities of character so often united in the same individual; and
this development, even although adapted to the doctrine of the stars,
still merits attention; inasmuch as the phenomena of which it treats
(in whatever way they may be produced or regulated) will ever remain in
actual existence.

The only English translation of Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos, hitherto
published, appears to have been first set forth in 1701, under the name
of “The Quadripartite.” That publication has been long removed from
general sale; and its gross misinterpretation of the author, caused by
the carelessness or ignorance of Whalley and his assistants, by whom
it was produced, has rendered most of its pages unintelligible: its
absence is, therefore, scarcely to be regretted. The second edition
of the same translation, professing to be “revised, corrected, and
improved,” and published by Browne and Sibley, in 1786, was not, in
any one instance, purified from the blunders and obscurities which
disgraced its predecessor: it seems, in fact, less excusable than the
former edition, of which it was merely a reprint, without being at all
corrected, not even in certain typographical _errata_ which the former
printer had been zealous enough to point out in his final page. Even
this second publication, worthless as it intrinsically is, can rarely
now be met with, and, like the former, only at a very heavy price.

The present Translation has been made from Proclus’s Greek Paraphrase
of Ptolemy’s original text; the edition followed is that of the
Elzevirs, dated in 1635.[4] But, in the course of translation,
continual references have been also had to various editions of the
original text, in order to ascertain the proper acceptation of doubtful
passages. The editions thus inspected were that by Camerarius, printed
at Nuremberg in 1535; that by Melancthon, printed at Basle in 1553;
and that by Junctinus, printed, with his own enormous commentaries,
at Lyons, in 1581. Independently of these references, the present
translation has been collated with the Latin of Leo Allatius, and with
two other Latin translations: one printed at Basle, together with a
translation of the Almagest in 1541; the other by itself at Perugio, in
1646.[5] The Translator has devoted all this extreme care and attention
to his labours, in the wish to render Ptolemy’s astro-judicial
doctrine into English as purely and perfectly as possible; and, with
the same view, he has likewise added, in an Appendix, certain extracts
from such parts of the Almagest as were found to be referred to in his
present work. Further illustration is also given by notes gathered
from the “Primum Mobile” of Placidus,[6] and from a variety of other
sources whence any elucidation of the text might be derived. Even
Whalley’s “Annotations” (to use his own grandiloquent designation) have
occasionally yielded information, not altogether unimportant, although
generally incomplete.

[4] This edition was printed in double columns, one containing
Proclus’s Greek Paraphrase, the other the Latin translation of Leo
Allatius; and William Lilly (no light authority in these matters)
thus wrote of it in the year 1647: “Indeed Ptolemy hath been printed
in folio, in quarto, in octavo, in sixteens: that lately printed at
Leyden” (where cthe Elzevirs were established) “I conceive to be most
exact; it was performed by Allatius.” To the said edition is prefixed
an anonymous address to the reader, in Latin, and to the following

“I have reckoned it part of my duty to give you, benevolent reader,
some short information as to the publication of this little work,
which, having hitherto existed only in Greek,† is now, in its Latin
dress, accessible to the curiosity of all persons. This Paraphrase of
Proclus on the Tetrabiblos of Ptolemy was translated a few years ago by
Leo Allatius, a Greek by birth, eminently skilled in the learning of
his own nation, as well as in Latin literature, and already celebrated
for other writings in both languages. He lives, I have understood, in
Rome, in the family of Cardinal Biscia, and holds some office in the
Vatican Library. He undertook his present work, however, for his own
private gratification, and that of certain friends; but when writings
compiled with this view have once quitted their author’s hands, it
will often happen that they have also, at the same time, escaped his
control. So this offspring of Allatius, having emerged from Rome,
arrived at Venice, from whence it was forwarded to me by a certain
great personage of illustrious rank, in order that I might cause
it to be printed. The names of Ptolemy and Proclus, so celebrated
among mathematicians and philosophers, besides the subject of the
work itself, seemed to me a sufficient warrant for committing it to
the press. Whereupon I delayed not to avail myself of the advantages
I possessed in having access to our excellent and most accurate
typographers, the Elzevirs, and I earnestly solicited them to publish
it: they, in their love for the commonwealth of letters, took upon
themselves the charge of printing it in the form you see. You will
learn from it, inquisitive Reader, how much power the stars have over
the atmosphere and all sublunary things: for the stars, and those
brighter bodies of heaven, must not be imagined to be idle. The whole
doctrine of the stars is not, however, here treated of, but only that
distinct part of it which the Greeks call judicial and prognostic,
and which, while confined within certain limits is as entertaining
as it is useful, and is partly considered to be agreeable to nature.
But should it pretend to subject to the skies such things as do not
depend thereupon, and should it invite us to foresee by the stars such
things as are above the weakness of our apprehension, it will assuredly
deserve to be reprehended as a vain and empty art, which has been
demonstrated in many learned books by the great Picus of Mirandola.
The Chaldæans, Genethliacs, and Planetarians, have been always held
in disrepute, because they professed to know not only more than they
actually did know, but also more than is allowed to man to know. Even
Ptolemy, while he employs himself in his present work upon the Doctrine
of Nativities, is scarcely free from the charge of superstition and
vanity: perhaps, in a Pagan, this may be forgiven; but it is hardly
to be tolerated, that persons professing Christianity should be led
away by such an empty study, in which there is no solid utility, and
the whole pleasure of which is puerile. Finally, I warn you that
some persons doubt whether this was really produced by Ptolemy††:
nevertheless, it has certainly appeared to Porphyry and Proclus (who
were doubtless great philosophers, although hostile to the Christian
faith) to be worthy of receiving elucidation by their Commentaries upon
it.††† Peruse it, however, friendly reader, with caution, having first
shaken off the weakness of credulity, for the sinew of wisdom is not to
believe rashly. Farewell.”

In addition to the remarks made in the foregoing address regarding
Leo Allatius, it may be observed that he was appointed Keeper of the
Vatican Library by Pope Alexander VII, with whom he was in high favour.
It is said of him, that he had a pen with which he had written Greek
for forty years, and that he shed tears on losing it. Another story
of him states, that the Pope had often urged him to take holy orders,
that he might be advanced in the church, and one day asked him why
he had not done so: “Because,” said Allatius, “I would be free to
marry.”—“Why, then, do you not marry?”—“Because I would be free to take
orders.”—_Chalmer’s Biographical Dictionary._

† This assertion is applicable only to Proclus’s Paraphrase. There
were several prior translations of the original Tetrabiblos in Latin
and Arabic; and it appears by an extract from the Bibliotheca Græca
of Fabricius (which will be found in a subsequent page), that a Latin
version, done from the Arabic, was printed at Venice as early as the
year 1493.

††The reader is again referred to the extract from Fabricius (inserted
in a subsequent page), containing that learned person’s account of this
book among the other works of Ptolemy.

††† Their Commentaries were printed at Basle, in 1559.

[5] This translation from the Perugio press has been serviceable in
presenting certain various readings; but it does not seem to possess
any other peculiar merit. It professes to be a translation from the
original text of Ptolemy; and so likewise does the translation printed
at Basle, as above quoted.

[6] It appears by the printed works of this author, that he was named
Didacus Placidus de Titis. He was a native of Bologna, by profession
a monk, and was styled Mathematician to the Archduke Leopold William
of Austria. He wrote in the earlier part of the 17th century, and
his work, now cited, is considered to contain the most successful
application of Ptolemy’s astrological rules to practice. The original
is extremely scarce; but a new English edition, by Cooper, may be had
of the Publishers of this work.

It seems improper to close this Preface (notwithstanding the bulk it
has already attained), without annexing the following short notice
of the life and works of the great man from whom the Tetrabiblos has

Claudius Ptolemy was born at Pelusium, in Ægypt, and became an
illustrious disciple of the school of Alexandria, in which city he
flourished during the reign of Adrian and that of Antoninus Pius. The
date of his birth has been commonly assigned to the 70th year of the
Christian æra; but the accuracy of this date seems questionable; for
he has himself noted in one part of his works, that Antoninus reigned
twenty-three years. He must have, therefore, survived that prince; and,
as it is not probable that he continued his scientific labours until
after ninety years of age, which he must have done had he been born
about the year 70, because Antoninus died in the year 161, it seems
that his birth would be more properly ascribed to some later period.
Moreover, it is asserted by the Arabians, that he died in the 78th year
of his age; and a similar statement is also made by Luca Gauricus,
in the dedication of his version of the Almagest[7] to Dominico
Palavicini: Gauricus has, however, placed his death in the year 147,
which does not accord with the fact of his having survived Antoninus.

Ptolemy has recorded that he observed, at Alexandria, an eclipse of the
Moon, in the 9th year of Adrian; and that he made many observations
upon the fixed stars in the 2nd year of Antoninus Pius: whence it may
be concluded, that his observations upon the heavens were principally
made during the period from A.D. 125 to A.D. 140, or thereabouts; and
it also follows, of course, that the supposition, entertained by some
authors, of his identity with the Ptolemy who was always in attendance
upon Galba, as his personal astrologer, and who promised Otho that
he should survive Nero and obtain the empire, is entirely without
foundation. To Gauricus’s[8] version of the Almagest there is also
another dedication, addressed to Pope Sixtus, and composed by George
Trapezuntius, describing Ptolemy as “_regiâ stirpe oriundum_,” and
explaining that he had, “with a truly regal mind,” applied himself
to the sciences, because the ancient sceptre of the Ptolemies had
previously passed into the hands of Cleopatra, and because the kingdom
of Ægypt had been since reduced to the state of a Roman province. The
authentic details of the circumstances of Ptolemy’s life are, however,
extremely few. It is said that he was distinguished among the Greeks by
the epithets “most wise,” and “most divine,” on account of his great
learning; and, according to the Preface to Whalley’s translation of the
Tetrabiblos, the Arabians report that “he was extremely abstemious,
and rode much on horseback”; adding, that although he was “spruce in
apparel,” yet his breath was not remarkable for an agreeable odour.

[7] Printed at Basle, 1541.

[8] Chalmer’s Biographical Dictionary.

The errors of the Ptolemaic theory of the universe have now been long
discarded; but there are many points in which modern sciences, and
modern astronomy in particular, have reaped incalculable benefits from
the labours and researches of its great founder. He has preserved
and transmitted to us the observations and principal discoveries of
remoter periods, and has enriched and augmented them with his own. He
corrected Hipparchus’s catalogue of the fixed stars, and formed tables
for the calculation and regulation of the motions of the Sun, Moon,
and planets. He was, in fact, the first who collected the scattered
and detached observations of Aristotle, Hipparchus, Posidonius, and
others on the economy of the world, and digested them into a system,
which he set forth in his Μεγαλη Σνταξις or Great Construction, divided
into thirteen books, and called, after him, the Ptolemaic System. This
and all his other astronomical works are founded upon the hypothesis,
that the earth is at rest in the centre of the universe, and that the
heavenly bodies, stars, and planets, all move round it in solid orbs,
whose motions are all directed by one _primum mobile_, or first mover,
of which he discourses at large in the “Great Construction.” In that
work he also treats of the figure and divisions of the earth, of the
right and oblique ascensions of the heavenly bodies, and of the motions
of the Sun, Moon, and planets; and he gives tables for finding their
situations, latitudes, longitudes, and motions: he treats also of
eclipses, and the methods of computing them; and he discourses of the
fixed stars, of which he furnishes a numerous catalogue, with their
magnitudes, latitudes, and longitudes.[9]

It has been truly said, that “Ptolemy’s order, false as it was, enabled
observers to give a plausible account of the motions of the Sun and
Moon, to foretell eclipses, and to improve geography[10];” or, in other
words, that it represented the actual phenomena of the heavens as
they really appear to a spectator on the earth. It is therefore clear
that Ptolemy’s astrology is just as applicable to modern and improved
astronomy as it was to his own.[11]

[9] In France, about the beginning of the 16th century, Oronce Finé,
the Royal Reader, attempted, under the patronage of Francis I, to
produce an astronomical clock, in which everything moved according
to the principles of Ptolemy. It was kept, about fifty years ago, in
the monastery of St. Geneviéve, at Paris. In Lilly’s Catalogue of
Astrological Authors, Orontius Finæus is mentioned as the writer of a
work on the twelve houses of heaven, printed in Paris, 1553.

[10] _Spectacle de la Nature._

[11] The objection which has been urged against astrology, that the
signs are continually moving from their positions, cannot invalidate
this conclusion. That objection has, in fact, no real existence; for
Ptolemy seems to have been aware of this motion of the signs, and
has fully provided for it in the 25th Chapter of the 1st Book of
the Tetrabiblos. From that chapter it is clear that the respective
influences he ascribes to the twelve signs (or divisions of the zodiac)
were considered by him as appurtenant to the _places_ they occupied,
and not to the _stars_ of which they were composed. He has expressly
and repeatedly declared that the point of the vernal equinox is ever
the beginning of the zodiac, and that the 30 degrees following it ever
retain the same virtue as that which he has in this work attributed to
Aries, although the stars forming Aries may have quitted those degrees:
the next 30 degrees are still be accounted as Taurus, and so of the
rest. There is abundant proof throughout the Tetrabiblos, that Ptolemy
considered the virtues of the _constellations_ of the zodiac distinctly
from those of the _spaces_ they occupied.

In the year 827[12] the “Great Construction” was translated by the
Arabians into their own language, and by them communicated to Europe.
It is through them that it has been usually known by the name of the
Almagest. In the 13th century, the Emperor Frederic II caused it to
be translated from the Arabic into Latin, and Sacrobosco[13] was
consequently enabled to write his famous work upon the sphere. It
was not, however, until about the end of the 15th century that the
“Great Construction” was translated into Latin from the _original_
text; and this important service was rendered to science by Purbach,
a professor of philosophy at Vienna, who learned the Greek tongue at
the instigation of Cardinal Bessarion. By means of this translation,
the Ephemerides of George Müller, surnamed Regiomontanus, a disciple
of Purbach’s, were first composed. The Greek text of the Almagest, or
Great Construction, was first published at Basle, by Simon Grynæus, in
1538; and it was again printed at the same place in 1551, with certain
other works of Ptolemy.[14] The rest of Ptolemy’s works connected with
astronomy, and now extant, are the Tetrabiblos, or Four Books of the
Influence of the Stars[15] (now translated); the Centiloquy, or Fruit
of his Four Books, being a kind of supplement to the former; and the
Significations of the Fixed Stars. The last is merely a daily calendar,
showing the risings and settings of the stars, and the nature of the
weather thereby produced. There are likewise extant his geographical
work (which has rendered important service to modern geographers), and
also his celebrated book on Harmonics, or the Theory of Sound.

[12] The French say 813, but 827 is the date given by English

[13] This scientific man was a Mathurine Friar, and a professor in
the University of Paris: he died in 1256. It is pointed out in the
Edinburgh Review, No. 68, that he was a native of Yorkshire, and his
real name John Holywood, euphonized, in Paris, into Sacrobosco.

[14] Chalmers.—The Tetrabiblos was among these works.

[15] To such readers as may be curious to know in what manner this
book was promulgated in Europe, after the revival of letters, the
following extract from the Bibliotheca Græca of Fabricius will furnish

“Lib. IV. Cap. XIV. §4. Τετραβιβλος, Συνταξις Μαθηματικη
_Quadripartitum, sive quatuor libri de apotelesmatibus et judiciis
astrorum, ad Syrum_ (h). Græce primum editi a _Joachimo Camerario_,
cum versione suâ duorum priorum librorum, et præcipuorum e reliquis
locorum. Norimb. 1535, 4to.—Hinc cum versione _Phil._ Melancthonis,
qui in præfat, ad Erasmum Ebnerum Senatorem Norimbergensem testatur
se editionem Camerarii multis mendis purgasse, tum numeros in locis
apheticis tam Græci quam Latini textus emendasse. Basil, 1553;
8vo.—_Latine_ pridem verterat _Ægidius Tebaldinus_, sive latino-barbaré
ex Hispanica versione, Alfonsi Castellæ Regis jussu, ex Arabico (i)
confectâ. Vertit et _Antonius Gogava_, Lovan. 1548, 4to; Patavii,
1658, 12mo; Pragæ, 1610, 12mo. Commentario illustravit _Hieron.
Cardanus_ prioribus duobus libris Camerarii, posterioribus Gogavæ
versione servatâ, Basil, 1554, fol.; 1579, fol.; Lugd. 1555, 8vo, et
in Cardani opp.—_Georgii Vallæ_ commentarius, anno 1502 editus, nihil
aliud est, quam Latina versio scholiorum Græcorum, sive exegeseos
jejunæ _Demophili_ in tetrabiblon, quæ cum _Porphyrii_ sive _Antiochi_
isagoge, Græce et Latine, addita _Hieron Wolfii_ versione, lucem vidit
Basil. 1559, his scholiis Dorotheus allegatur, p. 48, 110, et 139;
Cleopatra, p. 88; Porphyrius Philosophus, p. 169. Meminit et auctor
Petosiridis ac Necepso, p. 112:—λεγει δε παλαιον τον Νεχεψω (ita leg,
pro χεψω ut p. 112) και Πετοσιριν, ουτοι χαρ πρωτοι το δι αςρολογιας
εχηπλωσαν προγνωςικον† Paraphrasin tetrabibli a _Proclo_ concinnatam
Græce edidit Melancthon, Basil. 1554, 8vo. Græce et Latine cum versione
suâ _Leo Allatius_, Lugd. Batav. 1654,†† 8vo. Locum Ptolemæi e codice
Græco MS. in collegio Corporis Christi Oxon, feliciter restituit
Seldenus, p. 35 ad Marmora Arundeliana. Haly Heben Rodoan Arabis
commentarium laudat Cardanus, cum Demophilo Latine editum.”

    “(h) Schol. Græc.—Προσφωνει τω Συρω ο Πτολεμαιος
     το βιβλιον, προς ον και τας αλλας αντου πασας
     πραγματειας προσφωνησεν. Λεγουσι δε τινες ως
     πεπλαςαι αυτο το του Συρω ονομα. Αλλοι δε οτι ον
     πεπλαςαι, αλλ’ ιατρος ην ουτος αχθεις και δια
     τουτων των μαθηματων.”

“(i) Selden. Uxor Hebr. p. 342. Cæterum de Alphonsi Regis curâ in
promovenda Arabica Quadripartiti versione, vide, si placet, Nic:
Antonium in Bibl. veteri Hispana, t. 2, p. 55, vel Acta Erud. A.
1697, p. 302. Latino versio ex Arabico facta lucem vidit Venet, 1493,
fol. Viderit porro Gassendus qui in Philosophia Epicuri, ubi contra
Astrologos disputat. t. 2, p. 501, contendit tetrabiblon indignum esse
Ptolemæi genio et subdititum. Equidem Jo. Pico judice, l. 1, contra
Astrologos, p. 285, Ptolemæus _malorum_ sive Apotelesmaticorum est

† “Nechepsos and Petosiris are anciently spoken of, for they first
explained prognostication by Astrology.”

†† This was perhaps a reprint of the edition of 1635, from which the
present translation has been made; unless there may have been an error
of the press in stating 1654 instead of 1635, which seems probable, as
the edition of 1635 is unnoticed by Fabricius.

Proclus, to whom the world is indebted for the improved text of the
Tetrabiblos,[16] was born at Constantinople, in the year 410. He
studied at Alexandria and at Athens, and became very eminent among
the later Platonists. He succeeded Syrianus, a celebrated philosopher,
in the rectorship of the Platonic school at Athens, and died there
in 485.[17] He was a most voluminous author, in poetry as well as in
prose. Among his works there are Hymns to the Sun, to Venus, and to the
Muses; Commentaries upon several pieces of Plato, and upon Ptolemy’s
Tetrabiblos[18]; an Epitome or Commendium of all the Astronomical
Precepts demonstrated in the Almagest; and elements of Theology and
Natural Philosophy. He was in dispute with the Christians on the
question of the eternity of the world, which he undertook to prove in
eighteen elaborate arguments. A late writer in a certain periodical
work has erroneously identified him with another Proclus, who was in
favour with the Emperor Anastasius, and who destroyed the ships of
Vitalianus, when besieging Constantinople in 514, by burning them with
great brazen mirrors, or _specula_.

[16] It will be seen by the preceding note, that Proclus’s Paraphrase
of the Tetrabiblos should properly be considered as superior to the
other readings of that book; since it appears, on the authority
of Fabricius, that Melancthon, after having been at the pains of
correcting and republishing, in 1553 (with his own emendations),
the edition of Camerarius, containing the reputed original text,
still deemed it advisible, in the following year, to edit Proclus’s
Paraphrase. This Paraphrase must, therefore, necessarily have had
claims to his attention not found in the text he had previously edited.†

†“Ptolemy addresses the book to Syrus, to whom he has also addressed
all his other treatises. Some say that this name of Syrus was feigned;
others, that it was not feigned, but that he was a physician, and
educated in these sciences.”

[17] Chalmer’s Biographical Dictionary.

[18] It will, of course, be understood that this Commentary is distinct
from his Paraphrase, now translated.

_Signs of the Zodiac._

    ♈    Aries
    ♉    Taurus
    ♊    Gemini
    ♋    Cancer
    ♌    Leo
    ♍    Virgo
    ♎    Libra
    ♏    Scorpio
    ♐    Sagittarius
    ♑    Capricorn
    ♒    Aquarius
    ♓    Pisces





The studies preliminary to astronomical prognostication, O Syrus! are
two: the one, first alike in order and in power, leads to the knowledge
of the figurations of the Sun, the Moon, and the stars; and of their
relative aspects to each other, and to the earth: the other takes into
consideration the changes which their aspects create, by means of their
natural properties, in objects under their influence.

The first mentioned study has been already explained in the
Syntaxis[19] to the utmost practicable extent; for it is complete
in itself, and of essential utility even without being blended with
the second; to which this treatise will be devoted, and which is not
equally self-complete. The present work shall, however, be regulated
by that due regard for truth which philosophy demands: and since the
material quality of the objects acted upon renders them weak and
variable, and difficult to be accurately apprehended, no positive or
infallible rules (as were given in detailing the first doctrine, which
is always governed by the same immutable laws) can be here set forth:
while, on the other hand, a due observation of most of those general
events, which evidently trace their causes to the Ambient, shall not be

[19] The Almagest, or _Magna Constructio_.

It is, however, a common practice with the vulgar to slander everything
which is difficult of attainment, and surely they who condemn the
first of these two studies must be considered totally blind, whatever
arguments may be produced in support of those who impugn the second.
There are also persons who imagine that whatever they themselves have
not been able to acquire, must be utterly beyond the reach of all
understanding; while others again will consider as useless any science
of which (although they may have been often instructed in it) they
have failed to preserve the recollection, owing to its difficulty of
retention. In reference to these opinions, therefore, an endeavour
shall be made to investigate the extent to which prognostication
by astronomy is practicable, as well as serviceable, previously to
detailing the particulars of the doctrine.



That a certain power, derived from the æthereal nature, is diffused
over and pervades the whole atmosphere of the earth, is clearly evident
to all men. Fire and air, the first of the sublunary elements, are
encompassed and altered by the motions of the æther. These elements
in their turn encompass all inferior matter, and vary it as they
themselves are varied; acting on earth and water, on plants and

[20] The following extract from an old geographical work, framed on the
rules of Ptolemy, explains the system on which this action of the æther
is made to depend:—

“Chap. 2. The world is divided into two parts, the elemental region
and the æthereal. The elemental region is constantly subject to
alteration, and comprises the four elements; earth, water, air and
fire. The æthereal region, which philosophers call the fifth essence,
encompasses, by its concavity, the elemental; its substance remains
always unvaried, and consists of ten spheres; of which the greater one
always spherically environs the next smaller, and so on in consecutive
order. First, therefore, around the sphere of fire, GOD, the creator of
the world, placed the sphere of the Moon, then that of Mercury, then
that of Venus, then that of the Sun, and afterwards those of Mars,
of Jupiter, and of Saturn. Each of these spheres, however, contains
but one star: and these stars, in passing through the zodiac, always
struggle against the _primum mobile_, or the motion of the tenth
sphere; they are also entirely luminous. In the next place follows the
firmament, which is the eighth or starry sphere, and which trembles or
vibrates (_trepidat_) in two small circles at the beginning of Aries
and Libra (as placed in the ninth sphere); this motion is called by
astronomers the motion of the access and recess of the fixed stars.”
(Probably in order to account for the procession of the equinoxes.)
“This is surrounded by the ninth sphere, called the chrystalline
or watery heaven, because no star is discovered in it. Lastly, the
_primum mobile_, styled also the tenth sphere, encompasses all the
before-mentioned æthereal spheres, and is continually turned upon the
poles of the world, by one revolution in twenty-four hours, from the
east through the meridian to the west, again coming round to the east.
At the same time, it rolls all the inferior spheres round with it,
by its own force; and there is no star in it. Against this _primum
mobile_, the motion of the other spheres, running from the west through
the meridian to the east, contends. Whatever is beyond this, is fixed
and immovable, and the professors of our orthodox faith affirm it to be
the empyrean heaven which GOD inhabits with the elect.”—Cosmographia
of Peter Apianus (named Benewitz), dedicated to the Archbishop of
Salzburg, edited by Gemma Frisius, and printed at Antwerp 1574.

The Sun, always acting in connection with the Ambient, contributes to
the regulation of all earthly things: not only by the revolution of the
seasons does he bring to perfection the embryo of animals, the buds of
plants, the spring of waters, and the alteration of bodies, but by his
daily progress also he operates other changes in light, heat, moisture,
dryness and cold; dependent upon his situation with regard to the

The Moon, being of all the heavenly bodies the nearest to the Earth,
also dispenses much influence; and things animate and inanimate
sympathize and vary with her. By the changes of her illumination,
rivers swell and are reduced; the tides of the sea are ruled by her
risings and settings; and plants and animals are expanded or collapsed,
if not entirely at least partially, as she waxes or wanes.

The stars likewise (as well the fixed stars as the planets), in
performing their revolutions,[21] produce many impressions on the
Ambient. They cause heats, winds, and storms, to the influence of which
earthly things are conformably subjected.

[21] It will be recollected that the Ptolemaic astronomy attributes
motion and a regular course to those stars which we now call fixed, but
which the Greeks merely termed απλανεις, _undeviating_.

And, further, the mutual configurations of all these heavenly bodies,
by commingling the influence with which each is separately invested,
produce a multiplicity of changes. The power of the Sun however
predominates, because it is more generally distributed; the others
either co-operate with his power or diminish its effect: the Moon more
frequently and more plainly performs this at her conjunction, at her
first and last quarter, and at her opposition: the stars act also to a
similar purpose, but at longer intervals and more obscurely than the
Moon; and their operation principally depends upon the mode of their
visibility, their occultation and their declination.

From these premises it follows not only that all bodies, which may
be already compounded, are subjected to the motion of the stars, but
also that the impregnation and growth of the seeds from which all
bodies proceed, are framed and moulded by the quality existing in the
Ambient at the time of such impregnation and growth. And it is upon
this principle that the more observant husbandmen and shepherds are
accustomed, by drawing their inferences from the particular breezes
which may happen at seed-time and at the impregnation of their cattle,
to form predictions as to the quality of the expected produce. In
short, however unlearned in the philosophy of nature, these men
can foretell, solely by their previous observation, all the more
general and usual effects which result from the plainer and more
visible configurations of the Sun, Moon, and stars. It is daily seen
that even most illiterate persons, with no other aid than their own
experienced observation, are capable of predicting events which may
be consequent on the more extended influence of the Sun and the more
simple order of the Ambient, and which may not be open to variation by
any complex configurations of the Moon and stars towards the Sun. There
are, moreover, among the brute creation, animals who evidently form
prognostication, and use this wonderful instinct at the changes of the
several seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter; and,
also, at the changes of the wind.

In producing the changes of the seasons, the Sun itself is chiefly the
operating and visible cause. There are, however, other events which,
although they are not indicated in so simple a manner, but dependent on
a slight complication of causes in the Ambient, are also foreknown by
persons who have applied their observation to that end. Of this kind,
are tempests and gales of wind, produced by certain aspects of the
Moon, or the fixed stars, towards the Sun, according to their several
courses, and the approach of which is usually foreseen by mariners. At
the same time, prognostication made by persons of this class must be
frequently fallacious, owing to their deficiency in science and their
consequent inability to give necessary consideration to the time and
place, or to the revolutions of the planets; all which circumstances,
when exactly defined and understood, certainly tend towards accurate

When, therefore, a thorough knowledge of the motions of the stars,
and of the Sun and Moon, shall have been acquired, and when the
situation of the place, the time, and all the configurations actually
existing at that place and time, shall also be duly known; and such
knowledge be yet further improved by an acquaintance with the natures
of the heavenly bodies—not of what they are composed, but of the
effective influences they possess; as, for instance, that heat is the
property of the Sun, and moisture of the Moon, and that other peculiar
properties respectively appertain to the rest of them;—when all these
qualifications for prescience may be possessed by any individual,
there seems no obstacle to deprive him of the insight, offered at once
by nature and his own judgment, into the effects arising out of the
quality of all the various influences compounded together. So that
he will thus be competent to predict the peculiar constitution of
the atmosphere in every season, as, for instance, with regard to its
greater heat or moisture, or other similar qualities; all which may be
foreseen by the visible position or configuration of the stars and the
Moon towards the Sun.

Since it is thus clearly practicable, by an accurate knowledge of the
points above enumerated, to make predictions concerning the proper
quality of the seasons, there also seems no impediment to the formation
of similar prognostication concerning the destiny and disposition of
every human being. For by the constitution of the Ambient, even at the
time of any individual’s primary conformation, the general quality
of that individual’s temperament may be perceived; and the corporeal
shape and mental capacity with which the person will be endowed at
birth may be pronounced; as well as the favourable and unfavourable
events indicated by the state of the Ambient, and liable to attend the
individual at certain future periods; since, for instance, an event
dependent on one disposition of the Ambient will be advantageous to a
particular temperament, and that resulting from another unfavourable
and injurious. From these circumstances, and others of similar import,
the possibility of prescience is certainly evident.

There are, however, some plausible assailants of this doctrine, whose
attacks although greatly misapplied seem yet worthy of the following

In the first place, the science demands the greatest study and a
constant attention to a multitude of different points; and as all
persons who are but imperfectly practised in it must necessarily
commit frequent mistakes, it has been supposed that even such events
as have been truly predicted have taken place by chance only, and not
from any operative cause in nature. But it should be remembered that
these mistakes arise, not from any deficiency or want of power in the
science itself, but from the incompetency of unqualified persons who
pretend to exercise it. And, besides this, the majority of the persons
who set themselves up as professors of this science, avail themselves
of its name and credit for the sake of passing off some other mode
of divination; by that means defrauding the ignorant, and pretending
to foretell many things which from their nature cannot possibly be
foreknown; and consequently affording opportunities to more intelligent
people to impugn the value even of such predictions as can rationally
be made. The reproach, however, thus brought upon the science is
wholly unmerited; for it would be equally just to condemn all other
branches of philosophy, because each numbers among its professors some
mischievous pretenders.

Secondly, it is not attempted to be denied that any individual,
although he may have attained to the greatest possible accuracy in the
science, must still be liable to frequent error, arising out of the
very nature of his undertaking, and from the weakness of his limited
capacity in comparison with the magnitude of his object. For the whole
theory of the quality of matter is supported by inference rather than
by positive and scientific proof; and this is caused principally by
the concretion of its temperament out of a multitude of dissimilar
ingredients. And, although the former configurations of the planets
have been observed to produce certain consequences (which have been
adapted to configurations now taking place), and are, after long
periods, and in a greater or less degree, resembled by subsequent
configurations, yet these subsequent configurations never become
exactly similar to those which have preceded them. For an entire
return of all the heavenly bodies to the exact situation in which they
have once stood with regard to the earth will never take place, or at
least not in any period determinable by human calculation, whatever
vain attempts may be made to acquire such unattainable knowledge.[22]
The examples referred to for guidance being therefore not exactly
similar to the existing cases to which they are now applied, it must
naturally follow that predictions are sometimes not borne out by the
events. Hence arises the sole difficulty in the consideration of
events produced by the Ambient. For no other concurrent cause has been
hitherto combined with the motion of the heavenly bodies; although
the doctrine of nativities, particularly that part of it relating to
peculiar individual temperament, demands also the consideration of
other concomitant causes, which are neither trifling nor unimportant,
but essentially potent in affecting the individual properties of the
creatures born. Thus the variety in seed has the chief influence in
supplying the peculiar quality of each species; for, under the same
disposition of the Ambient and of the horizon, each various kind of
seed prevails in determining the distinct formation of its own proper
species; thus man is born, or the horse is foaled; and by the same law
are brought forth all the other various creatures and productions of
the earth. It is also to be remembered, that considerable variations
are caused in all creatures by the respective places where they may
be brought forth: for although, under the same disposition of the
Ambient, the germs of the future creatures may be of one species,
whether human or of the horse, the difference in situation, of the
places in which they are generated, produces a dissimilarity in the
body and spirit of one from the body and spirit of another: and in
addition to this it must be considered that different modes of nurture,
and the variety of ranks, manners, and customs, contribute to render
the course of life of one individual greatly different from that of
another[23]; consequently, unless every one of these varieties be duly
blended with the causes arising in the Ambient, the prejudgment of any
event will doubtless be very incomplete. For, although the greatest
multiplicity of power exists in the Ambient, and although all other
things act as concurrent causes in unison with it, and can never claim
it as a concurrent cause in subservience to them, there will still,
nevertheless, be a great deficiency in predictions attempted to be made
by means of the heavenly motions alone, without regard to the other
concurrent causes just now adverted to.

[22] There seems reason to suppose that this was a favourite
speculation among the ancients. In Scipio’s Dream, as related by
Cicero, the phantom of his illustrious grandfather is made to speak
of this entire return of all the celestial bodies to some original
position which they once held, as being the completion of the
revolution of one great universal year: and the phantom adds, “but I
must acquaint you that not one-twentieth part of that great year has
been yet accomplished.”

This quotation is from memory, and perhaps may not be verbally correct.

[23] In this passage the author seems to have anticipated, and exposed
the absurdity of an argument now considered very forcible against
astrology: viz. that “if the art were true, then any two individuals
born under the same meridian, in the same latitude, and at the same
moment of time, must have one and the same destiny; although one
were born a prince, and the other a mendicant.” Such a monstrous
conclusion is nowhere authorized by any astrological writer; it is,
on the contrary, always maintained by all of them, that the worldly
differences and distinctions, alluded to in the text, inevitably
prevent this exact resemblance of destiny; and all that they presume to
assert is, that, in their respective degrees, any two individuals, so
born, will have a partial similarity in the leading features of their
fate. Whether their assertion is _uniformly_ borne out, I will not
take upon me to determine, but it would be unfair not to subjoin the
following fact:—

In the newspapers of the month of February, 1820, the death of a
Mr. Samuel Hemmings is noticed: it was stated that he had been an
ironmonger, and prosperous in trade; that he was born on the 4th of
June, 1738, at nearly the same moment as his late Majesty, and in the
same parish of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields; that he went into business
for himself in October, 1760; that he married on the 8th September,
1761; and finally, after other events of his life had resembled those
which happened to the late King, that he died on Saturday, the 29th
January, 1820.

These coincidences are, at least, highly remarkable.

Under these circumstances, it would seem judicious neither to deny
altogether the practicability of prescience, because prognostications
thus imperfectly derived are sometimes liable to be fallacious; nor,
on the other hand, to admit that all events, whatever, are open to
previous inquiry; as if such inquiry could in all cases be securely
conducted without having recourse to mere inference, and as if it
were not limited by the narrow extent of mere human abilities. The
art of navigation, for instance, is not rejected, although it is in
many points incomplete; therefore the bare fact that predictions are
frequently imperfect cannot authorise the rejection of the art of
prescience: the magnitude of its scope, and the faint resemblance
that it bears to a divine attribute, should rather demand grateful
commendations, and receive the utmost regard and attention. And,
since no weakness is imputed to a physician, because he inquires
into the individual habit of his patient, as well as into the nature
of the disease, no imputation can justly attach to the professor of
prognostication, because he combines the consideration of species,
nurture, education and country, with that of the motion of the heavens:
for as the physician acts but reasonably, in thus considering the
proper constitution of the sick person as well as his disease; so,
in forming predictions, it must surely be justifiably allowable to
comprehend in that consideration every other thing connected with the
subject in addition to the motion of the heavens, and to collect and
compare with that motion all other co-operating circumstances arising



It appears, then, that prescience by astronomy is possible under
certain adaptation; and that alone it will afford premonition, as far
as symptoms in the Ambient enable it to do so, of all such events
as happen to men by the influence of the Ambient. These events are,
from their commencement, always in conformity with the spiritual and
corporeal faculties, and their occasional affections; as well as with
the shorter or longer duration of those affections. They are also
conformable with other things which, although not actually in man’s
immediate person, are still absolutely and naturally connected with
him: in connection with his body they are applicable to his estate, and
his conjugal cohabitations; in connection with his spirit, they relate
to his offspring[24] and his rank; and they are also connected with all
fortuitous circumstances which may occasionally befall him.

[24] The Greek word for this, γοναι, though found in the Elzevir
edition from which this translation is made, does not appear in other
copies; the Basle edition of 1553 says merely, η τε τιμη και το αξιωμα,
“_honour and rank_,” which is the sense also given in the Latin
translation of Perugio, 1646, without any mention of “_offspring_.”

That the foreknowledge of these can be attained has already been
demonstrated; and it remains to speak of the utility of the attainment.
First, however, let it be said in what respect and with what view it
is proposed to draw advantage from this science; if it be considered
in its tendency to promote the good of the mind, no object more
advantageous can surely be wanting to induce the world to rejoice and
delight in it, since it offers an acquaintance with things divine and
human: if it be considered in respect to the benefits it is capable
of conferring on the body, its utility in this view also, will be
found on comparison to excel that of all other arts conducive to the
comforts of life, for it is of more general application and service
than all the others together. And, although it may be objected to the
art of prescience, that it does not co-operate towards the acquirement
of riches or glory, let it also be remembered that the same objection
attaches to every other art and science; since there is not one which
can of itself produce either riches or glory, not yet is there one
which is on that plea deemed useless: it seems, therefore, that the
science of prognostication, with its high qualifications and its
aptitude to the most important objects, does not, in any greater
degree, deserve to be condemned.

In general, however, the persons who attack and reprobate it as being
useless, do not pay due regard to the manner in which it becomes
necessary; but deny its utility on the specious argument that it
is superfluous and puerile to attempt to foreknow things which
must inevitably come to pass: thus considering it in a mode at once
abstracted, unlearned, and unfair. For, in the first place, this fact
ought to be kept in view, that events which necessarily and fully
happen, whether exciting fear or creating joy, if arriving unforeseen,
will either overwhelm the mind with terror or destroy its composure by
sudden delight; if, however, such events should have been foreknown,
the mind will have been previously prepared for their reception,
and will preserve an equable calmness, by having been accustomed to
contemplate the approaching event as though it were present, so that,
on its actual arrival, it will be sustained with tranquillity and

In the next place, it must not be imagined that all things happen to
mankind, as though every individual circumstance were ordained by
divine decree and some indissoluble supernal cause; nor is it to be
thought that all events are shown to proceed from one single inevitable
fate, without being influenced by the interposition of any other
agency. Such an opinion is entirely inadmissable; for it is on the
contrary most essential to observe, not only the heavenly motion which,
perfect in its divine institution and order, is eternally regular and
undeviating; but also the variety which exists in earthly things,
subjected to and diversified by the institutions and courses of nature,
and in connection with which the superior cause operates in respect to
the accidents produced.

It is further to be remarked that man is subject, not only to events
applicable to his own private and individual nature, but also to others
arising from general causes. He suffers, for instance, by pestilences,
inundations, or conflagrations, produced by certain extensive changes
in the Ambient, and destroying multitudes at once; since a greater and
more powerful agency must of course always absorb and overcome one
that is more minute and weaker. In great changes, therefore, where
a stronger cause predominates, more general affections, like those
just mentioned, are put in operation, but affections which attach to
one individual solely are excited when his own natural constitution
peculiar to himself may be overcome by some opposing impulse of the
Ambient, however small or faint. And in this point of view it is
manifest that all events whatsoever, whether general or particular, of
which the primary cause is strong and irresistible, and against which
no other contrary agency has sufficient power to interpose, must of
necessity be wholly fulfilled; and that events indicated by a minor
cause must of course be prevented and annihilated, when some other
agency may be found contending for an opposite effect; if, however,
no such opposing agency can be found, they also must be fulfilled, in
due succession to the primary cause. Nevertheless, the fulfilment of
events thus indicated must not be ascribed solely to the vigour of the
cause producing them, nor to any inevitable fate, but rather to the
absence of any opposing influence capable of prevention. And thus,
with all things whatsoeverwhich trace their causes and origin to
nature, the case is exactly similar; for stones,[25] plants, animals,
wounds, passions, and diseases, all will of necessity operate on man
to a certain degree; and they fail to do so, if antidotes be found and
applied against their influence.

[25] In allusion to the sympathetic powers anciently attributed to
certain stones.

In exercising prognostication, therefore, strict care must be taken
to foretell future events by that natural process only which is
admitted in the doctrine here delivered; and, setting aside all vain
and unfounded opinions, to predict that, when the existing agency is
manifold and great, and of a power impossible to be resisted, the
corresponding event which it indicates shall absolutely take place;
and also, in other cases, that another event shall not happen when
its exciting causes are counteracted by some interposing influence.
It is in this manner that experienced physicians, accustomed to the
observation of diseases, foresee that some will be inevitably mortal,
and that others are susceptible of cure.

Thus, when any opinion is given by the astrologer with respect to
the various accidents liable to happen, it should be understood that
he advances nothing more than this proposition; viz. that, by the
property inherent in the Ambient, any conformation of it, suitable
to a particular temperament, being varied more or less, will produce
in that temperament some particular affection. And it is also to be
understood that he ventures this opinion with the same degree of
confidence, as that with which a physician may declare that a certain
wound will increase or grow putrid; or a man acquainted with metals
say that the magnet[26] will attract iron. But neither the increase
nor putrefaction of the wound nor the magnet’s attraction of iron,
is ordained by any inevitable law, although these consequences must
necessarily follow, in due obedience to the first principles of the
existing order of nature, when no means of prevention can be found
and applied. But, however, neither of these consequences will take
place, when such antidotes shall be presented as will naturally prevent
them—and a similar consideration should be given to the predictions of
the astrologer—because, if garlick be rubbed on the magnet, iron will
experience no attraction;[27] and if proper medicines be applied to
the wound, it will cease to increase or to putrefy. And therefore all
events which happen to mankind take place also in the regular course
of nature, when no impediments thereto are found or known: but again,
on the other hand, if any impediments or obstructions be found in the
way of events which may be predicted by the regular course of nature
to happen, such events will either not take place at all, or, if they
should take place, will be much diminished in their force and extent.

[26] Whalley, in translating this chapter, makes the following remark
on this mention of the magnet: “However much later it was that the
loadstone became known in Europe, what is mentioned of it in this
chapter makes it evident that it was known in Ægypt, where Ptolemy
lived, in his time.”—That worthy translator forgot (if indeed he ever
knew) that the loadstone’s property of attracting iron was known to
Thales, and commented on by Plato and Aristotle, all of whom lived
some centuries, more or less, before Ptolemy. It is its polarity that
was not known until the 11th or 12th century; and the French say that
the earliest notice of that polarity is found in a poem of Guyot
of Provence, who was at the Emperor Frederick’s Court at Mentz in
1181.—See the French Encyclopædia, &c.

[27] Respecting the effect here asserted to be produced on the magnet
by garlick, I have found the following mention in a book called
“The Gardener’s Labyrinth,” printed at London in 1586. “Here also I
thought not to ouerpasse the maruellous discord of the adamant-stone
and garlike, which the Greeks name to be an Antipatheia or naturall
contrarietie betweene them; for such is the hatred or contrarietie
between these two bodies (lacking both hearing and feeling), that
the adamant rather putteth away, than draweth to it, iron, if the
same afore be rubbed with garlike; as Plutarchus hath noted, and,
after him, Claudius Ptolemæus. Which matter, examined by divers
learned, and founde the contrarie, caused them to judge, that those
skilful men (especially Ptolemie) ment the same to be done with the
Egyptian Garlike; which Dioscorides wrote to be small garlike, and
the same sweete in taste, possessing a bewtifull head, tending unto
a purple colour. There be which attribute the same to Ophioscoridon,
which Antonius Microphonius Biturix, a singular learned man, and wel
practised in sundry skilles, uttered this approoued secrete to a friend
whom he loued.”

In the same book, the “Ophioscoridon” is thus spoken of: “There is
another wild garlike which the Greeks name Ophioscoridon; in English
Ramsies; growing of the owne accord in the fallow fieldes.”

Cornelius Agrippa (according to the English translation) has stated
that the presence of the diamond also neutralizes the attractive power
of the magnet. But as that great magician was somewhat inclined to
quibbling, it is not impossible that by the word he uses for “diamond”
(viz. _adamas_) he may mean the adamant or loadstone; which would
reduce his assertion merely to this, that one magnet will counteract

The same order and consequence exist in all cases, whether the events
have a general or only a particular operation; and it may therefore
well be demanded, why prescience is believed to be possible as far as
it regards general events, and why it is allowed to be serviceable in
preparing for their approach; while in particular instances its power
and use are altogether denied. That the weather and the seasons, and
the indications of the fixed stars, as well as the configurations
of the Moon, afford means of prognostication, many persons admit;
and they exercise this foreknowledge for their own preservation and
comfort, adapting their constitutions to the expected temperature, by
cooling and refreshing things for the summer, and by warm things for
the winter. They also watch the significations of the fixed stars, to
avoid dangerous weather, in making voyages by sea; and they notice
the aspects of the Moon, when at the full, in order to direct the
copulation of their herds and flocks, and the setting of plants or
sewing of seeds: and there is not an individual who considers these
general precautions as impossible or unprofitable. Still, however,
these same persons withhold their assent to the possibility of applying
prescience to particular cases; such, for instance, as any particular
excess or diminution of cold or heat, whether arising out of the
peculiar temperament producing the original cold or heat, or from the
combination of other properties; nor do they admit that there are any
means of guarding against many of these particular circumstances.
And yet, if it be clear that persons, who prepare themselves by
cooling things, are less affected by any general heat of the weather,
there seems no reason for supposing that a similar preparation
would not be equally effectual against any particular conjuncture
oppressed by immoderate heat. It appears, however, that this idea,
of the impracticability of attaining foreknowledge of particular
circumstances, must originate solely in the mere difficulty of the
acquirement; which difficulty is certainly rendered peculiarly arduous
by the necessity of conducting the enquiry with the greatest accuracy
and precision: and to this it must be added, that, as there is rarely
found a person capable of arranging the whole subject so perfectly
that no part of the opposing influence can escape his attention, it
frequently happens that predictions are not properly regulated by
due consideration of that opposing influence, and that the effects
are at once considered fully liable to be brought to pass, agreeably
to the primary agency and without any intervention. This defect, of
not sufficiently considering the opposing influence, has naturally
induced an opinion that all future events are entirely unalterable and
inevitable. But, since the foreknowledge of particular circumstances,
although it may not wholly claim infallibility, seems yet so far
practicable as to merit consideration, so the precaution it affords, in
particular circumstances, deserves in like manner to be attended to;
and, if it be not of universal advantage, but useful in few instances
only, it is still most worthy of estimation, and to be considered
of no moderate value. Of this, the Ægyptians seem to have been well
aware; their discoveries of the great faculties of this science have
exceeded those of other nations, and they have in all cases combined
the medical art with astronomical prognostication. And, had they been
of opinion that all expected events are unalterable and not to be
averted, they never would have instituted any propitiations, remedies,
and preservatives against the influence of the Ambient, whether present
or approaching, general or particular. But, by means of the science
called by them Medical Mathematics, they combined with the power of
prognostication the concurrent secondary influence arising out of the
institutions and courses of nature, as well as the contrary influence
which might be procured out of nature’s variety; and by means of these
they rendered the indicated agency useful and advantageous: since
their astronomy pointed out to them the kind of temperament liable to
be acted upon, as well as the events about to proceed from the Ambient,
and the peculiar influence of those events, while their medical skill
made them acquainted with everything suitable or unsuitable to each of
the effects to be procured. And it is by this process that remedies for
present and preservatives against future disorders are to be acquired:
for, without astronomical knowledge, medical aid would be most
frequently unavailing; since the same identical remedies are not better
calculated for all persons whatsoever, than they are for all diseases

The practicability and utility of prescience having been thus far
briefly explained, the ensuing discourse must be proceeded with. It
commences, introductorily, with an account of the efficient properties
of each of the heavenly bodies, taken from the rules of the ancients,
whose observations were founded in nature. And, first, of the
influences of the planets and of the Sun and Moon.

[28] This seems to explain the origin of the old alliance between
medicine and astrology, so universally preserved until almost within
the last century.



The Sun[29] is found to produce heat and moderate dryness. His
magnitude, and the changes which he so evidently makes in the seasons,
render his power more plainly perceptible than that of the other
heavenly bodies; since his approach to the zenith of any part of the
earth creates a greater degree of heat in that part and proportionately
disposes its inhabitants after his own nature.

[29] It will be recollected that the Ptolemaic hypothesis considers the
Sun as a planetary orb, in consequence of his apparent progress through
the zodiac.

The Moon principally generates moisture; her proximity to the earth
renders her highly capable of exciting damp vapours, and of thus
operating sensibly upon animal bodies by relaxation and putrefaction.
She has, however, also a moderate share in the production of heat, in
consequence of the illumination she receives from the Sun.

Saturn produces cold and dryness, for he is most remote both from the
Sun’s heat and from the earth’s vapours. But he is more effective
in the production of cold than of dryness. And he and the rest of
the planets derive their energy from the positions which they hold
with regard to the Sun and Moon; and they are all seen to alter the
constitution of the Ambient in various ways.

Mars chiefly causes dryness, and is also strongly heating, by means
of his own fiery nature, which is indicated by his colour, and in
consequence of his vicinity to the Sun; the sphere of which is
immediately below him.

Jupiter revolves in an intermediate sphere between the extreme cold of
Saturn and the burning heat of Mars, and has consequently a temperate
influence: he therefore at once promotes both warmth and moisture. But,
owing to the spheres of Mars and the Sun, which lie beneath him, his
warmth is predominant: and hence he produces fertilizing breezes.

To Venus also the same temperate quality belongs, although it exists
conversely; since the heat she produces by her vicinity to the Sun is
not so great as the moisture which she generates by the magnitude of
her light, and by appropriating to herself the moist vapours of the
earth, in the same manner that the Moon does.

Mercury sometimes produces dryness, and at other times moisture, and
each with equal vigour. His faculty of absorbing moisture and creating
dryness proceeds from his situation with regard to the Sun, from which
he is at no time far distant in longitude; and, on the other hand, he
produces moisture, because he borders upon the Moon’s sphere, which is
nearest to the earth; and, being thus excited by the velocity of his
motion with the Sun, he consequently operates rapid changes tending to
produce alternately either quality.



Of the four temperaments or qualities above mentioned, two are
nutritive and prolific, viz. heat and moisture; by these all matter
coalesces and is nourished: the other two are noxious and destructive,
viz. dryness and cold; by these all matter is decayed and dissipated.

Therefore, two of the planets, on account of their temperate quality,
and because heat and moisture are predominant in them, are considered
by the ancients as benefic, or causers of good: these are Jupiter and
Venus. And the Moon also is so considered for the same reasons.

But Saturn and Mars are esteemed of a contrary nature, and malefic, or
causers of evil: the first from his excess of cold, the other from his
excess of dryness.

The Sun and Mercury are deemed of common influence, and productive
either of good or evil in unison with whatever planets they may be
connected with.



There are two primary sexes, male and female; and the female sex
partakes chiefly of moisture. The Moon and Venus are therefore said to
be feminine, since their qualities are principally moist.

The Sun, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars are called masculine. Mercury is
common to both genders, because at certain times he produces dryness,
and at others moisture, and performs each in an equal ratio.

The stars, however, are also said to be masculine and feminine, by
their positions with regard to the Sun. While they are matutine and
preceding the Sun, they are masculine; when vespertine and following
the Sun, they become feminine.[30]

And they are further regulated in this respect by their positions
with regard to the horizon. From the ascendant to the mid-heaven, or
from the angle of the west to the lower heaven, they are considered
to be masculine, being then oriental: and in the other two quadrants,
feminine, being then occidental.

[30] “Astronomers call the planets matutine, when, being oriental from
the Sun, they are above the earth when he rises; and vespertine, when
they set after him.” Moxon’s Mathematical Dictionary.



The day and the night are the visible divisions of time. The day, in
its heat and its aptitude for action, is masculine:—the night, in its
moisture and its appropriation to rest, feminine.

Hence, again, the Moon and Venus are esteemed to be nocturnal; the
Sun and Jupiter, diurnal; and Mercury, common; since in his matutine
position he is diurnal, but nocturnal when vespertine.

Of the other two planets, Saturn and Mars, which are noxious, one is
considered to be diurnal, and the other nocturnal. Neither of them,
however, is allotted to that division of time with which its nature
accords (as heat accords with heat), but each is disposed of on a
contrary principle: and for this reason, that, although the benefit is
increased when a favourable temperament receives an addition of its
own nature, yet, the evil arising from a pernicious influence is much
mitigated when dissimilar qualities are mingled with that influence.
Hence the coldness of Saturn is allotted to the day, to counterbalance
its heat; and the dryness of Mars to the night, to counterbalance
its moisture. Thus each of these planets, being moderated by this
combination, is placed in a condition calculated to produce a
favourable temperament.[31]

[31] Whalley here appends the following note: “To this chapter may be
properly added, that a planet is said to be diurnal, when, in a diurnal
nativity, above the earth; and, in a nocturnal nativity, under the
earth: but nocturnal, when, in a nocturnal nativity, above the earth;
or, in a diurnal nativity, under the earth.”



The respective powers of the Moon and of the three superior planets are
either augmented or diminished by their several positions with regard
to the Sun.

The Moon, during her increase, from her first emerging to her first
quarter, produces chiefly moisture; on continuing her increase from her
first quarter to her full state of illumination, she causes heat; from
her full state to her third quarter she causes dryness; and from her
third quarter to her occultation she causes cold.

The planets, when matutine, and from their first emerging until they
arrive at their first station, are chiefly productive of moisture;
from their first station until they rise at night, of heat; from their
rising at night until their second station, of dryness; and from their
second station until their occultation, they produce cold.[32]

But it is also sufficiently plain that they must likewise cause, by
their intermixture with each other, many varieties of quality in the
Ambient: because, although their individual and peculiar influence may
for the most part prevail, it will still be more or less varied by the
power of the other heavenly bodies configurated with them.

[32] Although all the positions mentioned in this paragraph are not
applicable to Venus and Mercury, which can never rise at night, that
is to say, at sunset, and although the author in the beginning of the
chapter speaks only of the Moon and the three superior planets, there
yet seems no reason why the orbits of Venus and Mercury should not be
similarly divided by their inferior and superior conjunctions, and
their greatest elongations.

The following is from Whalley: “The first station, in this chapter
mentioned, is when a planet begins to be retrograde; and the second
station when, from retrogradation, a planet becomes direct. They” (the
planets) “begin to rise at night when in opposition to the Sun.”



Next in succession, it is necessary to detail the natures and
properties of the fixed stars; all of which have their respective
influences, analogous to the influences of the planets: and those
stars which form the constellations of the zodiac require to be first

_Aries._ The stars in the head of Aries possess an influence similar
in its effects to that of Mars and Saturn: those in the mouth act
similarly to Mercury, and in some degree to Saturn; those in the hinder
foot, to Mars; those in the tail, to Venus.

_Taurus._ Those stars in Taurus, which are in the abscission of the
sign, resemble in their temperament the influence of Venus, and in some
degree that of Saturn: those in the Pleiades are like the Moon and
Mars. Of the stars in the head, that one of the Hyades which is bright
and ruddy, and called Facula,[33] has the same temperament as Mars: the
others resemble Saturn, and, partly, Mercury; and those at the top of
the horns are like Mars.

_Gemini._ The stars in the feet of Gemini have an influence similar to
that of Mercury, and moderately to that of Venus.

The bright stars in the thighs are like Saturn: of the two bright stars
on the heads, the one, which precedes and is called Apollo,[34] is like
Mercury; the other which follows, called Hercules,[35] is like Mars.

_Cancer._ The two stars in the eyes of Cancer are of the same influence
as Mercury, and are also moderately like Mars. Those in the claws are
like Saturn and Mercury. The nebulous mass in the breast, called the
Præsepe, has the same efficacy as Mars and the Moon. The two placed
on either side of the nebulous mass, and called the Asini, have an
influence similar to that of Mars and the Sun.

_Leo._ Of the stars in Leo, two in the head are like Saturn and partly
like Mars. The three in the neck are like Saturn, and in some degree
like Mercury. The bright one in the heart, called Regulus,[36] agrees
with Mars and Jupiter. Those in the loins, and the bright one in the
tail, are like Saturn and Venus: those in the thighs resemble Venus,
and, in some degree, Mercury.

_Virgo._ The stars in the head of Virgo, and that at the top of the
southern wing, operate like Mercury and somewhat like Mars: the other
bright stars in the same wing, and those about the girdle, resemble
Mercury in their influence, and also Venus moderately. The bright one
in the northern wing, called Vindemiator, is of the same influence as
Saturn and Mercury: that called Spica Virginis is like Venus and partly
Mars: those at the points of the feet and at the bottom of the garments
are like Mercury, and also Mars, moderately.

_Libra._[37] Those stars at the points of the claws of Scorpio operate
like Jupiter and Mercury: those in the middle of the claws, like
Saturn, and in some degree like Mars.

[33] The little Torch; now known by the name of Aldebaran.

[34] Castor.

[35] Pollux.

[36] Cor Leonis.

[37] Called by the ancients χηλαι, Chelæ, or the _claws_ of Scorpio;
which sign they made to consist of 60 degrees, omitting Libra. Thus
Virgil in the first Georgic, line 33, &c.

    Quo locus Erigonen inter, Chelasque sequentes
    Panditur: ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens
    Scorpius, et cœli justâ plus parte reliquit.

Ovid, likewise, takes the following notice of Scorpio:—

    Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum.
                                       _Met._ 2, l. 198.

_Scorpio._ The bright stars in the front of the body of Scorpio have an
effect similar to that produced by the influence of Mars, and partly to
that produced by Saturn: the three in the body itself, the middle one
of which, called Antares,[38] is ruddy and more luminous, are similar
to Mars and moderately to Jupiter: those in the joints of the tail are
like Saturn and partly like Venus: those in the sting, like Mercury and
Mars. The nebula is like Mars and the Moon.

_Sagittarius._ The stars at the point of the arrow in Sagittarius have
influence similar to that of Mars and the Moon: those on the bow, and
at the grasp of the hand, act like Jupiter and Mars: the nebula in
the face is like the Sun and Mars: those in the waist and in the back
resemble Jupiter, and also Mercury moderately: those in the feet,
Jupiter and Saturn: the four-sided figure in the tail is similar to
Venus, and in some degree to Saturn.

_Capricorn._ The stars in the horns of Capricorn have efficacy similar
to that of Venus, and partly to that of Mars. The stars in the mouth
are like Saturn, and partly like Venus: those in the feet and in the
belly act in the same manner as Mars and Mercury: those in the tail are
like Saturn and Jupiter.

_Aquarius._ The stars in the shoulders of Aquarius operate like Saturn
and Mercury; those in the left hand and in the face do the same: those
in the thighs have an influence more consonant with that of Mercury,
and in a less degree with that of Saturn: those in the stream of water
have power similar to that of Saturn, and, moderately, to that of

_Pisces._ Those stars in Pisces, which are in the head of the southern
fish, have the same influence as Mercury, and, in some degree, as
Saturn: those in the body are like Jupiter and Mercury: those in the
tail and in the southern line are like Saturn, and, moderately, like
Mercury. In the northern fish, those on its body and back-bone resemble
Jupiter, and also Venus in some degree: those in the northern line are
like Saturn and Jupiter; and the bright star in the knot acts like
Mars, and moderately like Mercury.[39]

[38] Adams’s Treatise on the Globes calls this star “Kalb al Akrab,
or the Scorpion’s heart,” and adds, that “the word Antares (if it is
not a corruption) has no signification.” But it should be observed
that Ptolemy states that this star partakes of the nature of Mars: it
seems therefore not improbable that Antares may be a regular Greek
word, compounded of αντι _pro_ and αρης _Mars_, and signifying _Mars’s
deputy_, or _lieutenant_, or _one acting for Mars_.

[39] Salmon, in his “Horæ Mathematicæ, or Soul of Astrology” (printed
by Dawks, 1679) divides each sign of the zodiac into six faces of five
degrees each, “because that in every sign there are various stars of
differing natures”; and he gives a particular description to each
face, depending on its ascension or culmination. This seems an attempt
to adapt Ptolemy’s signification of the several stars, composing the
different signs, to some general rule or mode of judgment: but it does
not merit the implicit assent of astrologers. It is understood that
Salmon was not the inventor of this division of the signs into faces,
but that it came originally from the Arabian schools.



The constellations north of the zodiac have their respective
influences, analogous to those of the planets, existing in the mode
described in the following list.

    _Ursa Minor._ The bright stars in this constellation
                  are like Saturn, and in some degree like Venus.
    _Ursa Major_ is like Mars, but the nebula under the
                 tail resembles the Moon and Venus in its influence.
    _Draco._ The bright stars operate like Saturn and Mars.
    _Cepheus_ is like Saturn and Jupiter.
    _Bootes_ is like Mercury and Saturn; but the bright and
             ruddy star, called Arcturus, is like Mars and Jupiter.
    _Corona Borealis_ is like Venus and Mercury.
    _Hercules_ (or the Kneeler) is like Mercury.
    _Lyra_ is like Venus and Mercury.
    _Cygnus_ is like Venus and Mercury.
    _Cassiopeia_ is like Saturn and Venus.
    _Perseus_ is like Jupiter and Saturn: but the nebula,
              in the hilt of the sword, is like Mars and Mercury.
    _Auriga._ The bright stars are like Mars and Mercury.
    _Serpentarius_ is like Saturn, and moderately like Venus.
    _Serpens_ is like Saturn and Mars.
    _Sagitta_ is like Saturn, and moderately like Venus.
    _Aquila_ is like Mars and Jupiter.
    _Delphinus_ is like Saturn and Mars.
    _Equus_ (or Pegasus). The bright stars are like Mars
             and Mercury.
    _Andromeda_ is like Venus.
    _Delta_ (or the Triangle) is like Mercury.



The influences of the constellations south of the zodiac, existing in a
similar mode, are as follows:—

    _Piscis Australis._ The bright star in the mouth is of the
                        same influence as Venus and Mercury.
    _Cetus_ is like Saturn.
    _Orion._ The stars on the shoulders operate similarly to
             Mars and Mercury; and the other bright stars to Jupiter
             and Saturn.
    _Fluvius_ (or _Eridanus_). The last bright one is of
              the same influence as Jupiter; the rest are like Saturn.
    _Lepus_   is like Saturn and Mercury.
    _Canis._ The bright star in the mouth is like Jupiter, and
             partly like Mars: the others are like Venus.
    _Procyon._[40] The bright star is like Mercury, and in some
                   degree like Mars.
    _Hydrus._ The bright stars are like Saturn and Venus.
    _Crater_ is like Venus, and in some degree like Mercury.
    _Corvus_ is like Mars and Saturn.
    _Argo._ The bright stars are like Saturn and Jupiter.
    _Centaurus._ The stars in the human part of the figure are
                 of the same influence as Venus and Mercury; the bright
                 stars in the horse’s part are like Venus and Jupiter.
    _Lupus._ The bright stars are like Saturn, and partly
             like Mars.
    _Ara_ is like Venus, and also Mercury in some degree.
    _Corona Australis._ The bright stars are like Saturn
                        and Jupiter.

The respective influences of the several stars have been observed by
the ancients to operate in conformity with the mode pointed out in the
foregoing distributions.[41]

[40] Canis Minor.

[41] “Of the fixed stars in general,” Whalley says, “Those of the
greatest magnitude are the most efficacious; and those in, or near,
the ecliptic, more powerful than those more remote from it. Those
with north latitude and declination affect us most. Those in the
zenith, influence more than others, more remote. Likewise such as are
in partial conjunction with, or in the antiscions of any planets, or
which rise and set, or culminate with any planet, or are beheld by any
planet, have an increase of power: but of themselves the fixed stars
emit no rays.”



The year comprises four seasons; spring, summer, autumn, and winter; of
these, the spring partakes chiefly of moisture, for on the dissipation
of cold and recommencement of warmth, an expansion of the fluids takes
place: the summer is principally hot, owing to the Sun’s nearest
approach to the zenith: the autumn is principally dry, because the
recent heat has absorbed the moisture: and the winter is chiefly cold,
the Sun being then at his farthest distance from the zenith.

The beginning of the whole zodiacal circle (which in its nature as
a circle can have no other beginning, nor end, capable of being
determined), is therefore assumed to be the sign of Aries, which
commences at the vernal equinox:[42] since the moisture of spring forms
a primary beginning in the zodiac, analogous to the beginning of all
animal life; which, in its first age of existence, abounds principally
in moisture: the spring, too, like the first age of animal life, is
soft and tender; it is therefore suitably placed as the opening of the
year, and is followed by the other seasons in appropriate succession.
The summer comes second, and, in its vigour and heat, agrees with the
second age of animals; the prime of life, and the period most abounding
in heat. Again, the age when the prime of life has passed away, and in
which decay prepares to advance, is chiefly abundant in dryness, and
corresponds to the autumn. And the final period of old age, hastening
to dissolution, is principally cold, like the winter.

[42] This sentence shows the futility of the objection raised against
astrology (and mentioned in the Preface to this translation) that the
signs have changed and are changing places. It is clear from this
sentence that Ptolemy ascribes to the 30 degrees after the vernal
equinox, that influence which he has herein mentioned to belong to
Aries; to the next 30 degrees, the influence herein said to belong to
Taurus; and so of the rest of the zodiac. We should rather say that
the stars have changed places, than that the parts of heaven, in which
they were once situated, have done so. Ptolemy himself seems to have
foreseen this groundless objection of the moderns, and has written, in
the 25th chapter of this book, what ought completely to have prevented
it. It has certainly been one of the misfortunes of astrology to be
attacked by people entirely ignorant of its principles.



The angles are the four cardinal points of the horizon, whence
are derived the general names of the winds. With respect to their
qualities, it is to be observed that the eastern point, or angle of
the ascendant, is chiefly dry in its nature; because, on the Sun’s
arrival therein, the damps occasioned by the night begin to be dried
up: and all winds blowing from that quarter, under the common name of
east winds, are arid and free from moisture.

The southern point, or angle of the mid-heaven, is the most hot;
because the Sun’s meridan position, which produces greater warmth and
heat, declines (in this part of the earth) towards the south. The
winds, therefore, which blow from that quarter, and are commonly called
south winds, are hot and rarefying.

The western point, or occidental angle, is moist; because, when the
Sun is there, the moisture, which had been overpowered during the day,
recommences its operation: and the winds proceeding from thence, and
commonly called west winds, are light and damp.

The northern point, or angle of the lower heaven, is the most cold; for
the Sun’s meridian position in this part of the earth is far removed
from it in declination: and all winds thence proceeding, under the
common name of north winds, are cold and frosty.

It will, of course, be seen that a thorough acquaintance with the
foregoing matters is essential in order to acquire the faculty of
distinguishing temperaments in every shape and variation: since it is
sufficiently obvious that the effective influence of the stars must be
greatly diversified by the constitutions of the seasons, as well as
those of the ages of life, and of the angles; and also that the stars
have a much stronger influence on any constitution, when there may not
be in it any tendency contrary to their own, as the whole influence is
then entire and unalloyed. For example, stars effecting heat operate
more vigorously in constitutions of heat; and those effecting moisture
in constitutions of moisture. On the other hand, should a tendency,
contrary to their own, exist in any constitution, the stars accordingly
become less efficacious; in consequence of being attempered and mixed
with that contrary tendency: and this happens, for instance, when
stars effecting heat are attempered by constitutions of cold, or stars
producing moisture by constitutions of dryness. The influence of every
star is thus modified by the proportionate admixture presented by
constitutions of a nature different from its own.

In succession to the previous instructions, the following description
of the natural and peculiar properties of the signs of the zodiac is
annexed: the general temperaments of the signs are analogous to those
of the seasons, which are respectively established under each sign,
but they have, also, certain peculiar energies, arising from their
familiarity with the Sun, the Moon, and the stars, which shall be
hereafter specified;—and the simple and unmixed influences existing in
the signs, as considered only in themselves and with regard to each
other, will be first stated.



Among the twelve signs, some are termed tropical, others equinoctial,
others fixed, and others bicorporeal.

The tropical signs are two: viz. the first thirty degrees after the
summer solstice, which compose the sign of Cancer; and the first thirty
degrees after the winter solstice, composing the sign of Capricorn.
These are called _tropical_, because the Sun, after he has arrived at
their first points, seems to _turn_, and to change his course towards a
contrary latitude;[43] causing summer by the _turn_ he makes in Cancer,
and winter by that which he makes in Capricorn.

There are also two equinoctial signs: Aries, the first after the vernal
equinox; and Libra, the first after the autumnal equinox: they are so
called, because the Sun, when in the first point of either, makes the
day and night equal.

Of the remaining eight signs, four are fixed, and four bicorporeal.
Those signs, which severally follow immediately after the two tropical
and the two equinoctial signs, are termed fixed, because, during the
Sun’s presence in them, the cold, heat, moisture or dryness, of the
season, which commenced on his arrival in the preceding tropical or
equinoctial sign, is then more firmly established: not, however,
that the temperament of the season has in itself actually increased
in vigour, but, having continued for some time in operation, it then
renders all things more strongly affected by its influence.

The bicorporeal signs severally follow the fixed signs; and, being thus
intermediately placed between the fixed and the tropical signs, they
participate in the constitutional properties of both, from their first
to their last degrees.

[43] In other words, the Sun then begins to diminish his declination,
which, at the first points of the said signs, is at its greatest amount.



Again, among the twelve signs, six are called masculine and diurnal,
and six feminine and nocturnal. They are arranged in alternate order,
one after the other, as the day is followed by the night, and as the
male is coupled with the female.

The commencement, it has been already said, belongs to Aries; since
the moisture of the spring forms an introduction for the other
seasons. And, as the male sex governs, and the active principle
takes precedence of the passive, the signs of Aries and Libra are
consequently considered to be masculine and diurnal. These signs
describe the equinoctial circle, and from them proceed the principal
variation, and most powerful agitation, of all things. The signs
immediately following them are feminine and nocturnal; and the rest are
consecutively arranged as masculine and feminine, by alternate order.

Masculine or feminine qualities are, however, by some persons,
attributed to the signs by means of a different arrangement, and by
making the sign ascending (which is also called the horoscope) the
first of the masculine signs. They also consider the first tropical
sign to be that in which the Moon is posited, because she undergoes
more frequent and rapid changes and variations than any other heavenly
body; and it is by a similar mode of reasoning that they establish the
horoscope as the first masculine sign, on account of its being more
immediately under the Sun. Again, certain of these persons likewise
allow the alternate arrangement of the signs; while there are, again,
others who do not admit it; but, instead thereof, divide the whole
zodiac into quadrants, and denominate those between the ascendant and
the mid-heaven, and between the western angle and the lower haven,
oriental and masculine; and the other two quadrants, occidental and

There have also been other additional appellations bestowed on the
signs, in consequence of their apparent formations and figures: they
have been called quadrupedal, terrestrial, imperial, fruitful, and have
received various other distinguishing epithets of the same sort; but
these distinctions seem too unimportant to be even enumerated here,
since their origin is obvious, and since, should they ever be thought
serviceable towards the inference of future effects, they may be easily
applied without the aid of further instruction.



There are certain familiarities or connections between different parts
of the zodiac; and the chief of these is that which exists between such
parts as are configurated with each other.

This mutual configuration attaches to all parts diametrically distant
from each other, containing between them two right angles, or six
signs, or a hundred and eighty degrees: it also exists in all parts
at the triangular distance from each other, containing between them
one right angle and a third, or four signs, or a hundred and twenty
degrees; also, in all parts at the quadrate distance from each other,
containing between them exactly one right angle, or three signs, or
ninety degrees; and, also, in all parts at the hexagonal distance from
each other, containing between them two-thirds of a right angle, or
two signs, or sixty degrees.[44] These several distances are taken
for the following reasons: the distance by diameter, however, is in
itself sufficiently clear, and requires no further explanation; but,
as to the rest, after the diametrical points have been connected by
a straight line, AB; the space of the two right angles, contained on
the diameter, is then to be divided into aliquot parts of the two
greatest denominations; that is to say, into halves, AFC, CFB, and
into thirds, AFD, DFE, EFB: there will then be provided for the third
part (AD) a super-proportion (DC), equal to its own half; and for
the half (AC) a super-proportion (CE), equal to its own third part;
so that the division into two aliquot parts, AC, CB, will make the
quartile distance AC; and the division into three aliquot parts, AD,
DE, EB, will make the sextile distance AD, and the trinal distance AE.
The respective super-proportions (on either side of the intermediate
quartile AC, formed by the one right angle AFC), will also again
make the quartile AC (if there be added to the sextile, AD, the
super-proportion DC, equal to the half of the sextile), and the trine
AE (if there be added to the quartile AC the super-proportion CE, equal
to the third part of the quartile).


[44] Whalley, in his note upon this chapter, seems to have been
surprised that no mention is made here by Ptolemy of the _conjunction_;
but he overlooked the fact that the chapter treats only of parts of the
zodiac configurated _with each other_; and that it was not possible
for Ptolemy to conceive how any part could be configurated _with
itself_. It is, therefore, by no means wonderful that the conjunction
is not inserted here along with the rest of the aspects; although it
is frequently adverted to in subsequent chapters, and its efficacy
particularly described.

Of these configurations, the trine and the sextile are each called
harmonious, because they are constituted between signs of the same
kind; being formed between either all feminine or all masculine signs.
The opposition and quartile are considered to be discordant, because
they are configurations made between signs not of the same kind, but of
different natures and sexes.[45]

[45] From the tenor of this chapter it was formerly doubted whether the
author intended to admit in his theory only zodiacal aspects, and to
reject those which are called mundane; but Placidus has referred to the
4th Chapter of the 8th Book of the Almagest (which will be found in the
Appendix to this translation) to prove that Ptolemy distinctly taught
two kinds of aspect; one in the zodiac and one in the world. Whalley
quotes the opinion of Placidus, which he says is farther confirmed by
the 12th Chapter of the 3rd Book of this very treatise, where it is
stated that the ascendant and the eleventh house are in sextile to each
other; the ascendant and the mid-heaven in quartile; the ascendant and
the ninth house in trine; and the ascendant and the occidental angle
in opposition; all which certainly seems to be applicable to mundane
aspects in particular.



Any two signs configurated with each other at an equal distance from
the same, or from either equinoctial point, are termed commanding and
obeying, because the ascensional and descensional times of the one are
equal to those of the other, and both describe equal parallels.

The signs in the summer semicircle are commanding; those in the winter
semicircle, obeying: for, when the Sun is present in the former, he
makes the day longer than the night; and, when in the latter, he
produces the contrary effect.



Any two signs, equally distant from either tropical sign, are equal to
each other in power; because the Sun, when present in one, makes day
and night, and the divisions of time, respectively equal in duration
to those which he produces when present in the other. Such signs are
also said to behold each other, as well for the foregoing reasons, as
because each of them rises from one and the same part of the horizon,
and sets in one and the same part.[46]

[46] Whalley has a very lengthy note upon this and the preceding
chapter, to show that Ptolemy here speaks of zodiacal parallels, or
parallels of declination, and to point out the necessity of observing
a planet’s latitude, in order to ascertain its true parallels. It is,
however, to be recollected, that the parallels now alluded to are
distinct from the _mundane parallels_, which are equal distances from
the horizon or meridian, and are considered by Ptolemy in the 14th and
15th Chapters of the 3rd Book of this work; although not under the
express name of mundane parallels.



All signs, between which there does not exist any familiarity in any of
the modes above specified, are inconjunct and separated.

For instance, all signs are inconjunct which are neither commanding
nor obeying, and not beholding each other nor of equal power, as well
as all signs which contain between them the space of one sign only,
or the space of five signs, and which do not at all share in any of
the four prescribed configurations: viz. the opposition, the trine,
the quartile, and the sextile. All parts which are distant from each
other in the space of one sign only are considered inconjunct, because
they are averted, as it were, from each other; and because, although
the said space between them may extend into two signs, the whole only
contains an angle equal to that of one sign: all parts distant from
each other in the space of five signs are also considered inconjunct,
because they divide the whole circle into unequal parts; whereas the
spaces contained in the configurations above mentioned, viz. the
opposition, trine, quartile, and sextile, produce aliquot divisions.[47]

[47] It has never been very clearly shown how the followers of Ptolemy
have reconciled the new aspects (called the semiquadrate, quintile,
sesquiquadrate, biquintile, &c.) with the _veto_ pronounced in this
chapter. Kepler is said to have invented them, and they have been
universally adopted; even Placidus, who has applied Ptolemy’s doctrine
to practice better than any other writer, has availed himself of them,†
and, if the nativities published by him are to be credited, he has
fully established their importance.

Salmon, in his “Horæ Mathematicæ,” before-mentioned, gives a long
dissertation (from p. 403 to p. 414) on the old Ptolemaic aspects,
illustrative of their foundation in nature and in mathematics; and,
although his conclusions are not quite satisfactorily drawn, some of
his arguments would seem appropriate, if he had but handled them more
fully and expertly; particularly where he says that the aspects are
derived “from the aliquot parts of a circle, wherein observe that,
although the zodiac may have many more aliquot parts than these four
(the sextile, quartile, trine, and opposition), yet those other aliquot
parts of the circle, or 360 degrees, will not make an aliquot division
of the signs also, which in this design was sought to answer, as well
in the number 12, as in the number 360.” The passage in which he
endeavours to show that they are authorized by their projection, also
deserves attention.

All Salmon’s arguments, however, in support of the old Ptolemaic
aspects, militate against the new Keplerian ones; and so does the
following extract from the “Astrological Discourse” of Sir Christopher
Heydon: “For thus, amongst all ordinate planes that may be inscribed,
there are two whose sides, joined together, have pre-eminence to take
up a semicircle, but only the hexagon, quadrate, and equilateral
triangle, answering to the sextile, quartile, and trine irradiated.
The subtense, therefore, of a sextile aspect consisteth of two signs,
which, joined to the subtense of a trine, composed of four, being
regular and equilateral, take up six signs, which is a complete
semicircle. In like manner, the sides of a quadrate inscribed,
subtending three signs, twice reckoned, do occupy likewise the mediety
of a circle. And what those figures are before said to perform” (that
is, to take up a semicircle) “either doubled or joined together, may
also be truly ascribed unto the opposite aspect by itself; for that
the diametral line, which passeth from the place of conjunction to
the opposite point, divideth a circle into two equal parts: the like
whereof cannot be found in any other inscripts; for example, the _side
of a regular pentagon_” (the quintile) “_subtendeth 72 degrees, of
an octagon_” (the semiquadrate) “_but 45; the remainders of which
arcs, viz. 108 and 135 degrees, are not subtended by the sides of any
ordinate figure_.”

†Except the semiquadrate, which he has not at all noticed.



Those stars which are denominated planetary orbs have particular
familiarity with certain places in the zodiac, by means of parts
designated as their houses, and also by their triplicities,
exaltations, terms, and so forth.

The nature of their familiarity by houses is as follows:

Cancer and Leo are the most northerly of all the twelve signs; they
approach nearer than the other signs to the zenith of this part of
the earth, and thereby cause warmth and heat: they are consequently
appropriated as houses for the two principal and greater luminaries;
Leo for the Sun, as being masculine; and Cancer for the Moon, as being
feminine. It has hence resulted, that the semicircle from Leo to
Capricorn has been ordained solar, and the semicircle from Aquarius
to Cancer, lunar; in order that each planet might occupy one sign in
each semicircle, and thus have one of its houses configurated with the
Sun and the other with the Moon, conformably to the motions of its own
sphere, and the peculiar properties of its nature.

Saturn, therefore, since he is cold and inimical to heat, moving also
in a superior orbit most remote from the luminaries, occupies the signs
opposite to Cancer and Leo: these are Aquarius and Capricorn; and they
are assigned to him in consideration of their cold and wintry nature;
and because the configuration by opposition does not co-operate towards
the production of good.[48]

[48] Saturn being also malefic in his nature.

Jupiter has a favourable temperament, and is situated beneath
the sphere of Saturn; he therefore occupies the next two signs,
Sagittarius and Pisces. These signs are airy and fruitful, in
consequence of their trinal distance from the houses of the luminaries,
which distance harmonises with the operation of good.

Mars is dry in nature, and beneath the sphere of Jupiter: he takes
the next two signs, of a nature similar to his own, viz. Aries and
Scorpio, whose relative distances from the houses of the luminaries are
injurious and discordant.

Venus, possessing a favourable temperament, and placed beneath the
sphere of Mars, takes the next two signs, Taurus and Libra. These are
of a fruitful nature, and preserve harmony by the sextile distance; and
this planet is never more than two signs distant from the Sun.

Mercury never has greater distance from the Sun than the space of one
sign, and is beneath all the other planets: hence he is placed nearest
to both luminaries, and the remaining two signs, Gemini and Virgo, are
allotted to him.[49]

[49] The planets, having two houses, are said to be more powerful in
one by day and in the other by night: thus,

    Saturn’s  day house is Aquarius,   his night house Capricorn
    Jupiter’s              Sagittarius                 Pisces
    Mars’s                 Aries                       Scorpio
    Venus’s                Taurus                      Libra
    Mercury’s              Gemini                      Virgo

The above is from Whalley; but the same disposition is to be found in
all modern astrological writers.



The familiarity existing by triplicity arises in the following mode:

The triplicity preserves accordance with an equilateral triangle, and
the whole zodiacal orbit is defined by three circles, viz. that of the
equinox, and those of the two tropics; the twelve signs are, therefore,
distributed among four equilateral triangles.

The first triangle, or triplicity, is formed by three masculine signs,
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, having the Sun, Jupiter, and Mars as lords
by house. Mars, however, being contrary in condition to the solar
influence, this triplicity receives, as its lords, only Jupiter and
the Sun. By day, therefore, the Sun claims the principal co-regency of
it, and Jupiter by night. Aries is on the equinoctial circle, Leo on
the summer, and Sagittarius on the winter circle. This triplicity is
principally northern, owing to the concurrent dominion of Jupiter, who
is fruitful and airy, and expressly connected with winds proceeding
from the north; it is, however, also north-west, in consequence of
being, in some degree, combined with the west by means of the house of
Mars, who introduces western breezes and the feminine qualities of that
quarter, in consequence of his lunar condition.[50]

The second triplicity, formed by Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is
allotted to the dominion of the Moon and Venus, since it consists of
feminine signs. The Moon rules it by night, and Venus by day. Taurus
is on the summer circle, Virgo on the equinoctial, and Capricorn
on the winter. This triplicity is southern, in consequence of the
dominion of Venus, whose warm and moist influence produces south
winds: it, however, additionally receives a mixture of the east, by
means of Saturn; for, as Capricorn is the house of that planet, and
an eastern sign, Saturn becomes effective of winds from that quarter,
and furnishes this triplicity with a mixture of the east, with which
quarter he is further connected by means of his solar condition.[51]

The third triplicity is composed of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius,
masculine signs. It holds connection with Saturn and Mercury by
containing their houses, and is therefore attributed to them, and not
to Mars, to which planet it bears no relation. Saturn rules it by day,
owing to his condition,[52] and Mercury by night. Gemini is on the
summer circle, Libra on the equinoctial, and Aquarius on the winter.
This triplicity is principally eastern, by the influence of Saturn; but
it becomes north-east by receiving also a mixture of the north from the
condition of Jupiter, with which planet Saturn has, in this respect, a
diurnal familiarity.[53]

The fourth triplicity, formed by Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, is left
to the remaining planet, Mars, who has right in it by means of his
house, Scorpio. But, as the signs which compose this triplicity are
feminine, the Moon by night and Venus by day, through their feminine
condition, govern it, together with Mars. Cancer is on the summer
circle, Scorpio on the winter, and Pisces on the equinoctial. This
triplicity is western, in consequence of the government of the Moon and
Mars; but it is also blended with the south by the joint dominion of
Venus, and therefore becomes south-west.

[50] The “lunar condition” here spoken of refers to the position of
Aries (Mars’s house) in the lunar semicircle.

[51] Capricorn being in the solar semicircle.

[52] The reason for making Saturn diurnal lord of this triplicity may
be found in Chap. vii.

[53] This familiarity seems to arise from the sextile aspect between
Aquarius, the diurnal house of Saturn, and Sagittarius, the diurnal
house of Jupiter.



That which is termed the exaltation of the planets is considered by the
following rules:

The Sun on his entrance into Aries is then passing into the higher and
more northern semicircle; but, on his entrance into Libra, into the
more southern and lower one: his exaltation, therefore, is determined
to be in Aries, as, when present in that sign, he begins to lengthen
the days, and the influence of his heating nature increases at the same
time. His fall is placed in Libra, for the converse reasons.

Saturn on the contrary, in order to preserve his station opposite to
the Sun, in this respect, as well as in regard to their respective
houses, obtains his exaltation in Libra, and his fall in Aries: since,
in all cases, the increase of heat must be attended by a diminution of
cold, and the increase of cold by a diminution of heat.

The Moon, again, after conjunction with the Sun in Aries, the seat
of his exaltation, makes her first appearance, and begins to augment
her light in Taurus, the first sign of her own triplicity, which is
consequently ascribed to be her exaltation; while Scorpio, the opposite
sign, is her fall.

Jupiter, since he is efficacious in exciting fruitful breezes from the
north, and since he becomes most northerly, and augments his peculiar
influence when in Cancer, accordingly obtains his exaltation in that
sign, and his fall in Capricorn.

Mars possesses a fiery nature, which receives its greatest intensity
in Capricorn, in which sign this planet becomes most southerly; his
exaltation is therefore placed in Capricorn, in opposition to that of
Jupiter, and his fall in Cancer.

Venus is of a moist nature, and becomes chiefly moist when in Pisces.
Under that sign a dampness begins to be perceptible in the atmosphere,
and Venus, from being in that sign, derives an augmentation of her own
proper influence: her exaltation is consequently placed therein, and
her fall in Virgo.

Mercury is of a nature opposite to that of Venus, and is more dry: in
opposition to her, therefore, he takes his exaltation in Virgo, in
which sign the autumnal dryness makes its first appearance; and he
receives his fall in Pisces.



There are two methods of disposing the terms of the planets, in
reference to the dominion of the triplicities; one is Ægyptian, the
other Chaldaic.

But the Ægyptian method preserves no regular distribution, neither in
point of successive order nor in point of quantity.

[54] In reference to the terms of the planets, Placidus has these words
(according to Cooper’s translation): “The dignity of the planets in the
signs and their parts, which are called the bounds and terminations”
(_quasi_, terms), “have a real and natural foundation; to wit, the
powerful aspect or proportional influxes to the movable points in which
the stars begin to produce the primary qualities. So that, according to
those things we have explained in the philosophy of the heavens, these
are found to agree so well with the Ægyptian boundaries” (terms), “that
they are highly deserving of admiration.”

In point of order it is defective, since it, in some instances, allots
the first degrees of a sign to the lord of the house, in others to
the lord of the triplicity, and in others again to the lord of the
exaltation. By selecting examples this failure in order will easily be
seen; for instance, if the order were regulated by the government of
houses, for what reason should Saturn take the first degrees in Libra,
since that sign is the house of Venus? or why should Jupiter take them
in Aries, which is the house of Mars? If the government of triplicities
were followed, for what reason should Mercury take the first degrees in
Capricorn, which is in the triplicity ruled by Venus? If the government
by exaltations, why should Mars take the first degrees in Cancer? that
sign being the exaltation of Jupiter. And if the order were regulated
even by considering the planet which possesses most of these dignities
in the sign, for what reason should Mercury take the first degrees
in Aquarius, in which sign he rules only by triplicity, and why not
Saturn, who has government in it by house, as well as by triplicity? or
why in short should Mercury, who does not possess any kind of dominion
in Capricorn, receive the first degrees in that sign also? The same
want of order is abundantly evident in the rest of the distribution.

An equal irregularity exists in the respective quantities of degrees
allotted by the Ægyptians to the several terms of the planets. For it
is by no means a proper nor sufficient demonstration of accuracy that
the aggregate sum of all the numbers of every single planet amounts to
the precise total requiring to be divided into portions of time;[55]
since, even if it be admitted that this total, collected from every
single star, is correctly asserted by the Ægyptians, it may still be
objected that the same total, so collected by them, may be found in
many other ways by interchanging the numbers in a sign. There are
persons also who contend that in every latitude the same space of time
is occupied in ascension by every star; this, however, is manifestly
wrong: for, in the first place, these persons are guided by the vulgar
opinion of the plane heights of ascension, which is totally foreign
to truth, and according to which, in the parallel of Lower Ægypt, the
signs of Virgo and Libra would ascend each in thirty-eight degrees and
a third,[56] and Leo and Scorpio each in thirty-five degrees; when it
is, on the contrary, shown by the Tables,[57] that the latter two signs
occupy in their several ascensions more than thirty-five degrees each,
but Virgo and Libra less. It should further be observed, that those
who support this opinion seem (by so doing) not only to dispute the
quantity of the terms most generally received, but to be driven also to
the necessity of falsifying many points; since (as it is indispensable
to keep to the same total amount of all the terms together) they make
use of parts of degrees; but even that contrivance does not enable them
to reach the true point.

[55] This total is the 360 degrees of the zodiac, requiring to be
divided according to correspondent portions of the equator; by which
all time is reckoned.

[56] The degrees here mentioned are degrees of the equator.

[57] See, in the Appendix, an extract from these tables; the whole of
which are to be found in the Almagest.

The old terms, admitted by many persons on the authority of former
tradition, are as follows:


        Aries    |  Taurus  |  Gemini   |  Cancer  |   Leo    |  Virgo
    Jupiter| 6| 6|Ven.| 8| 8|Mer.| 6 | 6|Mars| 7| 7|Jup.| 6| 6|Mer.| 7| 7
    Venus  | 6|12|Mer.| 6|14|Jup.| 6 |12|Ven.| 6|13|Ven.| 5|11|Ven.|10|17
    Mercury| 8|20|Jup.| 8|22|Ven.| 5 |17|Mer.| 6|19|Sat.| 7|18|Jup.| 4|21
    Mars   | 5|25|Sat.| 5|27|Mars| 7 |24|Jup.| 7|26|Mer.| 6|24|Mars| 7|28
    Saturn | 5|30|Mars| 3|30|Sat.| 6 |30|Sat.| 4|30|Mars| 6|30|Sat.| 2|30
        Libra    | Scorpio  |Sagittarius| Capricorn| Aquarius | Pisces
    Saturn | 6| 6|Mars| 7| 7|Jup.|12 |12|Mer.| 7| 7|Mer.| 7| 7|Ven.|12|12
    Mercury| 8|14|Ven.| 4|11|Ven.| 5 |17|Jup.| 7|14|Ven.| 6|13|Jup.| 4|16
    Jupiter| 7|21|Mer.| 8|19|Mer.| 4 |21|Ven.| 8|22|Jup.| 7|20|Mer.| 3|19
    Venus  | 7|28|Jup.| 5|24|Sat.| 5 |26|Sat.| 4|26|Mars| 5|25|Mars| 9|28
    Mars   | 2|30|Sat.| 6|30|Mars| 4 |30|Mars| 4|30|Sat.| 5|30|Sat.| 2|30

Thus, by the Ægyptian distribution, it appears that the total numbers
of the degrees for each planet, added together, make 360:—viz. for
Saturn 57, Jupiter 79, Mars 66, Venus 82, and Mercury 76.

The method of the Chaldæans contains a certain simplicity of
arrangement as to quantity, and preserves an order of succession
rather more comformable to the dominion of the triplicities. It is,
nevertheless, highly imperfect, as may be easily discovered even
without being pointed out: for in the first triplicity (which the
Chaldæans also attribute to the same signs; viz. Aries, Leo, and
Sagittarius), Jupiter, the lord of the triplicity, takes the first
degrees; Venus, who rules the next triplicity, follows him; after her,
in succession, are Saturn and Mercury, the lords of the triplicity
of Gemini; and lastly Mars, lord of the remaining triplicity. In the
second triplicity (also allotted to the same signs, viz. Taurus, Virgo,
and Capricorn), Venus stands first; next to her, Saturn and Mercury;
after them Mars, and Jupiter last. In the other two triplicities a
similar order of succession is closely followed; and with respect to
the third triplicity, which is ascribed to two lords, viz. to Saturn
and Mercury, Saturn is placed first in order by day and Mercury by

The quantity of degrees allotted to each planet is also simply
regulated in the Chaldaic method; it diminishes in graduation from the
quantity given to the planet first in order, so that each successive
planet takes one degree less than that which preceded it. Thus the
first planet takes eight degrees, the second seven, the third six, the
fourth five, and the fifth four. By this arrangement the degrees of
Saturn amount by day to 78, and by night to 66; the degrees of Jupiter
to 72, of Mars to 69, of Venus to 75, and of Mercury by day to 66, and
by night to 78—the whole amounting to 360.

Of these two distributions of the terms, that of the Ægyptians seems
more to be relied on than the other; since it has been handed down and
recommended in the writings of the Ægyptian authors, and also because
the degrees of the terms, in nativities rectified by them as examples,
are universally in accordance with this distribution; while, on the
other hand, neither the order nor the number of the Chaldaic method has
ever been recorded or explained by any writer—not even by the writers
of that very nation: the accuracy of that method is consequently
doubtful, and its irregularity as to the order of placing the planets
is widely open to censure.

There is, however, an ancient writing which has fallen into the
author’s possession, and which gives a rational and consistent account
of the nature of the terms; of the order in which they are to be
taken, and of the quantity belonging to each. It will be found in the
subsequent chapter.



In arranging the order in which the planets take their terms in each
sign, their exaltations, triplicities, and houses, are taken into
consideration; and whatever planet, whether benefic or malefic, may
possess two rights of dominion in one and the same sign, such planet
is universally placed first in order in that sign. In other cases,
however, where it does not happen that a malefic possesses two rights
of dominion in the sign, it is always placed last.

The lord of the exaltation is placed first; then the lord of the
triplicity; and then the lord of the house; in regular succession,
according to the series of the signs; but it must again be remembered
that any planet, having two rights of dominion in the same sign, takes
precedence, as before mentioned, of those having only one. In Cancer
and Leo, however, the malefics occupy the first degrees; as those signs
are the houses of the Moon and the Sun, which take no terms; and the
malefics being found to have greater potency in those signs therefore
take precedence in them. Mars, consequently, receives the first degrees
in Cancer, and Saturn in Leo, by which arrangement a proper order is

[58] The cause of this disposition is that Cancer, the house of the
Moon, partakes of moisture, and counteracts Mars’s dryness; while Leo,
the Sun’s house, is hot, and counteracts Saturn’s cold.—Vide Chap. iv,
and conclusion of Chap. vii of this book.

It may further be observed, that Jupiter’s right, by triplicity, to
the first degrees in Leo, is of course surrendered to Saturn, on the
principle that the malefics have greater potency in the houses of the

The respective quantities of degrees for the several terms is thus
determined: viz. when there is no planet found to be lord by two
rights in the same sign, or in the two signs next following, each of
the benefics, Jupiter and Venus, takes seven degrees; the malefics,
Saturn and Mars, take five degrees each; and Mercury, being of common
influence, takes six degrees; thus completing the whole thirty. Since,
however, there are some cases in which a planet has always a double
right—(for Venus obtains the sole government of Taurus and Pisces, as
the Moon does not share in the terms)—it is to be observed that when
such double right (whether it exist in the same sign or in the signs
next following as far as may complete a quadrant) may be possessed by
any planet, that planet receives in addition one degree. The planets
thus entitled were distinguished by points in the ancient writing above
mentioned. And the degree, added to the quantity of the planet which
exercises a double right, is subtracted from those of single right;
most generally from Saturn and Jupiter, in consequence of their slower

These terms are detailed in the following table:—

      Aries     |  Taurus |  Gemini   | Cancer  |   Leo   |  Virgo
    Jupiter|6| 6|Ven.|8| 8|Mer.|7|  7 |Mars|6| 6|Jup.|6| 6|Mer.|7| 7
           | |  |    | |  |    | |    |    | |  |Sat.| |  |    | |
    Venus  |8|14|Mer.|7|15|Jup.|6| 13 |Mer.|7|13|Mer.|7|13|Ven.|6|13
           | |  |    | |  |    | |    |Jup.| |  |    | |  |    | |
    Mercury|7|21|Jup.|7|22|Ven.|7| 20 |Jup.|7|20|Sat.|6|19|Jup.|5|18
           | |  |    | |  |    | |    |Mer.| |  |Ven.| |  |    | |
    Mars   |5|26|Sat.|2|24|Mars|6| 26 |Ven.|7|27|Jup.|6|25|Sat.|6|24
           | |  |    |4|26|    | |    |    | |  |    | |  |    | |
    Saturn |4|30|Mars|6|30|Sat.|4| 30 |Sat.|3|30|Mars|5|30|Mars|6|30
           | |  |    |4|  |    | |    |    | |  |    | |  |    | |
        Libra   | Scorpio |Sagittarius|Capricorn| Aquarius|  Pisces
    Saturn |6| 6|Mars|6| 6|Jup.|8|  8 |Ven.|6| 6|Sat.|6| 6|Ven.|8| 8
    Venus  |5|11|Ven.|8|14|Ven.|6| 14 |Mer.|6|12|Mer.|6|12|Jup.|6|14
           | |  |Jup.|7|13|    | |    |    | |  |    | |  |    | |
    Mercury|8|19|Jup.|7|21|Mer.|5| 19 |Jup.|7|19|Ven.|8|20|Mer.|6|20
    Jupiter|5|16|Ven.|8|  |    | |    |    | |  |    | |  |    | |
    Jupiter|5|24|Mer.|6|27|Sat.|6| 25 |Sat.|6|25|Jup.|5|25|Mars|6|26
    Mercury|8|  |    | |  |    | |    |Mars|5|25|    | |  |    | |
    Mars   |6|30|Sat.|3|30|Mars|5| 30 |Mars|5|30|Mars|5|30|Sat.|4|30
           | |  |    | |  |    | |    |Sat.| |  |    | |  |    |3|



The signs have been subdivided by some persons into parts still more
minute, which have been named places and degrees of dominion. Thus the
twelfth part of a sign, or two degrees and a half, has been called
a place, and the dominion of it given to the signs next succeeding.
Other persons again, pursuing various modes of arrangement, attribute
to each planet certain degrees, as being aboriginally connected with
it, in a manner somewhat similar to the Chaldaic arrangement of the
terms. But all these imaginary attributes cannot be herein detailed,
for they receive no confirmation from nature, are not capable of being
rationally demonstrated, and are, in fact, merely the offspring of
scientific vanity.

The following observation, however, deserves attention, and must not be

The beginnings of the signs, and likewise those of the terms, are to
be taken from the equinoctial and tropical points. This rule is not
only clearly stated by writers on the subject, but is also especially
evident by the demonstration constantly afforded, that their natures,
influences and familiarities have no other origin than from the tropics
and equinoxes, as has been already plainly shown.[59] And, if other
beginnings were allowed, it would either be necessary to exclude the
natures of the signs from the theory of prognostication, or impossible
to avoid error in then retaining and making use of them; as the
regularity of their spaces and distances, upon which their influence
depends, would then be invaded and broken in upon.

[59] _Vide_ Chapters xii and xiv of this Book.



The familiarities existing between the planets and the signs are such
as have been already particularised.

There are also, however, further peculiarities ascribed to the planets.
Each is said to be in its proper face, when the aspect it holds to the
Sun, or Moon, is similar to that which its own house bears to their
houses: for example, Venus is in her proper face when making a sextile
aspect to either luminary, provided she be occidental to the Sun, but
oriental to the Moon, agreeably to the primary arrangement of her

[60] _Vide_ Chapter xx. It of course follows that Saturn is in his
proper face when he is five signs, or in quintile, after the Sun
or before the Moon; that Jupiter is so when in trine; Mars when in
quartile; Venus when in sextile; and Mercury when only one sign (or in
modern phrase, in semi-sextile), after the Sun or before the Moon.

Each planet is also said to be in its proper chariot, or throne, or
otherwise triumphantly situated, when it holds familiarity with the
place which it actually occupies by two, or more, of the prescribed
modes of connection: for when it is so circumstanced, its influence and
energy are specially augmented by the familiarity it thus holds with
the sign which encompasses it, and which is similar in influence and
co-operates with it.

Lastly, each planet (although it may possess no familiarity with
the sign encompassing it) is said to rejoice, when any connection
subsists between itself and other stars of the same condition; as,
notwithstanding the distance between them, a certain sympathy and
communication of influence is derived from their mutual resemblance.
In the same manner, again, when a planet occupies a place adverse and
dissimilar in condition to itself, much of its influence is dissipated
and lost; in consequence of the interposition and admixture of the
other different influence, arising out of the dissimilar temperament of
the sign by which it is encompassed.



In all cases when the distances between planets or luminaries are
but trifling,[61] the planet which precedes is said to apply to that
which follows; and that which follows to be separating from that
which precedes.[62] The same rule obtains both in respect to bodily
conjunction and to any other of the aspects before described; except
that, in the application and separation of the bodily conjunction, it
is also essential to observe the actual latitudes of the bodies, in
order to receive and consider only such a transit as may be made in the
same parts of the zodiac.[63] But in the application and separation of
aspects merely, the same attention is not requisite, since all the rays
are uniformly converged into one focus, that is to say, into the angle
of the earth,[64] and meet there alike from every quarter.

[61] This has been understood to mean, when the planets or luminaries
are within each other’s orbs; Saturn’s orb being 10 degrees, Jupiter’s
12, Mars’s 7 degrees 30 minutes, the Sun’s 17 degrees, Venus’s 8,
Mercury’s 7 degrees 30 minutes, and the Moon’s 12 degrees 30 minutes.

[62] Astrologers generally agree, that the inferior planets always
apply to the superior, but the superior never to the inferior, except
when the inferior be retrograde. In the present instance it seems most
probable that the author means the planet which is more occidental, by
“the planet which precedes.” He often uses “precedent” as equivalent
to “occidental” in regard to the daily revolution of the heavens: and
thus a planet in the first degree of Aries would precede, and be more
occidental than one in the sixth degree of Aries, to which latter it
would, by the regular planetary motion, be applying.

[63] On this, Whalley says that “the less the difference of latitude of
the planets in conjunction, the more powerful will be the influence:
for if two planets in conjunction have each considerable latitude of
different denomination, the influence of such conjunction will be much

[64] Τουτ εσι επι το κεντρον της γης. The precise meaning of the
word κεντρον is “centre,” rather than “angle”; but Ptolemy uses it
throughout this work, in speaking of the four angles of heaven, and I
conceive he uses it here to signify an angle at, or on, the earth. The
following definition of an aspect, by Kepler, strengthens my opinion:
“An aspect is an angle formed on the earth, by the luminous rays of two
planets; efficacious in stimulating sublunary nature.”

It appears, therefore, by the whole of what has been already delivered,
that the effective influence of the stars must be considered as arising
not only from their own peculiar natures and properties, but also
from the quality of the surrounding signs, and from configuration
with the Sun and the angles; all which has been pointed out. The
influence of each planet, however, is strengthened chiefly when it
may be oriental, swift and direct in its proper course and motion—for
it has then its greatest power: but, on the other hand, it loses
strength when occidental and slow in motion or retrograde; as it then
acts with smaller effect.[65] Its influence also receives accession
or diminution, from its position with regard to the horizon; as, if
it be situated in the mid-heaven, or succedent to the mid-heaven,
it is especially strong; likewise, if it be on the actual horizon,
or succedent to the horizon, it is also powerful—particularly if in
the eastern quarter. Should it, however, be below the earth, and
configurated with the ascendant, either from the lower heaven, or
from any other part below the earth, its influence then becomes more
languid; but if, when below the earth, it hold no such configuration,
it is entirely deprived of efficacy.[66]

[65] Placidus (Cooper’s translation) says that “the three superiors
are supposed to be stronger, if they are found to be matutine, or
eastern, from the Sun; the three inferiors, vespertine, or western;
for then they have a greater degree of light, in which consists their
virtual influence, and then they are called oriental; but occidental if
otherwise. Every one knows how largely, yet to no purpose, authors have
treated of the orientality of the planets.”

Moxon’s Mathematical Dictionary has the following words on the same
subject: “Now the three superior planets are strongest, being oriental
and matutine; but the three inferior when they are occidental and
vespertine. The reason is, because the first in the first case, but
the last in the second, do then descend to the lowest part of their
orbit, are increased in light, and approaching nearer the earth; and so
on the contrary, the inferiors matutine, the superiors vespertine are

[66] In a note on the 6th Chapter of this Book, Whalley says that,
“according to Ptolemy, such as are between the ascendant and mid-heaven
obtain the first place of strength, and are said to be in their
oriental orientality: but, between the western horizon and the lower
heaven, in their occidental orientality, which is the second place
of strength: between the lower heaven and the ascendant, in their
oriental occidentality, the first degree of weakness; and between the
mid-heaven and western horizon, in their occidental occidentality, the
weakest place of all.” This is all very pretty jargon, but certainly
NOT “according to Ptolemy,” who distinctly says, on the contrary, that
if a planet “is on the actual horizon, or succedent to the horizon, it
is also _powerful, and particularly_ if in the eastern quarter.” The
last member of this sentence, as well as the conclusion of this 27th
Chapter, shows that Ptolemy did not consider a situation between the
mid-heaven and western horizon to be “the weakest place of all.”




The great and leading points, requiring to be attended to as a
necessary means of introduction to the consideration of particular
predictions, having been succinctly defined, the further parts of
the subject, comprehending everything which may tend to facilitate
prediction, and render it complete, shall now be duly proceeded in;
and, at the same time, care shall be taken to confine the whole
doctrine within the limits of natural reason.

The foreknowledge to be acquired by means of Astrology is to be
regarded in two great and principal divisions. The first, which may
be properly called General, or Universal, concerns entire nations,
countries, or cities; and the second, denominated Particular, or
Genethliacal, relates to men individually.

In considering these respective divisions, it seems proper to give
priority to that which has the more general application and influence:
because, in the first place, general events are produced by causes
greater and more compulsatory than the causes of particular events;
secondly, because natures of more extended potency must invariably
control those which are more limited in action; and, thirdly, because
particular events, or individual affections, are comprehended in those
of general influence.[67] It is therefore especially necessary, in
desiring to investigate particular events, to treat first of those
which are general.

[67] _Vide_ Chap. iii, Book I, pp. 13-14.

Again, general events are subdivided according to their operation
upon entire countries, and upon certain cities or districts: one
sub-division being regarded as affecting entire countries, and the
other certain cities or districts only. They are also separately
considered according to the causes by which they are produced; war,
pestilence, famine, earthquakes, inundations, and other similar
visitations being dependent on such greater and more important causes,
as arise only after considerable periods; while slighter causes,
arising more frequently, have reference only to the revolution of the
seasons; their greater or less variation in cold and heat; the severity
or mildness of the weather; the occasional abundance or scarcity of
provisions; and other like occurrences.

Hence the consideration of those events which concern whole countries,
and are dependent on the greater causes (since it has a more extended
scope than the other, which attaches only to certain cities, or
districts, and is subject to slighter causes) takes precedence. And,
for its due investigation, two essential points are to be attended to:
the first is, the appropriate familiarity of the zodiacal signs and the
fixed stars with the several regions which may be concerned; and the
second comprises the indications occasionally arising in those parts of
the heavens where such familiarity is found: for instance, the eclipses
of the Sun and Moon, and such transits as may be made by the planets,
when matutine, and in their respective stations.

The nature of the sympathy between these things must, however, be
explained first; and a brief description will therefore be given of
the chief peculiarities observable in whole nations; in regard to
their manners and customs, as well as to their bodily formation and
temperament; considered agreeably to their familiarity with those stars
and signs whence the natural cause of their peculiarities duly proceeds.



The peculiarities of all nations are distinguished according to entire
parallels and entire angles, and by their situation with regard to the
Sun and the Ecliptic.

The climate which we inhabit is situated in one of the Northern
Quadrants: but other nations, which lie under more southern parallels,
that is to say, in the space between the equinoctial line and the
summer tropic, have the Sun in their zenith, and are continually
scorched by it. They are consequently black in complexion, and
have thick and curled hair. They are, moreover, ugly in person, of
contracted stature, hot in disposition, and fierce in manners, in
consequence of the incessant heats to which they are exposed; and they
are called by the common name of Æthiopians. But the human race does
not alone afford evidence of the violent heat in these regions; it is
shown also by all other animals and by the state of the surrounding

The natives of those countries which lie under the more remote northern
parallels (that is to say, under the Arctic circle and beyond it[68])
have their zenith far distant from the zodiac and the Sun’s heat.
Their constitutions, therefore, abound in cold, and are also highly
imbued with moisture, which is in itself a most nutritive quality,
and, in these latitudes, is not exhausted by heat: hence they are fair
in complexion, with straight hair, of large bodies and full stature.
They are cold in disposition, and wild in manners, owing to the
constant cold. The state of the surrounding atmosphere and of animals
and plants, corresponds with that of men; who (as natives of these
countries) are designated by the general name of Scythians.

[68] “Under the Bears,” in the Greek.

The nations situated between the summer tropic and the Arctic circle,
having the meridian Sun neither in their zenith nor yet far remote from
it, enjoy a well-temperated atmosphere. This favourable temperature,
however, still undergoes variation, and changes alternatively from heat
to cold; but the variation is never vast nor violent. The people who
enjoy this kindly atmosphere are consequently of proportionate stature
and complexion, and of good natural disposition: they live not in a
state of dispersion, but dwell together in societies, and are civilised
in their habits. Among the nations comprehended in this division, those
verging towards the south are more industrious and ingenious than the
others, and more adapted to the sciences: and these qualifications are
engendered in them by the vicinity of the zodiac to their zenith, and
by the familiarity thus subsisting between them and the planets moving
in the zodiac, which familiarly gives activity and an intellectual
impulse to their minds. Again, the natives of those countries which lie
towards the east excel in courage, acting boldly and openly under all
circumstances; for in all their characteristics they are principally
conformed to the Sun’s nature, which is oriental, diurnal, masculine
and dexter—(and it is plainly apparent that the dexter parts of all
animals are much stronger than others)—hence results the greater
courage of the inhabitants of the East. And as the Moon, on her first
appearance after conjunction, is always seen in the west, the western
parts are therefore lunar, and consequently feminine and sinister;
whence it follows that the inhabitants of the west are milder, more
effeminate and reserved.

Thus, in all countries, certain respective peculiarities exist in
regard to manners, customs and laws; and in each it is found that
some portion of the inhabitants differs partially and individually
from the usual habits and condition of their race. These variations
arise similarly to the variations perceptible in the condition of the
atmosphere; as, in all countries, the general state of whose atmosphere
may be either hot, or cold, or temperate, certain districts are found
to possess a particular temperature of their own, and to be more or
less hot, or cold, by being more or less elevated than the general face
of the country. So, likewise, certain people become navigators owing
to their proximity to the sea, while others are equestrian, because
their country is a plain; and others, again, become domiciliated by the
fertility of their soil.

And thus, in each particular climate, certain peculiar qualities are to
be found, arising from the natural familiarity which it holds with the
stars and the twelve signs. And although these qualities do not pervade
it, in such a manner as to be necessarily exhibited by every individual
native, yet they are so far generally distributed as to be of much
utility in investigating particular events; and it is highly important
to take at least a brief notice of them.



It has been already stated that there are four triplicities
distinguishable in the zodiac. The first, composed of Aries, Leo,
and Sagittarius, is the north-west triplicity; and Jupiter has chief
dominion over it on behalf of its northern proportion; but Mars also
rules with him in reference to the west. The second, consisting of
Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is the south-east; and in this triplicity
Venus bears chief rule, in consequence of the southern proportion; but
Saturn also governs with her in consideration of the east. The third,
composed of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, is north-east; and Saturn is
here the principal lord, in consequence of the eastern proportion;
Jupiter, however, governs with him in reference to the north. The
fourth triplicity is constituted of Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and
is south-west; it owns Mars as its principal ruler, in consideration
of its western proportion; and, on behalf of the south, it is also
governed by Venus.

The four triplicities being thus established, the whole inhabited
earth is accordingly divided into four parts, agreeing with the number
of the triplicities. It is divided latitudinally by the line of the
Mediterranean Sea, from the Straits of Hercules to the Issican Gulf,
continued onwards through the mountainous ridge extending towards the
east; and by this latitudinal division its southern and northern parts
are defined. Its longitudinal division is made by the line of the
Arabian Gulf, the Ægean Sea, Pontus, and the lake Mæotis; and by this
line are separated its eastern and western parts.

Of the four quadrants of the earth, thus agreeing in number with the
four triplicities, one is situated in the north-west of the entire
earth, and contains Celto-galatia; or, as it is commonly called,
Europe. Opposed to this quadrant lies that of the south-east, towards
Eastern Æthiopia; it is called the southern part of Asia Magna. Another
quadrant of the entire earth is in the north-east, about Scythia, and
is called the northern part of Asia Magna. To this is opposed the
quadrant of the south-west, which lies about Western Æthiopia, and is
known by the general name of Libya.

Each of these quadrants contains certain parts, which, in comparison
with its other parts, lie more contiguous to the middle of the earth;
and these parts, in respect of the quadrant to which they belong,
have a situation opposite to the rest of that quadrant, in the same
manner as that quadrant itself is situated in regard to the rest of the
earth. For instance, in the quadrant of Europe, which is situated on
the north-west of the whole earth, those parts of it which lie towards
the middle of the earth, and near the angles of the other quadrants,
are manifestly situated in the south-east of that quadrant. The
like rule obtains in regard to the other quadrants. And hence it is
evident that each quadrant is in familiarity with two oppositely-placed
triplicities, its whole extent being adapted to the one triplicity
which governs it as an entire quadrant; but its particular parts,
situated about the middle of the earth, and lying, as regards the rest
of the quadrant, in a direction contrary to that assigned to the whole
quadrant altogether, being adapted to the other triplicity which rules
the particular quadrant lying opposite to it. The planets exercising
dominion in both these triplicities also hold familiarity with these
particular parts; but, with the other more remote parts of any
quadrant, only those planets hold familiarity which rule in the single
triplicity to which the whole quadrant is allotted. With the said
particular parts about the middle of the earth, Mercury also, as well
as the other planets in dominion, bears familiarity, in consideration
of his meditative condition and common nature.

Under this arrangement, it follows that the north-western parts of
the first quadrant, or that of Europe, are in familiarity with the
north-west triplicity, composed of Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius;
and they are accordingly governed by the lords of that triplicity,
Jupiter and Mars, vespertine. These parts, as distinguished by their
appropriation to entire nations, are Britain, Galatia, Germany,
Barsania,[69] Italy, Apulia, Sicily, Gaul, Tuscany, Celtica, and Spain.
And, since the triplicity itself and the planets connected with it
in dominion are adapted to command, the natives of these countries
are consequently impatient of restraint, lovers of freedom, warlike,
industrious, imperious, cleanly, and high-minded. But, owing to the
vespertine configuration of Jupiter and Mars, as well as the masculine
condition of the anterior parts of the triplicity, and the feminine
condition of its latter parts,[70] the said nations regard women with
scorn and indifference.[71] They are, however, still careful of the
community, brave and faithful, affectionate in their families, and
perform good and kind actions.

[69] Or, perhaps, Bastarnia, a part of the ancient European Sarmatia.

[70] This should probably be understood to mean in a mundane point of
view, agreeably to Chaps. VI and XV, Book I. For when Aries is on the
ascendant, it is, of course, oriental and masculine; and Sagittarius
must consequently then be in the eighth house, occidental, and
therefore feminine.

[71] The customs of nations have, in some degree, altered since Ptolemy
made this severe charge against us and our brethren in the north and
west of Europe. The following passage also occurs in this part of
the original text:—Προς δε τας συνουσιας των αρσενικων ανακινουμενοι
και ζηλουντες, και μητε αισχρον μητε αναλδρον τουτο νομιζοντες. δια
τουτο ουδε εκλυονται, οτι ουδε ως πασχοντες διακεινται επι τοντω, αλλα
φυλαττουσι τας ψυχας ανδρειους.

Among the countries before named, Britain, Galatia, Germany, and
Barsania have a greater share of familiarity with Aries and Mars; and
their inhabitants are accordingly wilder, bolder, and more ferocious.
Italy, Apulia, Sicily, and Gaul are in familiarity with Leo and the
Sun; and the natives of these countries are more imperious, yet kind
and benevolent, and careful of the commonwealth. Tuscany, Celtica,
and Spain, are connected with Sagittarius and Jupiter; and their
inhabitants are lovers of freedom, simplicity, and elegance.

The south-eastern parts of this quadrant, which are situated towards
the middle of the earth, viz. Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria, Hellas,
Achaia, and Crete, as well as the Cyclad Isles and the shores of
Asia Minor and of Cyprus, assume, in addition, a connection with
the south-east triplicity, which is composed of Taurus, Virgo, and
Capricorn, and ruled by Venus and Saturn; and, in consequence of the
vicinity of these regions to the middle of the earth, Mercury likewise
has a proportionate dominion over them. Hence their inhabitants, being
subjected to the rulers of both triplicities, enjoy a favourable
temperament of mind and of body. From Mars they imbibe their fitness
for command, their courage, and impatience of restraint; from Jupiter
their love of freedom, their self-rule, their skill in guiding public
affairs, and in legislation: through the influence of Venus they are
also lovers of the arts and sciences, as well as of music and poetry,
of public shows, and all the refinements of life; and from Mercury they
deduce their hospitality, their fondness for society and communion,
their love of equity and of literature, and their power of eloquence.
They are also in the highest degree conversant with sacred mysteries,
owing to the vespertine figuration of Venus.

It is further to be observed of these last-named countries, that the
inhabitants of the Cyclad Isles, and of the shores of Asia Minor and of
Cyprus, are more particularly under the influence of Taurus and Venus,
and are therefore voluptuous, fond of elegance, and over-studious in
their attention to the body. The people of Hellas, Achaia, and Crete,
have a stronger familiarity with Virgo and Mercury, and are therefore
learned and scientific, preferring the cultivation of the mind to the
care of the body. The people of Macedonia, Thrace, and Illyria, are
chiefly influenced by Capricorn and Saturn; whence they are greedy
of wealth, inferior in civilization, and have no ordinances of civil

The second quadrant consists of the southern division of Asia Magna.
Such of its parts as are contained in India, Arriana, Gedrosia,
Parthia, Media, Persia, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, are
situated in the south-east of the whole earth, and have due familiarity
with the south-east triplicity (composed of Taurus, Virgo, and
Capricorn), and consequently with Venus, Mercury, and Saturn, in
matutine figuration. The nature of the inhabitants of these countries
is obedient to the dominion of these ruling influences; they worship
Venus under the name of Isis; and they also pay devotion to Saturn,
invoking him by the name of Mithranhelios. Many of them likewise
foretell future events; and they consecrate to the gods some of their
bodily members, to which superstition they are induced by the nature
of the figuration of the planets before mentioned.[72] They are,
moreover, hot in constitution, amorous and lustful, fond of acting,
singing, and dancing, gaudy in their dresses and ornaments; owing to
the influence of Venus. Saturn, however, inclines them to simplicity
of conduct; and, in consequence of the matutine figuration, they
address their women publicly.[73] There are also many among them who
beget children by their own mothers.[74] The matutine figurations also
influence their mode of worship, which is performed by prostration of
the breast; because the heart is the nobler part of the body, and, in
its vivifying faculties, acts like the Sun. And, although the influence
of Venus makes the people, generally speaking, finical and effeminate
in their personal adornment and apparel, yet the connection which
Saturn holds with them, by means of the east, still renders them great
in mind, eminent in council, courageous and warlike.

[72] The Greek is as follows: και τα μορια αυτων τα γεννητικα
ανατιθεασι τοις θεοις· διοτι ο σχηματισμος των ειρημενων αςερων φυσει
σπερματικος εσιν· Follies, similar in their kind to these, are still
practised by the Faquirs of Hindostan, and by other religious sects in

[73] Φανερως ποιουμενοι τας προς τας γυναικας συνουσιας·

[74] The author gives a singular reason for this incest: μισουσι δε τας
(συνουσιας) προς τους αρσενας. δια τουτο και οι πλειςοι αυτων εκ των
μητερων τεκνοποιουσι·

It is to be remarked, that Parthia, Media, and Persia, have a more
particular familiarity with Taurus and Venus; whence it follows that
the dwellers in those countries wear splendid garments, and clothe
the whole person entirely, except the breast; they are also fond of
elegance and refinement. The countries about Babylon, Mesopotamia, and
Assyria, are connected with Virgo and Mercury; their inhabitants are
consequently studious of the sciences, and, among other attainments,
excel in making observations on the five planets. India, Arriana, and
Gedrosia, are connected with Capricorn and Saturn; the natives of these
regions are, therefore, ill-formed in person, of dirty habits, and
barbarous manners.

The remaining parts of this second quadrant, viz. Idumæa, Cœlesyria,
Judæa, Phœnicia, Chaldæa, Orchynia, and Arabia Felix, occupy a
situation in the vicinity of the middle of the earth, and in the
north-west of the quadrant to which they actually belong: hence they
are in familiarity with the north-west triplicity (which consists of
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius), and they have for their rulers, Jupiter
and Mars, together with Mercury. By means of the figuration of these
planets, the natives of the said countries are skilful in trade and all
mercantile affairs, heedless of danger, yet treacherous, servile, and
thoroughly fickle.

The inhabitants of Cœlesyria, Idumæa, and Judæa, are principally
influenced by Aries and Mars, and are generally audacious,
atheistical,[75] and treacherous. The Phœnicians, Chaldæans, and
Orchynians, have familiarity with Leo and the Sun, and are therefore
more simple and humane in disposition; they are also studious of
astrology, and pay greater reverence than all other nations to the Sun.
The people of Arabia Felix are connected with Sagittarius and Jupiter:
the country is fertile, and abundantly productive of spices, and its
inhabitants are well-proportioned in person, free in all their habits
of life, and liberal in all their contracts and dealings.

[75] The epithet is remarkable, not only as being, in the opinion of
a Gentile, merited by the Jews, among other nations, but also at a
period scarcely exceeding a century after their most heinous crime
had been committed, expressly under the cloak of religion. It seems,
however, that the Jews were charged with atheism by other writers also,
and on account of their neglect of the false gods of the heathens;
viz. “_falsorium deorum neglectus_: quam candem causam etiam Judæis
maledicendi Tacitus habuit, et Plinius Major, cui Judæi dicuntur _gens
contumeliâ numinum insignis_.” See Clark’s Notes on Grotius de Verit.
Relig. Christ. Lib. 2, §2.

The third quadrant occupies the northern division of Asia Magna.
Those several parts of it which lie to the north-east of the whole
earth, and comprise Hyrcania, Armenia, Mantiana, Bactriana, Casperia,
Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, and Sogdiana, are in familiarity with
the north-east triplicity, composed of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius,
and have for their rulers Saturn and Jupiter, in matutine positions;
hence the inhabitants worship Jupiter and the Sun.[76] They are
abundantly rich in all things: they possess much gold, and are dainty
and luxurious in their diet. They are also learned in theology, skilled
in magic, just in all their dealings, free and noble-minded, holding
dishonesty and wickedness in abhorrence, strongly imbued with the
softer affections of nature; and, in a worthy cause, they will even
readily embrace death to preserve their friends. They are, furthermore,
chaste in marriage, elegant and splendid in their dress, charitable
and beneficent, and of enlightened intellect. All these qualities are
principally produced by the matutine positions of Saturn and Jupiter,
who influence the region.

[76] Other editions say “Saturn.”

Among these nations, however, Hyrcania, Armenia, and Mantiana, have
a greater familiarity with Gemini and Mercury; and the inhabitants
are consequently more acute in apprehension, but less tenacious of
their probity. The countries about Bactriana, Casperia, and Serica,
are connected with Libra and Venus; and the natives are endowed with
much wealth and many luxuries, and take delight in poetry and songs.
The nations about Sauromatica, Oxiana and Sogdiana, are influenced by
Aquarius and Saturn; and are therefore less polished in manners, and
more austere and uncouth.

The other parts of this quadrant, lying near the middle of the entire
earth, consist of Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchis, Laxica, Syria, Commagene,
Cappadocia, Lydia, Lycia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia. These, being situated
in the south-west of their quadrant, have familiarity accordingly with
the south-west triplicity, composed of Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces,
and are ruled by Mars and Venus, together with Mercury. In these
countries Venus is principally worshipped; she is invoked as the Mother
of the Gods, and by various local and indigenous appellations; Mars
likewise receives adoration here, under the name of Adonis, as well
as by other titles;[77] and some of the religious services to these
deities are performed by loud lamentations. The people are servile in
mind, diligent in labour, yet fraudulent, knavish, and thievish; they
enter into foreign armies for the sake of hire, and make prisoners and
slaves of their own countrymen: besides which, they are continually
subject to intestine broils. These traits arise from the matutine
figurations of Mars and Venus. It is further to be observed, that,
from the circumstance of Mars receiving his exaltation in Capricorn
(one of the signs of the triplicity ruled by Venus), and Venus hers in
Pisces (a sign belonging to the triplicity of Mars), it thence follows
that the women have strong attachments and kindly affections to their
husbands, are vigilant and careful in domestic affairs, and highly
industrious: they also act as servants, and labour for the men, with
all due obedience, in every thing.

Bithynia, Phrygia, and Colchis, must however be excepted from sharing
in this general propriety of the female character; for, as these
nations are chiefly connected with Cancer and the Moon, their male
population is, generally speaking, slavish in its habits, timid and
superstitious, while the greater part of the women, owing to the
matutine and masculine position of the Moon, are of masculine manners,
ambitious of command, and warlike. These females, like the Amazons,
shun the addresses of men, and delight in the use of arms, and in
manly occupations: they also amputate the right breasts of their
female children for the sake of adapting them to military service, and
in order that, when in combat and exposing that part of their body,
they may appear to be of the male sex. Again, Syria, Commagene, and
Cappadocia, are principally influenced by Scorpio and Mars; and their
inhabitants are accordingly bold, wicked, treacherous, and laborious.
Lydia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia, have a greater familiarity with Pisces
and Jupiter; when their inhabitants are wealthy, of mercantile habits,
living in freedom and in community, faithful to their engagements, and
honest in their dealings.

The remaining quadrant is the vast tract known by the general name of
Libya. Its several parts, distinguished by the particular names of
Numidia, Carthage, Africa,[78] Phazania, Nasamonitis, Garamantica,
Mauritania, Getulia, and Metagonitis, are situated in the south-west
of the entire earth, and have due familiarity with the south-west
triplicity, composed of Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces; their rulers
therefore are Mars and Venus, in vespertine position. From this
figuration of the planets it results that the dwellers in these regions
are doubly governed by a man and a woman, who are both children of
the same mother; the man rules the males, and the woman the females.
They are extremely hot in constitution, and desirous of women; their
marriages are usually made by violence, and in many districts the local
princes first enjoy the brides of their subjects: in some places,
however, the women are common to all. The influence of Venus causes the
whole people to delight in personal ornaments, and in being arrayed
in female attire: nevertheless, that of Mars renders them courageous,
crafty, addicted to magic, and fearless of dangers.

[77] It is usually understood that the male deity, coupled by the
Phrygians with Cybele, “the mother of the Gods,” was called by them
Atys; and that Adonis was the name used by the Phœnicians in addressing
the associate of Venus. It has been said that these divinities were
identical with the Isis and Osiris of the Ægyptians.

[78] The name of Africa was, in Ptolemy’s time, limited to those parts
of the coast on the Mediterranean which contained the ancient Utica,
and in which Tunis now stands. Josephus says the name is derived from
Afer (one of the posterity of Abraham by Cethurah), who is stated to
have led an army into Libya, and to have established himself in the
country. This Afer is, of course, the same with Epher, mentioned in the
fourth verse of the 25th chapter of Genesis, as a son of Midian, one of
the sons of Abraham by his concubine Keturah.

Again, however, of the above-named countries, Numidia, Carthage, and
Africa, are more particularly in familiarity with Cancer and the
Moon: their inhabitants, consequently, live in community, attend to
mercantile pursuits, and enjoy abundantly all the blessings of nature.
The natives of Metagonitis, Mauritania, and Getulia, are influenced by
Scorpio and Mars, and are consequently ferocious and pugnacious in the
highest degree; eaters of human flesh, utterly indifferent to danger,
and so regardless and prodigal of blood, as to slay each other without
hesitation on the slightest cause. The people in Phazania, Nasamonitis,
and Garamantica, are connected with Pisces and Jupiter, and are
accordingly frank and simple in manners, fond of employment, well
disposed, fond of the decencies of life, and, for the most part, free
and unrestrained in their actions: they worship Jupiter by the name of

The other parts of this quadrant, which lies near the middle of
the entire earth, are Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Ægypt, Thebais, Oasis,
Troglodytica, Arabia, Azania, and Middle Æthiopia. These countries,
being situated in the north-east of their quadrant, have due
familiarity with the north-east triplicity (consisting of Gemini,
Libra, and Aquarius), and are governed by Saturn and Jupiter, and also
by Mercury. Their inhabitants, therefore, participate in the influence
of all the five planets in vespertine figuration, and consequently
cherish due love and reverence for the gods, and dedicate themselves to
their service. They are addicted to sepulchral ceremonies; and, owing
to the said vespertine position, they bury their dead in the earth,[79]
and remove them from the public eye. They use various laws and
customs, and worship divers gods. In a state of subjection, they are
submissive, cowardly, abject, and most patient; but when they command,
they are brave, generous, and high-minded. Polygamy is frequent among
them, and practised by the women as well as the men: they are most
licentious in sexual intercourse, and allow incestuous commerce between
brothers and sisters. Both men and women are extraordinarily prolific,
and correspond in this respect with the fecundity of their soil. Many
of the men are, however, effeminate and debased in mind; in consequence
of the figuration of the malefics, together with the vespertine
position of Venus; and some of them mutilate their persons.[80]

[79] It does not appear why this practice should have been remarked
as a national peculiarity, unless in distinction from the custom of
burning the dead among the Greeks and Romans. Interment is recorded as
having been usual among the Jews, and it is known to have been common
among many ancient barbarous nations.

A conjecture may perhaps be allowed, that the author, when he wrote
this passage, had in his mind the magnificent subterranean palaces,
constructed for the dead, in parts of the region in question; some of
which have been recently made known to the modern world by the sagacity
and enterprise of the celebrated Belzoni.

[80] Τινες δε και καταφρονουσι των γεννητικων μελων.—The “contempt”
here expressed by καταφρονουσι has been taken by all translators
(except Whalley) to signify “mutilation.”

Among these last-named countries, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, and
particularly Lower Ægypt, are chiefly influenced by Gemini and Mercury:
the natives are therefore highly intellectual and sensible, and gifted
with capacity for every undertaking; above all, for the attainment of
wisdom, and an insight into divine mysteries. They are also magicians,
performing secret rites and ceremonies, and are in every respect
calculated for the prosecution of all scientific inquiry.[81] The
inhabitants of Thebais, Oasis, and Troglodytica, are connected with
Libra and Venus; they are of warmer constitution, and more hasty
disposition, and enjoy life in all its plentitude and abundance. The
natives of Arabia, Azania, and Middle Æthiopia, have familiarity
with Aquarius and Saturn; they consequently feed on flesh and fish
indiscriminately, and live in a state of dispersion like wild beasts;
they never unite in society, but lead a wandering and savage life.

[81] History warrants the high enconium here given to the natives of
these countries. Ægypt was the acknowledged mother of the arts and
sciences, and at one time the great depot of all the learning of the
world: her school of astronomy (a science which our author may be
supposed to have placed in the first rank), founded at Alexandria by
Ptol. Philadelphus, maintained its superior reputation for a thousand
years. Cyrenaica gave birth to many illustrious philosophers, and,
among them, to Eratosthenes, who is said to have invented the armillary
sphere. This great man measured the obliquity of the ecliptic, and,
though he erroneously reckoned it at only 20½ degrees, it should be
recollected that he lived 200 years before the Christian æra. He also
measured a degree of the meridian, and determined the extent of the
earth, by means similar to those adopted by the moderns.


              Signs.          |    Aries.   |   Taurus.  |  Gemini.
           Triplicity.        | North West. | South East.| North East.
    Quadrant of the Countries.| North West. | South East.| North East.
                              | Britain     | Parthia    | Hyrcania
    Countries remote from the | Galatia     | Media      | Armenia
      middle of the earth.    | Germany     | Persia     | Mantiana
                              | Barsania    |            |
    Quadrant of the Countries.| South East. | North West.| South West.
    Countries near the middle | Cælesyria   | Cyclades   | Cyrenaica
           of the earth.      | Idumæa      | Cyprus     | Marmarica
                              | Judæa       | Asia Minor | Lower Ægypt
              Signs.          |   Libra.    |  Scorpio.  | Sagittarius.
           Triplicity.        | North East. | South West.| North West.
    Quadrant of the Countries.| North East. | South West.| North West.
    Countries remote from the | Bactriana   | Metagonitis| Tuscany
       middle of the earth.   | Casperia    | Mauritania | Celtica
                              | Serica      | Getulia    | Spain
    Quadrant of the Countries.| South West. | North East.| South East.
     Countries near the middle| Thebais     | Syria      |
           of the earth.      | Oasis       | Commagene  | Arabia Felix
                              | Troglodytica| Cappadocia |
                              |             |            |
              Signs.          |   Cancer.   |    Leo.    |  Virgo.
           Triplicity.        | South West. | North West.| South East.
    Quadrant of the Countries.| South West. | North West.| South East.
                              | Numidia     | Italy      | Mesopotamia
    Countries remote from the | Carthage    | Apulia     | Babylonia
      middle of the earth.    | Africa      | Sicily     | Assyria
                              |             | Gaul       |
    Quadrant of the Countries.| North East. | South East.| North West.
    Countries near the middle | Bithynia    | Phœnicia   | Hellas
           of the earth.      | Phrygia     | Chaldæa    | Achaia
                              | Colchis     | Orychnia   | Crete
              Signs.          | Capricorn.  |  Aquarius. |   Pisces.
           Triplicity.        | South East. | North East.| South West.
    Quadrant of the Countries.| South East. | North East.| South West.
    Countries remote from the | India       | Sauromatica| Phazania
       middle of the earth.   | Arriana     | Oxiana     | Nasamonitis
                              | Gedrosia    | Sogdiana   | Garamantica
    Quadrant of the Countries.| North West. | South West.| North East.
     Countries near the middle| Thrace      | Arabia     | Lydia
           of the earth.      | Macedonia   | Azania     | Cilicia
                              | Illyria     | Middle     | Pamphylia
                              |             |   Æthiopia |

The familiarities exercised by the Planets, and by the Signs of the
Zodiac, together with the manners, customs, and qualities, particular
as well as general, which they produce, have now been concisely
described; but in order to facilitate the knowledge and use of them,
the subjoined table is inserted, to show, at one view, what countries
are in connection with each sign, respectively, according to the mode
above detailed.



In addition to the rules which have been already given, respecting the
familiarity of the regions of the earth with the signs and planets,
it must be observed, that all fixed stars which may be posited on any
line, drawn from one zodiacal pole to the other, through such parts of
the zodiac as may be connected with any particular country, are also in
familiarity with that particular country.

And, with regard to metropolitan cities, it is necessary to state,
that those points or degrees of the zodiac, over which the Sun and
Moon were in transit, at the time when the construction of any such
city was first undertaken and commenced, are to be considered as
sympathizing with that city in an especial manner; and that, among the
angles, the ascendant is principally in accordance with it. In certain
cases, however, where the date of foundation of a metropolis cannot be
ascertained, the mid-heaven in the nativity of the reigning king, or
other actual chief magistrate, is to be substituted, and considered as
that part of the zodiac with which it chiefly sympathizes.[82]

[82] Whalley remarks on this passage, that the gradual progress of
the fixed stars “from one sign to another, is in an especial manner
to be regarded in considering the mutations, manners, customs, laws,
government, and fortune of a kingdom.”



After having gone through the necessary preliminary topics, it is now
proper to speak of the manner in which predictions are to be formed
and considered; beginning with those which relate to general events,
affecting either certain cities, or districts, or entire countries.

The strongest and principal cause of all these events exists in the
ecliptical conjunctions of the Sun and Moon, and in the several
transits made by the planets during those conjunctions.

One part of the observations, required in forming predictions in cases
of this nature, relates to the locality of the event, and points out
the cities or countries liable to be influenced by particular eclipses,
or by occasional continued stations of certain planets, which at times
remain for a certain period in one situation. These planets are Saturn,
Jupiter, and Mars; and they furnish portentous indications, when they
are stationary.

Another branch relates to time, and gives pre-information of the period
at which the event will occur, and how long it will continue to operate.

The third branch is generic; and points out the classes, or kinds,
which the event will affect.

The last part is specific; and foreshows the actual quality and
character of the coming event.



The first of the several branches of consideration just enumerated
relates to locality, and is to be exercised in the following manner:—

In all eclipses of the Sun and Moon, and especially in such as are
fully visible, the place in the zodiac, where the eclipse happens, is
to be noted; and it must be seen what countries are in familiarity
with that place, according to the rules laid down regarding the
quadrants and the triplicities; and in like manner it must be observed
what cities are under the influence of the sign in which the eclipse
happens; either by means of the ascendant, and the situations of
the luminaries at the time of their foundation, or by means of the
mid-heaven of their kings or governors, actually ruling at the time of
the eclipse; although such time may be subsequent to the building of
the said cities. Whatever countries or cities shall be thus found in
familiarity with the ecliptical place, will all be comprehended in the
event; which will, however, principally attach to all those parts which
may be connected with the identical sign of the eclipse,[83] and in
which it was visible while above the earth.[84]

[83] As shown in the Table at page 51.

[84] It does not appear that the text here warrants the conclusion
which Whalley has drawn from it, viz. “that wherever eclipses are not
visible, they have no influence, and therefore subterranean eclipses
cannot have any.” Ptolemy declares, that _all_ countries in familiarity
with the ecliptical place will be comprehended in the event; and,
with regard to the visibility or invisibility of the eclipse, he says
merely that its effects will be _principally_ felt in such of the said
countries as might have obtained a view of the eclipse.



The second point requiring attention relates to time, and indicates
the date when the event will take place, and the period during which
its effect will continue: these are to be ascertained in the following

It must however be premised, that as an eclipse, occurring at any
particular season, cannot happen in all climates at the same temporal
or solar hour,[85] so neither will the magnitude of the obscuration,
nor the time of its continuance, be equal in all parts of the world.
First, therefore (as is done in a nativity), the angles are to be
arranged, in every country connected with the eclipse, according to the
hour at which the eclipse takes place and the elevation of the pole in
that country. The time, during which the obscuration of the eclipse may
continue in each country, is then to be noted in equatorial hours.[86]
And, after these particulars have been carefully observed, it is to be
understood that the effect will endure as many years as the obscuration
lasted hours, provided the eclipse was solar; but if lunar, a like
number of months is to be reckoned instead of years.

The commencement of the effect, and the period of its general
intensity, or strength, are to be inferred from the situation of
the place of the eclipse with respect to the angles. For, if the
ecliptical place be near the eastern horizon, the effect will begin to
be manifested in the course of the first four months after the date of
the eclipse; and its general height, or intensity, will take place in,
or about, the first third part of the whole extent of its duration.
If the ecliptical place happen to be in or near the mid-heaven, the
effect will begin to appear in the second four months, and its general
intensity will occur about the second third part; and, if the place
should fall near the western horizon, the effect will begin in the
third four months, and take its general intensity in the last third
part of its whole duration.[87]

[85] Temporal or solar hours are duodecimal parts of the Sun’s diurnal
or nocturnal arc, and are numbered by day from sunrise to sunset; by
night, from sunset to sunrise.

[86] Equatorial hours are the twenty-four hours of the earth’s
revolution on its axis. Each of them is equal in duration to the
passage of 15 degrees of the Equator; and they are numbered from noon
to noon. A particular explanation of the astronomical use, both of
temporal and equatorial hours, is to be found in the 9th Chapter of
the second Book of the Almagest; an extract from which is given in the

[87] The three periods of four months each, stated in this paragraph,
are applicable to solar eclipses only; for lunar eclipses, these
periods may be reckoned at ten days each; that number of days bearing
the same proportion to a month, as four months to a year. On this
point, Whalley, with his usual inaccuracy, has asserted, that “in
eclipses of the Moon, two days, or thereabouts, are equal to the four
months” here reckoned in eclipses of the Sun. He adds, however, what
perhaps may be true, that “lunar eclipses are by no means so powerful
as those of the Sun, although more so than any other lunation.”

Partial intensities, or relaxations of the effect, are, however, to be
inferred from any combinations which may happen during the intermediate
period,[88] either in the actual places where the primary cause was
presented, or in other places configurated therewith. They are also to
be conjectured by the various courses, or transits, of such planets
as co-operate in producing the effect, by being configurated with the
sign in which the primary cause was situated; and, with this view, the
matutine, vespertine, or stationary position, or midnight culmination
of those planets must be observed; for the effect will be strengthened
and augmented by their matutine or stationary position; but weakened
and diminished by their being vespertine, or situated under the
sunbeams, or by their midnight culmination.

[88] That is to say, from any combinations of the Sun and Moon which
may take place after the date of the eclipse, but before the close of
its effect.



The third division of these observations relates to the mode of
distinguishing the genus, or species, of animals or things about to
sustain the expected effect. This distinction is made by means of the
conformation and peculiar properties of those signs in which the place
of the eclipse, and the places of such fixed stars and planets, as are
in dominion according to the actual sign of the eclipse, and that of
the angle before it, may be found. And a planet, or fixed star, is to
be considered as holding dominion when circumstanced as follows.

If there be found one planet having more numerous claims than any
other to the place of the eclipse, as well as to that of the angle,
being also in the immediate vicinity of those places, and visibly
applying to, or receding from them, and having likewise more rights
over other places connected with them by configuration; the said
planet being, at the same time, lord by house, triplicity, exaltation,
and terms; in such a case, only that single planet is entitled to
dominion. But, if the lord of the eclipse and the lord of the angle
be not identical, then those two planets which have most connections
with each place are to be noted; and, of these two, the lord of the
eclipse is to be preferred to the chief dominion, “although the other
is to be considered as bearing rule conjointly.”[89] And if more than
two should be found, having equal preensions to each place, that
particular one among them which may be nearest to an angle, or most
concerned with the places in question, by the nature of its condition,
is to be selected for dominion.[90]

[89] The edition of Allatius does not contain the words here marked by
inverted commas; but they are found in other editions of the text, and
seem necessary to complete the sense of the passage.

[90] “When planets, in election for Lords of the eclipse, are found of
equal strength and dignity, those which are direct are to be preferred
before those which are retrograde; and the oriental before the
occidental.”—_Whalley’s “Annotations.”_

But, among the fixed stars, the chief bright one (which, during the
time of the eclipse, may hold connection, in any of the nine modes
of apparent configuration detailed in the First Syntaxis[91] with
the angles then actually in passage), is to be admitted to dominion;
as also that one which, at the ecliptical hour, may be in an eminent
situation, either having risen, or having culminated with the angle
following the place of the eclipse.[92]

[91] That is to say, in the Almagest, Book VIII, Chap. IV; which
chapter is given, entire, in the Appendix.

[92] “In electing fixed stars, Cardan directs to observe the angle
which the eclipse follows, and that which it precedes: as, if the
eclipse be between the seventh house” (or occidental angle) “and the
mid-heaven, the stars which are in the seventh shall be preferred; and
next, those in the mid-heaven; but, if between the mid-heaven and the
ascendant, those in the mid-heaven shall have the preference; and next,
those in the ascendant.”—_Whalley’s “Annotations.”_

Having considered, according to the foregoing rules, what stars
co-operate in regulating the coming event, the conformation and figure
of the signs, in which the eclipse takes place and the said ruling
stars may be posited, are also to be observed; and, from the properties
and characteristics of those signs, the genus or species, to be
comprehended in the event, is chiefly to be inferred.

For instance, should the zodiacal constellations, and those of the
ruling fixed stars out of the zodiac, be of human shape, the effect
will fall upon the human race. If the signs be not of human shape, but
yet terrestrial, or quadrupedal, the event would be indicated to happen
to animals of similar form: the signs shaped like reptiles signify that
serpents and creatures of that description will be affected; those
bearing the figure of ferocious beasts denote that the event will
affect savage and destructive animals; and those figured like tame
beasts show that it will operate on animals serviceable to mankind,
and of domestic character; as intimated by the shape and figure of the
signs, whether resembling horses, oxen, sheep, or any other useful
animals. In addition to this, the terrestrial signs situated in the
north, about the Arctic circle, indicate sudden earthquakes; and those
in the south, sudden deluges of rain. And, should the ruling places be
situated in signs shaped like winged animals, as in that of Aquila, or
in others of similar form, the event will take effect on birds; and
will chiefly attach to those which afford food to man. If the said
places should be in signs formed like creatures which swim, and in
marine signs, such as Delphinus, the effect will be felt by marine
animals, and in the navigation of fleets; if in river signs, such as
Aquarius and Pisces, it will attach to animals living in rivers and in
fresh waters: and, if in Argo, both sea and fresh-water animals will be
affected by it.[93]

Again, should the ruling places be situated in tropical or in
equinoctial signs, in either case alike they presignify changes in the
state of the atmosphere, at the respective season to which each sign
is appropriated. For example, with regard to the season of spring and
the productions of the earth, if the said places should be in the sign
of the vernal equinox, they will produce an effect on the buds of the
vine and fig, and of such other trees as sprout forth at that season.
Should they be in the sign of the summer tropic, the event will affect
the gathering and depositing of fruits; and, with respect to Ægypt in
particular, it will impede the rising of the Nile. If they should be in
the sign of the autumnal equinox, they foreshow that it will operate
on grain and on various sorts of herbs; if in the sign of the winter
tropic, on potherbs, esculent vegetables, and such birds and fishes as
arrive in that season.

The equinoctial signs further indicate the circumstances liable to
happen in ecclesiastical concerns, and in religious matters: the
tropical signs give warning of changes in the atmosphere and in
political affairs; the fixed signs, of changes in institutions and in
buildings; and the bicorporeal signs show that the future event will
fall alike on princes and their subjects.

Again, the ruling places situated in the east, during the time of
the eclipse, signify that fruits and seeds, incipient institutions,
and the age of youth, will be affected; those, which may be in the
mid-heaven above the earth announce that the coming event will relate
to ecclesiastical affairs, to kings and princes, and to the middle
age; those in the west, that it will influence the laws, old age, and
persons about to die.

The proportion liable to be affected, of that genus or kind on which
the event will fall, is to be ascertained by the magnitude of the
obscuration caused by the eclipse, and by the positions held by the
operative stars in regard to the ecliptical place; as, in vespertine
position to a solar eclipse, or in matutine position to a lunar
eclipse, the said stars will most usually much diminish the effect; in
opposition they render it moderate; but in matutine position to a solar
eclipse, or in vespertine to a lunar, they greatly augment and extend

[93] It is perhaps unnecessary to remark, that, in speaking of ruling
places, as liable to be situated in Aquila, Delphinus or Argo, Ptolemy
alludes only to the places of the fixed stars in dominion: since the
ecliptical place and the planets must be confined to the zodiacal signs.

[94] According to Whalley, Cardan, in reference to the nine modes of
configuration, applicable to the fixed stars, says, “When a fixed star
is with any planet, or in any angle, consider whether it be by any of
these ways; if not, it is most weak; if it be, consider whether it be
with the Sun, and not to be seen; then it is very weak. Or if it is to
be seen, and is with the Sun occidental, it is indifferent. Or if it be
seen, and is not with the Sun, it is stronger; or if it be seen, and is
oriental, then it is strongest.”



The discrimination of the peculiar properties and character of the
effect about to be produced, and of its good or evil nature, occupies
the fourth and last division of this part of the subject.

These properties must be gathered from the power of the stars which
control the ruling places, and from the contemperament created by their
relative admixture with each other and with the places which they
control. For, although the Sun and Moon are the acknowledged sources
of all the efficacy and dominion of the stars, and of their strength
or weakness, and in a certain manner regulate and command them, still,
it is by the theory of the contemperament, produced by the stars in
dominion, that the effect is indicated.

In order to understand the indications thus made, it is necessary to
begin by attending to the following detail of the effective property of
each planet—previously observing, however, that, when any circumstance
is said, for the sake of brevity, to come to pass by the general
influence of the five planets, their temperament, and the power and
assistance they may derive from natures similar to their own, the
actual continuance of their own proper constitution, or the casual
combination of any analogous influence, arising from fixed stars or
places in the zodiac, are all, at the same time, to be kept in view.
Consequently, whenever any general remark is herein made relative
to the five planets, it will likewise be necessary to bear in mind
both their temperament and quality; as fully, indeed, as if the stars
themselves had not been named, but only their effective quality and
nature. And, it is further to be remembered, that, in every case of
compound temperament, not only the combination of the planets with each
other requires to be considered, but also that of such fixed stars
and zodiacal places as share in the natures of the planets, by being
respectively connected with them according to the familiarities already

Hence, when Saturn may be sole governor, he will produce disasters
concomitant with cold. And, in as far as the event may apply to the
human race in particular, it will induce among men lingering diseases,
consumptions, declines, rheumatisms, disorders from watery humours, and
attacks of the quartan ague; as well as exile, poverty, and a general
mass of evils, griefs, and alarms: deaths also will be frequent,
but chiefly among persons advanced in age. That part of the brute
creation which is most serviceable to man will likewise suffer, and be
destroyed by disease; and men who make use of the animals thus diseased
will be infected by them, and perish with them. The atmosphere will
become dreadfully chilly and frosty, unwholesome, turbid and gloomy,
presenting only clouds and pestilence. Copious and destructive storms
of snow and hail will descend, generating and fostering insects and
reptiles noxious to mankind. In rivers, and at sea, tempests will be
frequent and general, causing disastrous voyages and many shipwrecks;
and even fish will be destroyed. The waters of the sea will retire for
a time, and again return and produce inundations; rivers will overflow
their banks, and cause stagnant pools; and the fruits of the earth,
especially such as are necessary to sustain life, will be lost and cut
off by blight, locusts, floods, rains, hail, or some similar agency;
and the loss will be so extensive as to threaten even famine.

Jupiter, if he should be lord alone, will thoroughly improve and
benefit all things. Among mankind, in particular, this planet
promotes honour, happiness, content, and peace, by augmenting all the
necessaries and comforts of life, and all mental and bodily advantages.
It induces also favours, benefits, and gifts emanating from royalty,
and adds greater lustre to kings themselves, increasing their dignity
and magnanimity: all men, in short, will share in the prosperity
created by its influence. With regard to the operation of the event on
brutes, those which are domestic and adapted to man’s service will be
multiplied and will thrive; while others, which are useless and hostile
to man, will be destroyed. The constitution of the atmosphere will be
healthy and temperate, filled with gentle breezes and moisture, and
favourable to fruits. Navigation will be safe and successful; rivers
will rise to their just proportion; fruit and grain, and all other
productions of the earth conducive to the welfare and happiness of
mankind, will be presented in abundance.

Mars, when governing alone, generally causes such mischief and
destruction as are concomitant with dryness. And, among mankind,
foreign wars will be excited, accompanied with intestine divisions,
captivity, slaughter, insurrections of the people, and wrath of
princes against their subjects; together with sudden and untimely
death, the consequence of these disturbances. Feverish disorders,
tertian agues, and hæmorrhages will take place, and will be rapidly
followed by painful death, carrying off chiefly youthful persons: and
conflagration, murder, impiety, every infraction of the law, adultery,
rape, robbery, and all kinds of violence will be practised. The
atmosphere will be parched by hot, pestilential, and blasting winds,
accompanied by drought, lightnings, and fires emitted from the sky.
At sea, ships will be suddenly wrecked by the turbulence of the wind
and strokes of lightning. Rivers will fail, springs will be dried up,
and there will be a scarcity of water proper for food and sustenance.
All the creatures and productions of the earth adapted to the use of
man, whether beasts, grain, or fruits, will be damaged or destroyed
by excessive heat, by storms of thunder and lightning, or by violent
winds; and whatever has been deposited in store will be destroyed or
injured by fire, or by heat.

Venus, alone in domination, generally produces the same effects as
Jupiter, yet with greater suavity and more agreeably. Glory, honour,
and joy will attend mankind; happy marriages will be contracted,
and the fortunate pairs will be blest with numerous children. Every
undertaking will proceed prosperously, wealth will increase, and the
conduct of human life will be altogether pure, simple and pious; due
reverence being paid to all holy and sacred institutions, and harmony
subsisting between princes and their subjects. The weather also will
be of a favourable temperature, cooled by moistening breezes; the air
altogether pure and salubrious, frequently refreshed by fertilising
showers. Voyages will be performed in safety, and be attended by
success and profit. Rivers will be improved, and receive their adequate
supply of waters; and all things valuable and useful to mankind,
whether animal or vegetable, will abundantly thrive and multiply.

Mercury, if possessing dominion, is usually conjoined with one or other
of the planets before-mentioned, and is conformed and assimilated to
their natures; yet as, in itself, it presents a certain addition to
their power, this planet increases the respective impulses of them
all. And, in regard to the operation of the event on mankind, it will
promote industry and skill in business; but, at the same time, thievish
propensities, robberies, and plots of treachery: if configurated with
the malefics, it will produce calamities in navigation, and will also
cause dry and parching diseases, quotidian fever, cough, consumption,
and hæmorrhage. All parts of the ceremonies and services of religion,
the affairs of the executive government, as well as manners, customs,
and laws, are disposed and regulated by this planet, conformably to its
admixture and familiarity with each of the others. And in consequence
of the dryness of its nature, arising from its proximity to the Sun,
and the rapidity of its motion, it will generate in the atmosphere
turbulent, sharp and varied winds, together with thunders, meteors, and
lightnings, accompanied by sudden chasms in the earth, and earthquakes:
by these means it not unfrequently occasions the destruction of animals
and plants assigned to the service of mankind. Besides the foregoing
effects, it produces, when in vespertine position, a diminution of
waters, and, when matutine, an augmentation.

Each of the planets, when fully exercising its own separate and
distinct influence, will properly produce the peculiar effects above
ascribed to it; but should it be combined with others, whether by
configuration, by familiarity arising from the sign in which it may
be posited,[95] or by its position towards the Sun, the coming event
will then happen agreeably to the admixture and compound temperament
which arise from the whole communion actually subsisting among the
influencing powers. It would, however, be a business of infinite labour
and innumerable combinations, quite beyond the limits of this treatise,
to set forth fully every contemperament and all configurations, in
every mode in which they can possibly exist; and the knowledge of
them must therefore be acquired by particular discrimination in every
instance, under the guidance of the precepts of science. Yet the
following additional remark must not be here omitted.

[95] That is to say (technically speaking), by reception, or by being
posited in a sign in which another planet has a certain dignity or

The nature of the familiarities, subsisting between the stars, lords
of the coming event, and the countries or cities over which the
event will extend, requires to be observed; for, should the stars be
benefic, and their familiarity with the countries liable to sustain
the effect be unimpeded by any opposing influence, they will then
exercise the favourable energies of their own nature in a greater
degree. And, on the other hand, when any obstacle may intervene to
obstruct their familiarity, or when they themselves may be overpowered
by some opposing influence, the advantages of their operation will be
diminished. Again, should the stars, lords of the coming event, not be
benefic, but injurious, their effect will be less severe, provided they
may either have familiarity with the countries on which the event will
fall, or be restrained by some opposing influence. If, however, they
should have no such familiarity, and not be subjected to restraint by
any others, endowed with a nature contrary to their own and possessing
a familiarity with the countries in question, the evils which they
produce will then be more violent and intense. And all these general
affections, of whatever kind, whether good or evil, will be principally
felt by those persons in whose individual nativities there may be found
the same disposition of the luminaries (which are the most essential
significators), or the same angles, as those existing during the
eclipse which operates the general affection. The same remark equally
applies to other persons, in whose nativities the disposition of the
luminaries and of the angles may be in opposition to that existing
during the eclipse. With respect to these coincidences, the partile
agreement, or opposition, of the ecliptical place of the luminaries to
the place of either luminary in a nativity, produces an effect at least
capable of being guarded against.[96]

[96] In conformity to the rule laid down in Chap. VI of this Book,
those individuals whose nativities may thus resemble the position of
the heavens at the time of an eclipse, and who are here stated to be
chiefly liable to the effects of the eclipse, will be more affected by
it, if it should be visible to them.

To the precepts contained in this chapter, Placidus makes the following
allusion in his remarks on the nativity of Cardinal Pancirole. “Any
significator whatever, together with the other stars, whilst they are
moved by a converse universal motion, change the aspect alternately,
and consequently the mundane rays, as it likewise happens when they
acquire parallels: the rays thus acquired are of a long continuance,
and denote a certain universal disposition of the things signified,
either good or bad, according to the nature of the aspecting stars;
as it happened to this Cardinal, who some years before his death
was always sickly: and this observation is wonderful in the changes
of the times and weather; for this principle Ptolemy adhered to in
the Almagest, lib. VIII, cap. 4; and this doctrine he also mentions
in the 2nd Book of Judgments, in the chapter on the Nature of
Events.”—(Cooper’s Translation, p. 272.)



In investigating general events, it is necessary further to observe the
colours or hues displayed during an eclipse, either in the luminaries,
or around them; in the shape of rods or rays, or in other similar
forms. For, if these colours or hues should be black, or greenish, they
portend effects similar to those produced by Saturn’s nature; if white,
to those operated by Jupiter; if reddish, to those by Mars; if yellow,
to those by Venus; and if of various colours, to those by Mercury.

And, if the entire bodies of the luminaries be thus coloured, or should
the hues extend over all the parts immediately circumjacent to the
luminaries, it is an indication that the effects will attach to most
parts of the region, or countries, with which the eclipse and its
ruling places may be in familiarity. If, however, the colouring should
not spread over the whole surface of the luminaries, nor over all the
parts around them, but be limited to some particular quarter, then
only such a portion of the said countries, as may be indicated by the
situation of the visible hues, will be comprehended in the event.

It is also requisite to notice, with respect to general events, the
risings or first appearances of those celestial phenomena called
comets, whether presenting themselves at ecliptical times or at any
other periods. They are displayed in the shape of beams, trumpets,
pipes, and in other similar figures, and operate effects like those
of Mars and Mercury; exciting wars, heated and turbulent dispositions
in the atmosphere, and in the constitutions of men, with all their
evil consequences. The parts of the zodiac[97] in which they may be
posited when they first appear, and the direction and inclination of
their trains, point out the regions or places liable to be affected by
the events which they threaten; and the form of the signs indicates
the quality and nature of those events, as well as the genus, class,
or kind, on which the effect will fall. The time of their continuance
shows the duration of their effect; and their position, with regard to
the Sun, the period when it will commence; as, if they first appear
matutine, they denote an early commencement; but, if vespertine, that
it will be late and tardy.

[97] When a comet appears out of the zodiac, a line should be drawn
from one zodiacal pole to the other, through the spot where it appears;
and that spot is to be considered as being in familiarity with the
same countries as those parts of the zodiac which may be on the same
line.—_Vide_ Chap. IV of this Book, relative to the manner in which
fixed stars out of the zodiac hold familiarity with certain regions and

The general and more comprehensive parts of the consideration
regarding regions, countries, and cities, having now been explained,
it becomes necessary to discuss certain particular points of the same
consideration; that is to say, the annual occurrences which take place
at certain fixed seasons, and the chief of which is that called the New
Moon of the Year.



In every annual revolution made by the Sun, the first new Moon of
the year is to be considered as the point of the commencement of his
circuit; this is evident not only from its denomination, but from its
virtue also.[98]

The case stands thus: In the ecliptic, which, as circle, has in fact no
actual or definite beginning, the two equinoctial and the two tropical
points, marked by the equator and the tropical circles, are reasonably
assumed as beginnings. And to obviate any doubt as to which of these
four points should preferably be considered as the primary beginning
(since in the regular simple motion of a circle no part of it has any
apparent precedence), the appropriate quality naturally belonging
to each of these four points has been taken into consideration by
the writers on this subject. And the point of the vernal equinox has
been consequently designated by them as the beginning of the year;
because, from that time, the duration of the day begins to exceed that
of the night, and because the season then produced partakes highly
of moisture, which is always a predominant quality in all incipient
generation and growth. After the vernal equinox comes the summer
solstice; when the day attains its greatest length, and in Ægypt,
at the same period, the rise of the Nile takes place and the Dog
Star appears. Then follows the autumnal equinox, when all fruits are
gathered in, and the sowing of seeds recommences anew; lastly, comes
the winter solstice, when the day proceeds from its shortest duration
towards its increase.

[98] The Neomenia, or new Moon, was observed as a festival with much
solemnity in earlier ages and by the most ancient nations. It was
celebrated by the Israelites, as well as by Pagan; and it may perhaps
be gathered from the 5th and 6th verses of the 20th Chapter of the 1st
Book of Samuel, that it was kept once in a year with greater ceremony
than at other times: this was done, probably, at the “New Moon of the
Year,” as Ptolemy calls it; or, in other words, at the new Moon nearest
to the vernal equinox.

Although the foregoing arrangement has been adopted by men of science
to denote the commencement of the several seasons of the year, it
yet seems to be more consonant to nature, and more consistent with
the facts, that the combined positions of the Sun, and the new, or
full, Moon, which happen when the Sun is nearest to the points above
mentioned, should mark the four beginnings; and more especially if such
combined positions should produce eclipses: thus, from the new or full
Moon, taking place when the Sun is nearest to the first point of Aries,
the spring should be dated; from that when the Sun is nearest to the
first point of Cancer, the summer; from that when he is nearest to the
first point of Libra, the autumn; and from that when he is nearest to
the first point of Capricorn, the winter. The Sun not only produces
the general qualities and constitutions of the seasons, by means of
which very illiterate persons are enabled, in a certain degree, to
form predictions, but he also regulates the proper significations
of the signs with regard to the excitation of the winds, as well
as other general occurrences, more or less subjected to occasional
variation. All these general effects are usually brought about by the
new or full Moon which takes place at the aforesaid points, and by the
configurations then existing between the luminaries and the planets:
but there are certain particular consequences which result from the new
and full Moon in every sign,[99] and from the transits of the planets;
“and which require monthly investigation.”[100]

It therefore becomes necessary to explain, in the first instance, the
particular natures and attributes exercised by each sign in influencing
the several constitutions of the weather, as it exists at various times
of the year; these natures and attributes shall now be immediately
detailed. It will be recollected, that the particular properties of the
planets and the fixed stars, as affecting the wind and the atmosphere,
as well as the manner in which the entire signs hold familiarity with
the winds and the seasons, have been already set forth.

[99] That is to say, at the new and full Moon taking place during the
Sun’s progress through each sign.

[100] The passage marked thus “ ” is not in the Greek, but is found in
two Latin translations.



The sign of Aries has a general tendency, arising from the presence
of the Equinox, to promote thunder and hail. Certain of its parts,
however, operate in a greater or less degree, according to the nature
of the stars which compose the sign: for instance, the front parts
excite rain and wind; the middle are temperate; and those behind are
heating and pestilential. The northern parts, also, are heating and
pernicious, but the southern cooling and frosty.

[101] According to Wing, in his “Instructions to the Ephemerides,”
printed in 1652, the signs, as mentioned in this chapter by Ptolemy,
are to be considered in their quality as constellations, and not
as spaces of the heavens. This opinion, however, seems to me to be
erroneous; for Ptolemy has already devoted a chapter in the 1st Book
to the detail of the influences of the several stars in the respective
constellations of the zodiac; and he moreover speaks, in the present
chapter, of the operation of Aries, as owing to the presence of the
Equinox. This he could not have done, had he spoken of the signs as
constellations instead of spaces.

The sign of Taurus, in its general character, partakes of both
temperaments,[102] but is nevertheless chiefly warm. Its front parts,
and especially those near the Pleiades, produce earthquakes, clouds
and winds: the middle parts are moistening and cooling; those behind,
and near the Hyades, are fiery, and cause meteors and lightnings. The
northern parts are temperate; the southern turbulent and variable.

[102] The temperaments here alluded to are, probably, heat and cold.

Gemini, in its general tendency, is temperate; but its leading parts
produce mischief by moisture; its middle parts are entirely temperate;
its latter parts mixed and turbulent. The northern parts promote
earthquakes and wind; and the southern are dry and heating.

Cancer is, in the whole, serene and warm, but its anterior part near
the Præsepe are oppressively hot and suffocating; the middle parts are
temperate, and the latter parts excite wind. And both its northern and
southern parts are equally fiery and scorching.

Leo has a general tendency operative of stifling heat. The anterior
parts are oppressively and pestilentially hot; yet the middle parts are
temperate; and those behind are injurious by means of moisture. The
northern parts produce variation and heat, and the southern moisture.

Virgo, in its general tendency, excites moisture and thunder. The front
parts, however, are chiefly warm and noxious; the middle temperate; and
the latter parts watery. The northern parts promote wind; the southern
are temperate.

Libra has a general tendency to produce change and variation. Its front
and middle parts are temperate; its hinder parts watery. The northern
parts cause variable winds, and the southern are moistening and

Scorpio, in its general character, is fiery and productive of thunder.
The front parts cause snow; the middle are temperate; the latter parts
excite earthquakes. Its northern parts are heating; its southern,

Sagittarius, generally, is effective of wind. The front parts are
moistening; the middle temperate; and the hinder parts fiery. The
northern parts promote wind, and the southern variation and moisture.

Capricorn’s general tendency is to operate moisture. But its anterior
parts are pernicious by means of heat, its middle parts are temperate,
and its latter parts promote rain. Both its northern and southern parts
are injurious by means of moisture.

Aquarius, in its general character, is cold and watery. The front parts
are moistening; the middle temperate; and the latter parts productive
of wind. The northern parts are heating; the southern cause snow.

Pisces, in its general character, is cold and effective of wind. The
front parts are temperate; the middle moistening; the hinder parts
highly heating. The northern parts excite wind, and the southern are



The first part of the consideration, requisite to form an estimate of
the various constitutions liable to take effect in the atmosphere,
applies to the general qualities pervading the several quarters of the
year, and has therefore the most extended scope. In order to learn
these qualities, it is necessary, in every quarter, to observe, as
above directed, the new or full Moon which may happen before[103] the
period of the Sun’s transit through either tropical or equinoctial
point, whichever it may be; and to arrange the angles (as in the
case of a nativity) according to the degree and hour at which the
new or full Moon may be found to happen, in every latitude for which
the consideration may be desired. Such planets and stars as may have
dominion over the places where the said new or full Moon happens, and
over the following angle, are then to be noted, in the same manner as
that stated with regard to eclipses. And after these preliminary steps
have been attended to, a general inference may be drawn as to the
proper qualities of the whole quarter; and the intensity or relaxation
of their operation is to be contemplated from the natures of the ruling
planets and stars, distinguished by the faculties they possess, and by
the mode in which they affect the atmosphere.

[103] “_Before._” Although I have thus Englished the word, προ, I
think it properly requires to be here rendered, by “_at_” or “_near
to_” rather than “_before_.” Firstly, because my author (in speaking
of the commencement of each quarter of the year, in the 11th Chapter,
p. 93), has expressly stated that “the spring is to be dated from the
new or full Moon taking place when the Sun is _nearest_ (εγγιζα) to
the first point of Aries; the summer from that, when he is _nearest_
the first point of Cancer,” &c., &c.; and (in p. 94) he states that
certain general effects are brought about by the new or full Moon
occurring _at_ (κατα) the aforesaid points. Secondly, because, in a
few lines further on, in speaking of the monthly consideration, p. 98,
he again uses only εγγιζα, in reference to the present passage, in
which, however, he has used only προ. Thirdly, it is a proper inference
that he meant to point out here the new or full Moon which may happen
_nearest_ to the tropical or equinoctial points, because he has
previously and explicitly taught that the principal variation of all
things depends upon those points. Lastly, Allatius has here rendered
the word by no other than _proximé_, which is also the word given in
the Perugio Latin of 1646.

On the other hand, Whalley, in his note on the present chapter, says,
that “according to this Prince of Astrologers” (meaning Ptolemy),
“we are to observe the new or full Moon preceding the ingress, only,
for our judgment on the succeeding quarter, and not the lunation
succeeding: and the reason I conceive to be, because the lunation,
which immediately precedes the ingress, carries its influence to the
very position of the ingress itself, but not so that which follows the
ingress.” Wing, in his Introduction to the Ephemerides (London, 1652)
also says, that “for the knowledge of the weather, it is requisite
to observe the conjunction or opposition of the luminaries next
_preceding_ the Sun’s ingress into the first point of Aries.”

Now, if a new or full Moon happen _immediately after_ the Sun’s transit
or ingress, the previous full or new Moon must have happened _a
fortnight before_ the said transit or ingress; and, after considering
the other parts of Ptolemy’s doctrine, I do not conceive, that he
intended to teach, in this chapter, that a _previous_ lunation, when at
so great a distance before the important ingress, would have a greater
influence over the ensuing quarter of the year, than a _subsequent_
lunation taking place so closely after the said ingress.

The second part of the consideration relates to each month, and
requires a similar observation of the new or full Moon first taking
place on the Sun’s progress through each sign: and it must be
remembered, that, if a new Moon should have happened at a period
nearest to the Sun’s transit over the past tropical or equinoctial
point, the new Moon also in each succeeding sign, until the
commencement of the next quarter, are to be observed; but, if a full
Moon should have so happened, then similar observation is to be made
of each subsequent full Moon. The angles, also, must be duly attended
to, as well as the planets and stars ruling in both the places[104];
and especially the nearest phases, applications, and separations of
the planets, and their properties. The peculiar qualities of the two
places, and the winds, liable to be excited by the planets themselves
and by those parts of the signs in which they may be situated, are
likewise to be considered; and also that particular wind, which is
indicated by the direction of the Moon’s ecliptical latitude. By the
aid of these observations, and by weighing and comparing the existing
vigour of each of the several properties and qualities, the general
constitution of the atmosphere during each month may be predicted.

[104] “_Both the places._” These are the places of the new or full
Moon, and of the following angle; as before mentioned with regard to
the quarterly consideration.

The third part of this consideration appertains to significations
applying more minutely, and points out their force or weakness. In
this case, the partile configurations of the Sun and Moon, at the
intermediate quarters, as well as at the new or full Moon, are to
be attentively regarded; since there is a certain variation in the
constitution of the atmosphere, which usually commences about three
days before, and sometimes, also, about three days after the Moon has
equated her course to the Sun. The configurations effected between
the Moon, at each quarterly equation, and the planets, whether by the
trine, sextile, or other authorized distances, are also to be observed;
because the peculiar property of the change in the constitutions of
the atmosphere depends much upon such configurations, and may be
accordingly perceived by considering the nature of the influence
which the said configurated planets and the signs exercise over the
atmosphere and the winds.

The particular quality of the weather, thus produced, will be more
fully established on certain days; especially when the brighter and
more efficacious fixed stars maybe near the Sun, either matutine
or vespertine; as, when so posited, they most frequently convert
the constitution of the atmosphere to an agreement with their own
natures: and, when the Luminaries may transit any one of the angles, a
similar effect is also produced. At all such positions the particular
constitutions of the atmosphere are subject to variation, and thus
become alternately more intense or more relaxed in their respective
qualities. In this manner, by certain positions of the Moon, the flux
and reflux of the sea are caused: and, when the Luminaries may be in
angles, a change of the wind is produced, according to the direction of
the Moon’s ecliptical latitude.

Finally, in all these considerations, it must be remembered that the
more general and first constituted cause takes precedence, and that
the particular cause comes subsequently and secondarily: and, that the
operation is in the highest degree confirmed and strengthened, when the
stars, which regulate the general effects, may be also configurated
towards the production of the particular effects.



In order to facilitate prognostication in minor and more limited
instances, it is important to make further observation of all
remarkable appearances occasionally visible around or near the Sun,
Moon, and stars. And, for the diurnal state of the atmosphere, the
Sun’s rising should be remarked; for the nocturnal state, his setting;
but the probable duration of any such state must be considered by
reference to the Sun’s configuration with the Moon; for, in most cases,
each aspect, made between them, indicates the continuance of a certain
state until another aspect shall take place.

Hence, the Sun, when rising or setting, if he shine clear and open,
free from mists, gloom, and clouds, promises serene weather. But, if
he have a wavering or fiery orb, or seem to emit or attract red rays,
or if he be accompanied in any one part by the clouds called parhelia,
or by other reddish clouds of extended figure, in the form of long
rays, he then portends violent winds, chiefly liable to arise from
those parts in which the said phenomena may have shown themselves. If
he should be pale or lurid, and rise or set encumbered with clouds,
or surrounded by halos, he indicates storms and winds coming from the
quarter of his apparent situation: and, if he be also accompanied by
parhelia, or by lurid or dark rays, similar effects are also threatened
from the parts where those appearances may be situated.[105]

[105] Similar precepts may be found finely illustrated in Virgil’s 1st
Georgic, _vide_ I, 433 _et infra_:

    “Sol quoque et exoriens et cum se condit in undas
    Signa dabit:”——

The Moon’s course is to be carefully observed, at the third day
before or after her conjunction with the Sun, her opposition, and her
intermediate quarters; for, if she then shine thin and clear, with no
other phenomena about her, she indicates serenity; but, if she appear
thin and red, and have her whole unilluminated part visible, and in a
state of vibration, she portends winds from the quarter of her latitude
and declination[106]: and if she appear dark, or pale and thick, she
threatens storms and showers. All halos formed around the Moon should
also be observed; for, if there appear one only, bright and clear, and
decaying by degrees, it promises serene weather; but, if two or three
appear, tempests are indicated: and, if they seem reddish and broken,
they threaten tempests, with violent and boisterous winds; if dark and
thick, they foreshow storms and snow; if black and broken, tempests
with both winds and snow; and, whenever a greater number may appear,
storms of greater fury are portended.

[106] Virgil has said almost the same thing in these beautiful lines:

    “At si virgineum suffuderit ore ruborem
     Ventus erit: vento semper rubet aurea Phœbe.”—_Georg._ I, l. 430.

See also the whole passage, beginning at l. 424:

    “Si vero Solem ad rapidum Lunasque sequentes
     Ordine respicies,” &c.

The planets, also, and the brighter fixed stars, occasionally have
halos, which indicate certain effects appropriate to their tinctures,
and to the nature of the stars around which they may be situated.

The apparent magnitudes of the fixed stars, and the colours of the
luminous masses among them, are likewise to be remarked: for, when
the stars appear brighter and larger than usual, they indicate an
excitation of the wind from that quarter in which they may be situated.
The nebulous mass of the Præsepe in Cancer, and others similar to it,
also require observation; as, if in fine weather they appear gloomy
and indistinct, or thick, they thereby threaten a fall of rain; but,
if clear and in continual vibration, they announce rough gales of

Appearances occasionally visible in the sky, resembling the trains
of comets,[108] usually indicate wind and drought; in a degree
proportionate to their multitude and continuance.

Appearances, resembling shooting or falling stars, when presented in
one part only, threaten a movement of wind from that part;[109] when
in various and opposite parts, they portend the approach of all kinds
of tempestuous weather, together with thunder and lightning. Clouds
resembling fleeces of wool will also sometimes presage tempests; and
the occasional appearance of the rainbow denotes, in stormy weather,
the approach of serenity; in fine weather, storms. And, in a word, all
remarkable phenomena, visible in the sky, universally portend that
certain appropriate events will be produced, each harmonising with its
proper cause, in the manner herein described.

After the forgoing brief investigation of the more limited as well as
more extensive significations, regarding general events, it becomes
proper to proceed to the doctrine of genethliacal prognostication, or
judgments of individual nativities.

[107] At this place, the following sentence, not found in the Greek, is
inserted in a Latin translation:

“If the northern of the two stars, situated one on each side of the
Præsepe, and called the Asini, should not appear, the north wind will
blow: but, if the southern one be invisible, the south wind.”

[108] These coruscations are, perhaps, similar to those now known by
the name of the Aurora Borealis.

[109] Virgil again:

    “Sæpe etiam stellas vento impendente videbis
     Præcipites cœlo labi.”—&c. _Georg._ I, l. 365.

A great part of the 1st Georgic consists of astrological rules for
predicting the weather, closely resembling the precepts here given by
Ptolemy. Virgil is said to have adopted his doctrine from Aratus.





In the preceding pages, such events as effect the world generally
have been discussed in priority; because they are operated by
certain principal and paramount causes, which are, at the same time,
predominant over particular and minor events applicable only to the
separate properties and natural peculiarities of individuals. The
foreknowledge of these particular events is called Genethlialogy, or
the science of Nativities.

It must be remembered that the causation, by which all effects, whether
general or particular, are produced and foreknown, is essentially
one and the same; for the motions of the planets, and of the Sun
and Moon, present the operative causation of events which happen to
any individual, as well as of those which happen generally; and the
foreknowledge of both may be obtained by the several creatures and
substances, subjected to the influence of the heavenly bodies, and
by due attention to the changes produced in those natures, by the
configurations displayed in the Ambient by the planetary motion.

Still, however, the causes of general events are greater and more
complete than those of particular events; and, although it has been now
stated, that one single identical power supplies both the causation
and the foreknowledge of general as well as particular events, yet
there does not belong to the two sorts of events a similar origin or
beginning, at which observation of the celestial configurations must
be made, for prognostication. In regard to general events, the dates
of origin and commencement are many and various; for all general
events cannot be traced to one origin, neither is their origin always
considered by means of the matter subjected to their operation, for it
may be also established by circumstances occurring in the Ambient and
presenting the causation. It may, in fact, almost be said that they
all originate in eminent eclipses of the Luminaries, and in remarkable
transits made by the stars, at various times.

Particular events, however, which concern men individually, may be
traced to one origin, single as well as manifold. Their origin is
single, in respect to the primary composition of the nascent man; but
it is also manifold, in respect to other circumstances subsequently
indicated by dispositions in the Ambient, correlative to the primary
origin. In all particular events, the origin, or birth, of the
subjected matter itself, must, of course, be the primary origin; and,
in succession thereto, the various beginnings of other subsequent
circumstances are to be assumed. Hence, therefore, at the origin of
the subjected matter, all the properties and peculiarities of its
contemperament must be observed; and then the subsequent events, which
will happen at certain periods, sooner or later, are to be considered
by means of the division of time, or the scale of the ensuing

[110] The Division of Time is subsequently laid down by the author, in
the last Chapter of the fourth Book.



The actual moment, in which human generation commences, is, in fact,
by nature, the moment of the conception itself; but, in efficacy with
regard to subsequent events, it is the parturition or birth.

In every case, however, where the actual time of conception may be
ascertained, either casually or by observation, it is useful to remark
the effective influence of the configuration of the stars as it existed
at that time; and, from that influence, to infer the future personal
peculiarities of mind and body. For the seed will, at the very first,
and at once, receive its due quality, as then dispensed by the Ambient;
and, although in subsequent periods its substance is varied by growth
and conformation, it will still, by the laws of nature, congregate,
during its growth, only such matter as may be proper to itself, and
will become more and more imbued with the peculiar property of the
first quality impressed on it at the time of conception. These precepts
must always be attended to, when that time can be ascertained.

But, if the time of conception cannot be precisely made out, that of
the birth must be received at the original date of generation; for
it is virtually the most important, and is in no respect deficient,
on comparison with the primary origin by conception, except in one
view only; viz. that the origin by conception affords the inference
of occurrences which take effect previously to the birth, whereas the
origin by birth can, of course, be available only for such as arise
subsequently. And, although the birth should in strictness be called
the secondary beginning, while the conception might be insisted on as
the primary beginning, it is still found to be equal to the conception
in its efficacy, and much more complete, although later in time. For
the conception may, in fact, be said to be the generation of mere human
seed, but the birth that of man himself; since the infant at its birth
acquires numerous qualities which it would not possess while in the
womb, and which are proper to human nature alone; “such, for instance,
as the particular action of the senses and the movement of the body and
limbs.”[111] Besides, even if the position of the Ambient, actually
existing at the birth, cannot be considered to assist in forming and
engendering the particular shape and qualities of the infant, it is
nevertheless still auxiliary to the infant’s entrance into the world:
because nature, after completing the formation in the womb, always
effects the birth in immediate obedience to some certain position of
the Ambient, corresponding and sympathising with the primary position
which operated the incipient formation. It is therefore perfectly
admissible, and consistent with reason, that the configuration of the
stars, as it exists at the time of birth, although it cannot be said
to possess any share of the creative cause, should still be considered
to act in signification, as fully as the configuration at the time of
conception; because it has, of necessity, a power corresponding to that
configuration which actually possessed the creative cause.

[111] The words, thus marked “ ”, are not in the Greek, but in two
Latin translations.

In speaking of the practicability of prognostication, in the
commencement of this treatise, the intention of setting forth this part
of the subject, now under consideration, in a scientific manner, has
been already notified. The ancient mode of prediction, founded on the
commixture of all the stars, and abounding in infinite complication and
diversity, will therefore be passed over; and, in fact, any attempt to
detail it, however accurately and minutely made, in conformity to the
several precepts given in the traditions relating to it, would prove
unserviceable and unintelligible: it is therefore entirely abandoned.
And the doctrine, now presented, comprehending every species of event
liable to happen, and explaining all the effective influences generally
exercised by the stars, in their separate qualities, over every species
of event, shall be delivered succinctly, and in agreement with the
theory of nature.

With this view, certain places in the Ambient, regulating the formation
of all inferences of the events liable to affect mankind, are appointed
as a kind of mark to which the whole theory of those inferences is
applied, and to which the operative powers of the stars, when holding
familiarity with the said places, are in a general manner directed: in
the same way as, in archery, the arrow is directed to the target. And
any event, which depends on the compound temperament of many various
natures and influences together, must be left to the discretion of the
artist, who, like the skilful archer, must himself judge of the best
mode of hitting the mark.

To proceed methodically and in due order, it is proper to commence by
investigating such general events as are open to consideration, and
liable to have happened, or to happen, at the actual origin by birth;
since, from that origin, all things necessary to be investigated may
be gathered; as before stated. Yet, if a previous inquiry, by means
of the primary origin by conception, should nevertheless be desired
and undertaken, such an inquiry may still in some degree assist
prognostication; although only in regard to properties and qualities
dispensed and imbibed at the time of conception.



There frequently arises some uncertainty as to the precise time of
birth, and some apprehensions lest it should not be accurately noted.
In most cases, the actual minute of the hour, at which the birth
happens, can only be ascertained by making a scientific observation,
at the time, with an horoscopical astrolabe[112]; for all other
instruments, employed in ascertaining the hour, are almost fallacious,
although used by many persons with much care and attention. The
clepsydra,[113] for instance, is subject to error, because the flow
of the water will, from various causes, proceed irregularly: and the
sundial is often incorrectly placed, and its gnomon often distorted
from the true meridian line. To obviate the difficulty arising from the
inaccuracy of these instruments, it seems highly necessary to present
some method by which the actually ascending degree of the zodiac may be
easily ascertained, in a natural and consistent manner.

And in order to attain this essential point, it is necessary first to
set down the ordinary degree which, by the Doctrine of Ascensions,[114]
is found near the ascendant at the presumed hour. After this has
been done, the new or full Moon, whichever it may be, that may take
place next before the time of parturition, must be observed: and, if
a new Moon, it will be necessary to mark exactly the degree of the
conjunction of the two luminaries; but, if a full Moon, the degree of
luminary only which may be above the earth during the parturition.
After this, it must be observed what planets have dominion over the
said degree: and their dominion depends always on the five following
prerogatives, viz. on triplicity, house, exaltation, terms, and phase
or configuration[115]; that is to say, a planet, eligible to dominion,
must be connected with the degree in question either by one, or more,
or all of these prerogatives.

[112] It is, perhaps, needless to remark that modern improvements in
science have superseded the use of this and other ancient instruments
here mentioned.

[113] Although the “clepsydra,” or water-clock, was commonly used among
the ancients for various purposes, it appears, from Martian (a Latin
writer, who lived about A. D. 490), that there was also a clepsydra in
special use as an astrological engine.

[114] “_The Doctrine of Ascensions_,” in allusion to the method of
calculating the actual position of the ecliptic.

[115] “_Phase or configuration._” Or, holding some authorized aspect to
the degree in question.

If, therefore, there may be found any one planet properly qualified in
all or most of these prerogatives, the exact degree, which it occupies
in that sign in which it may be posited during the parturition, is to
be remarked; and it is then to be inferred that a degree of the same
numerical denomination was actually ascending, at the precise time of
birth, in that sign which appears, by the Doctrine of Ascensions, to be
nearest to the ascendant.[116]

But when two planets, or more, may be equally qualified in the manner
prescribed, it must be seen which of them may transit, during the
parturition, a degree nearest in number to the ordinary degree shown
by the Doctrine of Ascensions to be then ascending; and that said
degree, nearest in number, is to be considered as pointing out the
numerical denomination of the degree actually ascending. And when the
degrees of two planets, or more, may closely and equally approximate in
numerical denomination to the ordinary degree found by the Doctrine of
Ascensions, the degree of that planet which possesses further claims,
by connection with the angles and by its own condition, is to regulate
the number of the actually ascending degree.

It must however be observed, that if the actual distance of the degree,
in which the ruling planet may be posited, from the ordinary degree
ascending, be found to exceed its distance from the ordinary degree
of the mid-heaven; the numerical denomination, found in the way above
mentioned, is then to be considered as applicable to the actual degree
in culmination; and the other angles are to be arranged in conformity

[116] Or, on the ascendant.

[117] The precepts delivered in this Chapter have obtained the name
of Ptolemy’s Animodar: the term is probably Arabic, if it be not a
corruption of the Latin words _animum_, or _animam_, _dare_, “giving
animation or life”; yet this meaning seems scarcely close enough.



After due attention to the preceding instructions, the doctrine of
genethliacal prognostication should be separately and distinctly
considered, for the sake of order and perspicuity, in its first, second
and successive divisions or heads of inquiry. It will thus be found to
present a mode of investigation, at once practicable, competent and
agreeable to nature.

One division is applicable only to certain circumstances established
previously to the birth; as, for instance, to those which concern the
parents; another to circumstances, which may be established both before
and after the birth; as those respecting brothers and sisters; another
to circumstances actually occurring at the very time of birth, and
immediately consequent thereupon: and this head of inquiry embraces
various points, and is by no means simple: and the last division
relates to events liable to take place after the birth, at various
periods, earlier or later; and it involves a still more diversified

Thus, the questions to be solved, in regard to the actual circumstances
of the birth itself, are, whether the production will be male or
female; twins, or even more; whether it will be monstrous; and whether
it will be reared.

The questions of the periods subsequent to the birth relate first to
the duration of life (which is distinct from the question of rearing),
then to the shape and figure of the body, to the bodily affections, and
to injuries or defects in the members. After these, further inquiry is
instituted as to the quality of the mind, and the mental affections;
then, as to fortune, in regard to rank and honours as well as wealth.
In succession to these, the character of the employment or profession
is sought out; then, the questions relative to marriage and offspring,
and to consentaneous friendship, are to be considered; then, that
concerning travel; and, lastly, that concerning the kind of death which
awaits the native. The question of death, although depending, in fact,
upon the same influence as the question of the duration of life, seems
yet to find its proper situation in being placed last in the series.

On each of the foregoing points of inquiry, the doctrine and precepts
to be followed shall be thoroughly and succinctly detailed; but all
idle conceits, promulgated by many persons without any foundation
capable of sustaining the test of reason, shall be utterly avoided,
in deference to the only true agency, which is derived from primal
Nature herself. It is only upon clearly effective influences that
this treatise is established: and all matters, which are open to an
authorized mode of inquiry by means of the theory of the stars, and
their positions and aspects with regard to appropriate places, shall
be fully discussed here; but the divination by lots and numbers,
unregulated by any systematic causation, must remain unnoticed.

The brief remarks, immediately following, are applicable to all cases,
generally, and are now at once stated, to avoid the repetition of them
under each particular division or head of inquiry.

Firstly, notice must be taken of that place in the zodiac which
corresponds, according to the scheme of the nativity with the
particular division of inquiry; for example, the place of the
mid-heaven is adapted to questions comprised under the head of
employment or profession; and the Sun’s place to those relative to the
concerns of the father.

Secondly, after the proper place has thus been duly ascertained,
the planets holding right of dominion there, by any of the five
prerogatives hereinbefore mentioned, are to be observed; and, if any
one planet be found to be lord by all these prerogatives, that planet
must be admitted as the ruler of the event liable to happen under that
particular head of inquiry. If, however, two or three planets hold
dominion, that one among them, which may have most claims to the place
in question, must be selected as the ruler.

Thirdly, the natures of the ruling planet and of the signs, in which
itself and the place which it thus controls may severally be situated,
are to be considered as indicating the quality of the event.

Fourthly, the proportionate vigour and strength, or weakness, with
which the dominion is exercised, as exhibited either by the actual
cosmical position of the ruling planet, or by its position in the
scheme of the nativity, will point out to what extent and with what
force the event will operate. And a planet is found to be cosmically
powerful when in one of its own places,[118] or when oriental, or
swift in course; and it is strong in the scheme of the nativity,
when transiting an angle or succedent house; especially those of the
ascendant, or of the mid-heaven. But it is cosmically weaker, when
not in one of its own places; or when occidental, or retarded in its
course; and in respect to the scheme of the nativity, it is weak when
cadent from the angles.

Lastly; the general time, about which the event will take place, is to
be inferred from the ruling planet’s matutine or vespertine position,
in regard to the Sun and the ascendant, and from the circumstance of
its being situated in an angle, or a succedent house. As, if it be
matutine, or in an angle, its influence operates earlier and more
promptly; but, if vespertine or in a succedent house, later and more
tardily. And, in reference to this point, the quadrant which precedes
the Sun, and that which precedes the ascendant, together with the
quadrants opposite to these, are oriental and matutine; and the other
quadrants, following the former, are occidental and vespertine.

[118] In House, Triplicity, Exaltation, Term or Face.



Under each head of inquiry, the proposed investigation must be entered
upon in the manner mentioned in the preceding chapter: and, to proceed
in due order, the circumstances relating to the parents require to be
first disposed of.

In conformity with nature, the Sun and Saturn are allotted to the
person of the father; and the Moon and Venus to that of the mother: and
the mode in which these luminaries and planets may be found posited,
with reference to each other, as well as to other planets and stars,
will intimate the situation of affairs affecting the parents.

Thus, for example, the degree of their fortune and wealth will be
indicated by the doryphory,[119] or attendants of the luminaries.
If the luminaries be accompanied (either in the same signs in which
themselves are placed, or in the signs next following), by the
benefics, and by such stars or planets as are of the same tendency
as themselves, a conspicuous and brilliant fortune is presaged:
especially, should the Sun be attended by matutine stars, and the
Moon by vespertine,[120] and these stars be also well established in
the prerogatives before mentioned. Likewise, if Saturn or Venus be
matutine, and in proper face,[121] or in an angle, it foreshows the
prosperity of either parent respectively, according to the scheme.[122]
If, however, the luminaries hold no connection with the planets, and be
unattended by any doryphory, the adverse fortunes of the parents, their
humble state and obscurity, and then denoted; especially, if Saturn and
Venus may not be favourably constituted. The parents are also subjected
to a state of vicissitude, never rising above mediocrity, when the
luminaries may have a doryphory of a condition or tendency foreign to
their own: as, for instance, when Mars may ascend near in succession to
the Sun, or Saturn to the Moon; or if the benefics be found constituted
unfavourably, and not in conformity with their own natural condition
and tendency. But should the part of fortune, as shown by the scheme of
the nativity, be found in a favourable position, and in consonance with
the doryphory of the Sun and Moon, the estate of the parents will then
remain steady and secure. If, however, the position be discordant and
adverse, or if the malefics compose the doryphory, the parents’ estate
will be unproductive and even burthensome.

The probable duration of the lives of the parents is to be inferred
by means of other configurations. And, in the case of the father, a
long life is presaged, if Jupiter, or Venus, be in any mode whatever
configurated with either the Sun, or Saturn; or, also, if Saturn
himself make an harmonious configuration with the Sun; (that is to say,
either by the conjunction, the sextile, or the trine); provided such
configuration be fully and strongly established and confirmed:[123]
and, when not so established and confirmed, although it does not
actually denote a short life, yet it will not then equally presage a
long life.

[119] Δορυφορια· This word has been heretofore rendered “_satellitium_”
and “satellites,” but, as these terms do not seem sufficiently precise
in their meaning, and are already in use to signify the minor orbs
which revolve round a principal planet, I have ventured to anglicize
the Greek word; the usual signification of which is a “bodyguard.”

[120] Or, in other words, “should the stars, which attend the Sun, be
such as rise _before him_; and those, which attend the Moon, such as
rise _after_ her.”

[121] As described in Chap. XXVI, Book I.

[122] Saturn being applicable to the father, and Venus to the mother.

[123] The Perugio Latin translation, of 1646, inserts here, “and
provided Saturn and the Sun are not impeded by being posited in
unfortunate or unsuitable places.”

If however the planets be not posited in the manner just described; and
if Mars be elevated above,[124] or ascend in succession to the Sun, or
to Saturn; or, even, should Saturn himself not be in consonance with
the Sun, but configurated with it by the quartile or opposition, and
if, when thus circumstanced, both he and the Sun should be posited
in cadent houses, it is then indicated that the father is liable to
infirmities; but, if in angles or succedent houses, the father will
live only a short life, and suffer from various bodily injuries and
diseases. The shortness of his life is particularly intimated by the
position of the Sun and Saturn in the first two angles, viz. the
ascendant and the mid-heaven, or in their succedent houses; and his
affliction by diseases and injuries, when they may be posited in the
two other angles, the western and the lower heaven, or in the houses
succedent thereto. And, if Mars be aspected to the Sun in the way
before-mentioned, the father will die suddenly, or receive injury in
his face or eyes; but, should Mars be so aspected to Saturn, he will be
afflicted with contractions of the muscles or limbs, and with fevers
and disorders proceeding from inflammation and wounds; or even death
may be the consequence. And even Saturn himself, if badly configurated
with the Sun, will also inflict disease and death on the father, by
inducing such particular disorders as are incidental from watery humour.

[124] “_Elevated._” Moxon’s Mathematical Dictionary gives the
following definition of this astrological term. “_Elevated._ A certain
pre-eminence of one planet above another; or, a concurrence of two to a
certain act, wherein one being stronger, is carried above the weaker,
and does alter and depress its nature and influence: But wherein this
being _elevated_ consists, there are several opinions; some say when
a planet is nearest the zenith, or meridian; others will have it only
that planet is highest; or nearest to the Apogæon of his eccentric or
epicycle. And Argol admits of all these, and several other advantages,
and thence advises to collect the several testimonies, and that that
planet, who has most, shall be said to be elevated above the other.”
According to Whalley, Cardan’s opinion was that “that planet is most
elevated which is more occidental and ponderous.” For myself, I
conceive this opinion to be inaccurate, because, if Ptolemy meant to
signify only the greater occidentality of the planet, he would (as in
other instances) have used the word “_preceding_” instead of “_elevated
above_”; and I incline to think, that _greater proximity to the zenith_
is the truer, as well as more simple, meaning of the term “elevated.”

The foregoing observations are applicable to the father, and those
which follow must be attended to in the case of the mother.

Should the Sun be configurated, in any mode whatever, with the Moon or
Venus, or, should Venus herself be harmoniously configurated with the
Moon, either by the sextile, the trine, or the conjunction, the mother
will live long.

If, however, Mars be succedent to the Moon and Venus, or in quartile
or opposition to them, or, if Saturn be similarly aspected to the Moon
only, and both of them be void of course or retrograde, or cadent,
adverse accidents and disease will attend the mother; should they, on
the other hand, be swift in motion and placed in angles, they portend
that her life will be short, or grievously afflicted. Their position
in the oriental angles, or succedent houses, particularly denotes
the shortness of her life; and, in those which are occidental, her
affliction. In the same manner, should Mars be thus aspected to the
Moon (and should that luminary at the same time be oriental), the
mother’s sudden death, or some injury in her face or eyes, will be
produced: and, if the Moon be then occidental, death will be occasioned
by miscarriage in parturition, by inflammation, or by wounds. Such are
the effects which ensue from these aspects made by Mars to the Moon;
but, should he make them to Venus, death will then take place from
fever, some latent disease, or sudden sickness. Saturn’s aspect[125]
to the Moon, when she is oriental, inflicts on the mother disease
and death from extreme colds, or fevers; but, should the Moon be
occidental, the danger arises from affections of the womb, or from

In the investigation of all these circumstances, it is highly essential
that the properties of the signs, in which are situated the stars
actuating the influence, should be also taken into consideration; and
that, by day, the Sun and Venus should be principally observed; and by
night, Saturn and the Moon.

If, however, after due attention has been paid to the foregoing
points, a more specific inquiry still be demanded, it will then become
necessary to assume the place allotted to the naternal or maternal
condition, as the case may be, for an horoscope or ascendant, in order
to pursue the investigation.[126] And by this means, which in this
respect will answer the purpose of a nativity, all other particulars
concerning the parents may be viewed succinctly; according to the
general forms hereinafter given, as adapted for practice and applicable
to all events.

[125] By the quartile or opposition, as before mentioned.

[126] On this passage, Whalley remarks that “Ptolemy teacheth, from
the child’s nativity, to erect schemes for the father and mother, and
thence to give judgment, as if it were their proper nativities; the
rule is this: If the nativity be diurnal, for the father, observe the
degree the Sun is in, in the child’s nativity; and make that the degree
ascending for the father; and conformable to that, order the cusps of
all the other houses. If for the mother, use Venus. But if the nativity
be nocturnal, for the father, take the place of Saturn; and for the
mother, that of the Moon.” Whalley adds, that what in this chapter
hath relation to the parents, is what shall happen to them _after_ the
nativity, and not _before_.

In these and in all other cases, the mode, in which the influences
are commixed, must be carefully kept in view; and it must be observed
whether any particular stars possess, in themselves alone, the
operative cause, or whether others share dominion with them; and it is
then to be seen which among them all are more powerful, and which of
them take the lead in establishing the event: so that due inference may
be drawn agreeably to their several natures. And should the several
stars, which may happen to be combined in dominion, be also equal in
power, the diversity of their several natures, and the admixture of
qualities thence arising, must then be taken into consideration; and,
by fairly weighing this various admixture, the nature and quality of
the future event may be apprehended.

Stars, posited separately or at a distance from each other, distribute,
at their appropriate times and periods, the events operated by each:
thus the earlier events are brought about by stars which are more
oriental than others, and the latter events by those which are more
occidental. For it is indispensably requisite that the star, under the
influence of which some particular event is expected to happen, should
be originally[127] connected with the place to which the inquiry,
concerning that event, is allotted; and, if such connection should not
have existed, no effect of any importance can possibly be produced;
because a star does not exercise a vigorous influence, unless it was
fully in communication at the beginning. But, however, the time, at
which the effect will take place, is further regulated by the relative
distance of the star, governing the effect, from the Sun and the angles
of the world, as well as by its primary position of dominion.

[127] Or, at the actual time of nativity.



Under this head of inquiry, a general and cursory investigation, only,
can be performed; and an attempt to dive into minute particulars would
be fruitless, and would prove to be merely a vain search after things
not open to discovery.[128]

The place, whence inferences are drawn respecting brothers and sisters,
is to be considered as being applicable only to children of the same
mother, and it is consequently, agreeably to nature, presumed to be the
same as the maternal place; viz. the sign occupying the mid-heaven; or,
by day, that which contains Venus, and, by night, the Moon. This sign
and its succedent are considered as indicative of the mother and her
children, and the same place is therefore properly allotted to brothers
and sisters.

[128] In spite of this declaration of the author, it seems, by
Whalley’s note on this chapter, that Cardan maintained that the
particular circumstances, liable to affect the brothers and sisters,
might be inferred by adopting, as an ascendant, the degree of the
planet holding chief dominion over the place of brethren, and erecting
a scheme thereby; in a mode similar to that allowed by Ptolemy in the
case of the parents.

Hence, provided this place be configurated with the benefics, there
will be several brothers and sisters: the number of them depending upon
the number and positions of such benefic stars, whether in bicorporeal
signs, or in signs of single form.

If, however, the malefics should be in elevation over this place, or
be hostilely situated in opposition thereto, the brothers and sisters
will then be few in number; and this fewness especially follows when
the malefics may surround the Sun. Should the hostile configuration
be presented from the other angles,[129] and, particularly, if from
the ascendant, Saturn will then represent the elder born; and Mars,
by inflicting death, will diminish the total number of brothers and

Again, should the stars, which promise brethren, be favourably
circumstanced as to their cosmical position, the brethren will be
eminent and illustrious; but humble and obscure, if the cosmical
position be of an adverse nature. If, also, the malefic stars should be
in elevation over those which give brethren, the life of the brethren
will then be only of short duration.

Stars, constituted masculinely, represent brothers; those femininely,
sisters. The more oriental stars likewise represent the elder born; and
those which are more occidental, the younger.

Moreover, should the stars, which give brethren, be harmoniously
configurated with that one which has dominion of the sign allotted to
brethren, the brethren will be mutually friendly and affectionate; and,
if an harmonious configuration be also extended, by the same planets,
to the part of fortune, the brethren will live together in communion.
But, if the stars, which give brethren, should, on the contrary, be
in situations unconnected with each other, or be in opposition, the
brethren will then live at variance, mutually practising enmity and

[129] That is to say, from the angles in quartile (and therefore
hostile also) to the mid-heaven.

[130] The text does not show whether it be necessary that Saturn and
Mars should _both_ be in the ascendant, in order to produce the effect
described; nor whether the same effect would not follow, if one of them
should be in the ascendant, and the other in the occidental angle, or
even in some other position.



After the indications which regard brothers and sisters have been
investigated by the foregoing rules, consonant with nature and reason,
the actual native, or the person to whom the scheme of nativity is
specially appropriated, demands attention; and the first and most
obvious inquiry is whether the said native will be male or female.

The consideration of this question rests not on a single basis, nor
can it be pursued in one sole direction only: it depends, on the
contrary, upon the several situations of the two luminaries and the
ascendant, and upon such planets as possess any prerogatives in the
places of those situations; and all these circumstances should be
specially observed at the time of conception, and, in a general manner
also, at that of birth.

Observation of the said three places, and of the mode in which the
planets ruling them may be constituted, is wholly indispensable:
it must be seen whether all, or most of them, may be constituted
masculinely or femininely; and prediction must, of course, be regulated
in conformity with their disposition, so observed; as tending to
produce a male or female birth.

The masculine or feminine nature of the stars is to be distinguished
in the manner already pointed out in the commencement of this
treatise.[131] For instance, by the nature of the signs in which they
are situated, by their relative position to each other, and also
by their position towards the earth; as when in the east, they are
masculinely disposed, and, when in the west, femininely. Their relative
position to the Sun also affords guidance in distinguishing them;
since, if they should be matutine, they are considered to signify the
male gender; and if vespertine, the female. Thus, from the sex chiefly
prevalent, as observed by these rules, that of the native may be
rationally inferred.

[131] _Vide_ Chapter VI, Book I.



With respect to the probability of the birth of twins, or a greater
number at once, the same places must be observed, as those mentioned in
the preceding chapter; that is to say, the places of both luminaries
and the ascendant.

When two, or all three, of the said places may be situated in
bicorporeal signs, births of this kind will occur, in consequence
of the combination which then arises; especially, provided all
the planets, which control those places, should also be similarly
circumstanced: or although only some of them be posited in bicorporeal
signs, while the rest may be placed by two or more together. Because
even more than twins will be born, in a case wherein all the ruling
places may be in bicorporeal signs, most of the planets being, at the
same time, posited in the same way, and configurated with them. The
number of children, however, to be produced at the birth, is to be
inferred from the planet which exercises the right of determining the
number[132]: and the sex or sexes are to be predicted by means of the
planets in configuration with the Sun, Moon, and ascendant.

[132] The planet here alluded to, seems to be that which may be
connected with most of the ruling places.

And, should the position of the heavens be arranged so that the angle
of the mid-heaven, and not that of the ascendant, may be connected with
the luminaries, there will, in that case, be produced, almost always,
twins; and sometimes even more.

To speak, however, more particularly, three males will be born, as in
the nativity of the Anactores,[133] when Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars may
be configurated with the places before appointed, in bicorporeal signs;
and three females, as in the nativity of the Graces, when Venus and the
Moon, with Mercury femininely constituted, may be configurated in like
manner. When Saturn, Jupiter, and Venus may be configurated, two males
and one female will be born; as in the nativity of the Dioscuri[134];
and, when Venus, the Moon, and Mars may be so configurated, two females
and one male; as in the nativity of Ceres, Core, and Liber.[135]

In cases of this kind, however, it most usually happens that the
conception has not been complete, and that the children are born with
some remarkable imperfections or deformities. And, in some instances,
owing to a certain concurrence of events, these numerous productions
are quite extraordinary and amazing.

[133] I have looked in many other books for this word “_Anactores_”
(plural of ανακτωρ), as designating three particular individuals born
at the same birth; for which signification it is here used by Ptolemy;
but my search has been in vain. Cicero has, however, written a passage,
in which a word, very nearly resembling it, occurs, and which would
seem to relate to the very persons alluded to by Ptolemy: viz. “The
godship of the Dioscuri was established in various modes among the
Greeks, and applied to various persons. One set consisted of three
persons, who were styled at Athens the _Anactes_, and were the sons of
Jupiter, the most ancient king, and Proserpine; their several names
were Tritopatreus, Eubuleus and Dionysius.” _De Nat. Deor._, lib. 3,
cap. 21.

[134] This is the second set of the Dioscuri, as stated by Cicero: they
were the children of the third, or Cretan Jupiter (the son of Saturn)
and Leda; their names were Castor, Pollux, and Helena. Helena, however,
is not mentioned by Cicero.

[135] Core is a name of Proserpine; Liber, of Bacchus. And, although
the mention here made of Ceres, Proserpine and Bacchus, as being the
offspring of one and the same birth, does not accord with the usual
notion of the genealogy of these divinities, it seems that Ptolemy did
not so represent them without some reason. For, in cap. 24, lib. 2, _De
Nat. Deor._, Cicero speaks of Liber as having been deified conjointly
with Ceres and Libera (another name of Proserpine); and adds, that “it
may be understood, from the rites and mysteries of the worship, how the
deification took place.” It appears also, by Davies’s notes on Cicero,
that Livy and Tacitus both speak of the copartnership in divinity
exercised by Liber, Libera and Ceres. There is not, however, any
occasion at present to dive deeper into the question of the generation
of these deities; for our author has advertised to them only to point
out that so many males or females will be produced at one birth, under
certain configurations of the stars.



The same places, as those pointed out in the two chapters last
preceding, are again to be considered, in inquiring into the
probability of a monstrous or defective birth. For it will be found
that, at a birth of this description, the luminaries are either cadent
from the ascendant, or else not in any manner configurated with it;
while, at the same time, the angles[136] are occupied by the malefics.

It therefore becomes necessary, when such a position of the heavens may
occur at the time of birth, to observe forthwith the preceding new or
full Moon[137] and its ruler; as well as the rulers of the luminaries
at the said time of birth. For, if all the places, in which the rulers
of the luminaries, and in which the Moon herself and Mercury may be
situated, at the birth, or, if most of those places should be totally
inconjunct and unconnected with the places of the said preceding new
or full Moon and its ruler, the birth will then be monstrous. And if
it should be further found, in addition to this absence of connection,
that the luminaries may be also posited in quadrupedal or bestial
signs, and the two malefics in angles, the birth will in that case not
be human. And should the luminaries, when so circumstanced, be not at
all supported by any benefic planet, but only by malefics, the creature
born will be wholly indocile, wild, and of evil nature: if, however,
they should receive support from Jupiter or Venus, the offspring
will then be like that of dogs or cats, or other creatures held in
religious veneration and used in worship[138]: but, if Mercury support
the luminaries, it will resemble that of fowls, oxen, or swine, or, of
other animals adapted to the service of mankind.

[136] Whalley says here, “chiefly the ascendant and mid-heaven.”

[137] Whichever might have been nearer in time.

[138] It is perhaps superfluous to mention that the two kinds of
animals here named (as well as many others) were venerated by the

When the luminaries may be in signs of human shape, while other
circumstances in the scheme of the nativity may exist as before
described, the creature born will then be human, or will partake of
human nature, although it will still be defective in some peculiar
quality. And, in order to ascertain the nature of that defect, the
shape and form of the signs found on the angles occupied by the
malefics, as well as of those wherein the luminaries are situated,
must be taken into consideration: and, if in this instance also,
no benefic planet should lend support to any one of the prescribed
places, the offspring produced will be utterly void of reason, and
indeed indefinable.[139] If, however, it should happen, that Jupiter or
Venus give support, the defect will be veiled by a specious outward
appearance, similar to that of hermaphrodites, and of those persons
called Harpocratiaci,[140] or others of like imperfections. And should
Mercury also give support, in addition to that of Jupiter or Venus, the
offspring will then become an interpreter of oracles and divinations;
but, if Mercury support alone, it will be deaf and dumb,[141] although
clever and ingenious in its intellect.

[139] The Greek says “enigmatical.”

[140] One Latin translation has rendered this word “stammerers”; and,
as Harpocrates was the god of silence, Ptolemy has probably used the
epithet to signify defect of speech.

[141] “Dumb.” The Greek is οδοντων εςερημενον, “_deprived of teeth_,”
and Allatius has so translated it: but other translations render these
words by _dumb_, which, considering the nature of Mercury, seems their
preferable signification.



The question which now remains to be considered, in order to complete
the investigation of circumstances taking place simultaneously with the
nativity, or immediately consequent thereon, is, whether the child,
then born, will or will not be reared.

This inquiry is to be handled distinctly from that regarding the
duration of life, although there is an apparent connection between
them. The questions themselves are, indeed, similar; for it is much
the same thing to inquire whether the child will be nurtured, or
how long it will live; and the only distinction, between these two
questions, arises from the different modes in which they are treated.
For instance, the inquiry into the duration of life is to be pursued
only in cases wherein there is allotted to the native some space of
time, not less in duration than a solar period; that is to say, a year.
Therefore, since time is also measured by smaller portions, such as
months, days, and hours, and since the question, whether the native
will or will not be reared, belongs to cases wherein some exuberance
of evil influence threatens speedy destruction, and where life is not
likely to endure throughout a whole year, the inquiry into the duration
of life must consequently involve a more multifarious consideration,
than that which relates to rearing; which may be at once disposed of,
in a more general and summary manner.

Thus, if either of the two luminaries be in an angle, and one of the
malefics be either in conjunction with that luminary, or else distant
in longitude from each luminary, in an exactly equal space; so as to
form the point of junction of two equal sides of a triangle, of which
sides the two luminaries form the extremities, while, at the same
time, no benefic star may partake in the configuration, and while the
rulers of the luminaries may be also posited in places belonging to,
or controlled by, the malefics; the child, then born, will not be
susceptible of nurture, but will immediately perish.

Should the configuration, made between the malefic planet and the
luminaries, not exist precisely in the mode just mentioned; that
is to say, should the said planet not be equally distant from both
luminaries, so as to form the point of junction of two equal sides of a
triangle; yet should it then happen that the rays of two malefics may
nearly approach the places of the two luminaries, casting an injurious
influence either on both, or only one of them, and if both the said
malefics be together succedent, or in opposition, to the luminaries,
or if one of them be succedent, and the other in opposition, or even
if only one may particularly afflict one of the luminaries, then, in
any such case, no duration of life will be allotted to the child: for
the supremacy of the power of the malefics extinguishes the influence
favourable to human nature, and tending to prolong existence.

Mars is exceedingly pernicious when succedent to the Sun, and Saturn
when succedent to the Moon. But a converse effect takes place when
either of these planets may be in opposition to the Sun or Moon, or in
elevation above them; for the Sun will then be afflicted by Saturn, and
the Moon by Mars; and especially so, provided the said planets should
have local prerogatives in the signs containing the luminaries, or
in the sign on the ascendant. And, should a double opposition exist,
by the circumstance of the luminaries being placed in two opposite
angles, and by the two malefics being each so posited as to be equally
distant from each luminary, the child will be born almost, if not
quite, dead. Nevertheless, if the luminaries should be separating from,
or be otherwise configurated with benefic planets, whose rays may be
projected to parts preceding the said luminaries, the child will then
live as many days, or hours, as there are degrees, numbered between the
prorogator[142] and the nearest malefic.

[142] A prorogator is either a luminary, planet, or a certain degree
of the zodiac, which determines the duration of life, or the time of
the accomplishment of any event: it is hereafter fully treated of in
the 13th Chapter of this Book; which shows that, in the instance now
mentioned, it would be a luminary, either in the ascendant, or in the

If malefics should cast their rays to parts preceding the luminaries,
and benefics to parts following them, the child will be abandoned at
its birth; but will afterwards meet with adoption, and will live. Yet,
if the malefics should be in elevation above those benefics which
are thus configurated, the child, so adopted, will lead a life of
misery and servitude: if, on the contrary, the benefics should be in
elevation, then whoever may adopt the deserted child will supply the
place of its parents. And, provided a benefic planet should either
ascend with, or near in succession to the Moon, or be applying to her,
and one of the malefics be occidental, the child’s own parents will, in
that case, take it again under their protection.

Rules similar to the foregoing are to be observed, when more than
one child is born; for, if any one of those planets, which may be
configurated towards the production of two, or even more children,
should be under the west, the children will be born half dead, or
deformed, and imperfect in body. And, if the planet so situated should
also be beneath the malefics, the children will not be susceptible of
nurture, or their life will be of the shortest span.



Of all events whatsoever, which take place after birth, the most
essential is the continuance of life: and as it is, of course, useless
to consider, in cases wherein the life of a child does not extend to
the period of one year, what other events contingent on its birth might
otherwise have subsequently happened, the inquiry into the duration of
life consequently takes precedence of all other questions, as to the
events subsequent to the birth.

The discussion of this inquiry is by no means simple, nor easy of
execution; it is conducted in a diversified process, by means of the
governance of the ruling places. And the method now about to be laid
down seems, of all others, the most consonant with reason, and with
nature: because the influence of the prorogatory places, as well as
of the rulers of those places, and the disposal of the anæretic[143]
places or stars, perform the whole operation of regulating the duration
of life. Each of these influences is to be distinguished in the mode
pointed out in the chapters immediately ensuing.

[143] The epithet _anæretic_ is a term of art, adopted from the Greek,
signifying fatal, or destructive.



Firstly, those places, only, are to be deemed prorogatory, to which the
future assumption of the dominion of prorogation exclusively belongs.
These several places are the sign on the angle of the ascendant,
from the fifth degree above the horizon, to the twenty-fifth degree
below it; the thirty degrees in dexter sextile thereto, constituting
the eleventh house, called the Good Dæmon; also the thirty degrees
in dexter quartile, forming the mid-heaven above the earth; those in
dexter trine making the ninth house, called God; and lastly, those in
opposition, belonging to the angle of the west.

Secondly, among these places, the degrees which constitute the
mid-heaven are entitled to preference, as being of a more potent and
paramount influence: the degrees in the ascendant are next in virtue;
then the degrees in the eleventh house succedent to the mid-heaven;
then those in the angle of the west; and, lastly, those in the ninth
house, which precedes the mid-heaven.

No degrees under the earth are, in any manner, eligible to the dominion
now in question; except such only as enter into light actually above
the succedent, or, in other words, with the ascendant. And any sign,
although it may be above the earth, is still incompetent to partake in
this dominion, if it be inconjunct with the ascendant: hence the sign
which precedes the ascendant, and constitutes the twelfth house (called
that of the Evil Dæmon), is incompetent; and not only for the above
reason, but also because it is cadent, and because the beams cast by
the stars posited therein, towards the earth, are impaired by the thick
and dark exhalations arising from the earth’s vapours, which produce an
unnatural colour and magnitude in the appearance of stars so posited,
confusing, and in some measure annihilating, their beams.

Thus far with regard to the places of prorogation.



After due attention has been given to the instructions in the preceding
chapter, the Sun, the Moon, the Ascendant, and the part of Fortune, are
to be considered as the four principally liable to be elected to the
office of prorogator; and their positions, together with those of such
planets as rule in the places of their positions, are to be observed.

The part of Fortune is ascertained by computing the number of degrees
between the Sun and the Moon; and it is placed at an equal number of
degrees distant from the ascendant, in the order of the signs. It is
in all cases, both by night and day, to be so computed and set down,
that the Moon may hold with it the same relation as that which the Sun
may hold with the ascendant; and it thus becomes, as it were, a lunar
horoscope or ascendant.[144]

[144] The Latin translation, printed at Perugio in 1646, has here the
following passage in addition: “But it must be seen which luminary may
follow the other in the succession of the signs; for if the Moon should
so follow the Sun, the part of Fortune is also to be numbered from the
horoscope or ascendant, _according_ to the succession of the signs. But
if the Moon precede the Sun, the part of Fortune must be numbered from
the ascendant, _contrary_ to the succession of the signs.”

There is a long dissertation on the part of Fortune, in Cooper’s
Placidus, from pp. 308 to 318; and, among the directions there given
for computing its situation, the following seem the most accurate and
simple: viz. “In the diurnal geniture, the Sun’s true distance from
the east is to be added to the Moon’s right ascension, and in the
nocturnal, subtracted; for the number thence arising will be the place
and right ascension of the part of Fortune: and it always has the same
declination with the Moon, both in number and name, wherever it is
found. Again, let the Sun’s oblique ascension, taken in the ascendant,
be subtracted always from the oblique ascendant of the ascendant, as
well in the day as in the night, and the remaining difference be added
to the Moon’s right ascension; the sum will be the right ascension
of the part of Fortune, which will have the Moon’s declination.” It
is shown also by this dissertation, that the situation of the part
of Fortune must be necessarily confined to the lunar parallels;
that it can but rarely be in the ecliptic; and that its latitude is
ever varying. Cooper also adds, from Cardan’s Commentaries on the
Tetrabiblos, that “if the Moon is going from the conjunction to the
opposition of the Sun, then the Moon follows the Sun, and the part
of Fortune is always under the Earth, from the ascendant; but if the
Moon has passed the opposition, she goes before the Sun, and the part
of Fortune is before the ascendant, and always above the earth.” This
remark of Cardan’s is, in effect, exactly equivalent to what is stated
in the additional passage inserted in the Perugio Latin translation,
and given above.

In the Primum Mobile of Placidus (Cooper’s translation, p. 45), the
following remark and example are given: “The part of Fortune is placed
according to the Moon’s distance from the Sun; and you must observe
what rays the Moon has to the Sun, for the latter ought to have the
same, and with the same excess or deficiency, as the part of Fortune to
the horoscope. As the Moon is to the Sun, so is the part of Fortune to
the horoscope; and as the Sun is to the horoscope, so is the Moon to
the part of Fortune. So, in the nativity of Charles V, the Moon applies
to the ultimate sextile of the Sun, but with a deficiency of 7° 45′:
I subtract the 7° 45′ from 5° 34′ of Scorpio, the ultimate sextile to
the horoscope, and the part of Fortune is placed in 28° 9′ of Libra.”
N.B.—In this nativity, according to Placidus, the Sun is in the second
house, in 14° 30′ of Pisces: the Moon in the ascendant, in 6° 45′ of
Capricorn; the ascendant is 5° 34′ of Capricorn; and the part Fortune
is in the ninth house, in 28° 9′ of Libra.

Among the candidates for prorogation, as before-mentioned, by day
the Sun is to be preferred, provided he be situated in a prorogatory
place; and, if not, the Moon; but if the Moon, also, should not be so
situated, then that planet is to be elected which may have most claims
to dominion, in reference to the Sun, the antecedent new Moon, and
the ascendant; that is to say, when such planet may be found to have
dominion over any one of the places where these are situated, by at
least three prorogatives, if not more; the whole number being five. If,
however, no planet should be found so circumstanced, the Ascendant is
then to be taken.

By night, the Moon is to be elected as prorogator, provided, in like
manner, she should be in some prorogatory place; and if she be not, the
Sun: if he also be not in any prorogatory place, then that planet which
may have most rights of dominion in reference to the Moon,[145] and
the antecedent full Moon and the part of Fortune. But, if there be no
planet claiming dominion in the mode prescribed, the Ascendant must be
taken, in case a new Moon had last preceded the birth; but, if a full
Moon, the part of Fortune.

If the two luminaries, and also some ruling planet of appropriate
condition, should be each posited in a prorogatory place, then,
provided one luminary may be found to occupy some place more important
and influential than the others, that luminary must be chosen;
but should the ruling planet occupy the stronger place, and have
prorogatives of dominion suitable to the conditions of both luminaries,
the planet must then be preferred to either of them.[146]

[145] According to her position in the scheme of the nativity.

[146] Placidus, in remarking on the nativity of John di Colonna, after
stating his opinion that it is an error to suppose that a malign
influence to the horoscope, when the horoscope has _not_ the primary
signification of life is anæretic, says, that “the order and method
which Ptolemy lays down for the election of a prorogator are quite
absurd, unless life be at the disposal of a sole prime significator
only.” He proves by other arguments also, and by instances of the
fact, that “_one only_ signifies life, elected according to Ptolemy’s
method.” (Cooper’s translation, p. 184.)



When the prorogator has been determined as above directed, it is also
necessary to take into consideration the two modes of prorogation;
one into succeeding signs, under the projection of rays, as it is
called; and, when the prorogator may be in an oriental place, that is
to say, in any place between the mid-heaven and the ascendant, this
mode only is to be used. The other mode extends into signs preceding
the prorogator, according to what is called horary proportion[147];
and, in cases when the prorogator may be situated in any place receding
from the mid-heaven, or, in other words, between the mid-heaven and the
angle of the west, both modes of prorogation are to be adopted.

[147] “_Horary proportion._” So the Perugio Latin of 1646; the Greek
word, however, is ωριμαιαν, which seems to be compounded of ωρα and
ιμαω; and, if so, the literal signification would be “extraction of

It is next to be observed, that certain degrees are anæretic; though,
in the prorogation made into signs preceding, the only degree which
is strictly anæretic is that of the western horizon; and it becomes
so because it obscures the lord of life; while other degrees, of
stars meeting with or testifying to the prorogator, both take away
from and add to the aggregate amount of the prorogation, which would
otherwise continue until the descension or setting of the prorogator.
Of these last-mentioned degrees, however, there are none properly
anæretic; since they are not borne to the prorogatory place, but, on
the contrary, that place is carried to their positions.[148] In this
manner the benefics increase the prorogation, but the malefics diminish
it; and Mercury assists the influence of either party with which he may
be configurated. The amount of the increase or diminution is indicated
by the degree, in which each star, so operating, is exactly situated;
for the number of years will depend upon, and correspond with, the
horary times[149] proper to each degree; and if the birth be by day,
care must be taken to calculate the diurnal horary times; if by night,
the nocturnal. These directions are to be understood as applicable to
instances wherein the degrees in question may be in the ascendant; if
farther advanced, a deduction proportionate to the distance is to be
made, unless they should be on the occidental horizon, in which case
there can be no remainder.

[148] By the apparent motion of the planetary system. On this
passage, Placidus has the following observations: “In directing the
significator to the west, you must consider what stars or mundane rays
are intercepted between the significator and the west; if fortunate,
add their arc to the significator’s arc of direction to the west;
if unfortunate, subtract it from the same, and it will give the arc
of direction, augmented or diminished according to Ptolemy. How
largely and differently authors have spoken of this direction of the
significator to the west, putting various constructions on the words of
Ptolemy, is known to every one. See Cardan in his Commentaries, Maginus
in Prim. Mob. and the Use of Legal Astrology in Physic, c. viii, where
he delivers the sentiments of Naibod. Argol censures wholly this
doctrine of Ptolemy’s, of directing the moderator of life to the west,
as vain and useless; but I say it is worthy of remark, and altogether
comformable to truth; because then the rays and intermediate stars of
the malign only lessen the arc of direction to the west, and do not
destroy life, when, by a right direction, the moderator or life does
not remain at the same time with the malignant planet: for, should this
happen, they kill, without any manner of doubt.” (Cooper’s translation,
pp. 106 and 108.)

[149] “_Horary times._” These are the number of equatorial degrees
which any degree of the zodiac may appear, in a certain latitude on the
earth, to transit in an equatorial hour.

But, in the prorogation made into succeeding signs, the places of the
malefics, Saturn and Mars, are anæretic, whether meeting the prorogator
bodily, or by emission of rays in quartile, from either side, or in
opposition: they are also sometimes anæretic, by a sextile ray, if in a
sign of equal power, obeying or beholding the sign of the prorogator.
And even the mere degree, in signs following, in quartile with the
prorogatory place, as also the degree in sextile, if badly afflicted,
which is sometimes the case in signs of long ascension, and, still
further, the degree in trine, if in signs of short ascension, are all
anæretic: so also is the Sun’s place, should the Moon be prorogatory.
But, although the meetings, which occur in the course of prorogation
thus made, have, respectively, some of them an anæretic, and other a
preservative, power, in consequence of their occurring by means of an
actual transmission to the prorogatory place[150]; yet their anæretic
tendency is not always effectual, but only in cases where the places,
so brought to the prorogatory place, may be badly afflicted. For should
those places be situated within the terms of a benefic, the operation
of their anæretic degree becomes impeded; and it will likewise be
impeded, if either of the benefics should cast a ray in quartile,
trine, or opposition,[151] to the said anæretic degree itself, or to
some other degree near in succession, and not farther distant from it
than twelve degrees, if the benefic be Jupiter; nor than eight, if
Venus: the like impediment will also subsist, if both the prorogator
and its opponent[152] should be bodies,[153] and not have the same

[150] By the apparent motion of the planetary system.

[151] In reference to this passage, Placidus, in speaking of the death
of Octavian Vestrius of Rome, has these words: “the Moon is found in a
parallel declination of Mars, and Saturn with the opposition of Mars;
the sextile of Jupiter to the Sun could give no assistance, because
Jupiter is cadent, and the ray sextile is very weak, especially when
it is the principal ray: for which reason, Ptolemy, in the chapter of
Life, when he mentions the planets that are able to save in the courses
of the infortunes, does not name the sextile, but the quartile, trine,
and opposition; because the sextile ray is feeble, particularly when
it is less than 60°: neither could Venus assist, as she was cadent
from the house, and in a sign inimical to the Sun,” &c. (Cooper’s
Translation, p. 286.)

[152] Literally, and perhaps more properly, “its meeter.”

[153] That is to say, orbs, in contradistinction to prorogations made
by aspects or degrees merely.

Therefore, whenever there may be found two or more conflicting
configurations, auxiliary on the one hand, and hostile on the other,
due observation must be made to ascertain which party surpasses the
other, in power as well as in number. The pre-eminence in number will
be, of course, obvious, from the greater number[154] on one side than
on the other; but, for pre-eminence in power, it must be seen whether
the stars, auxiliary or hostile as the case may be, are, on the one
side, in places appropriate to themselves, while they are not so on the
other; and especially whether those on the one side may be oriental,
and those on the other occidental. It is also to be observed, in all
cases, that not any one of such stars, whether hostile or auxiliary,
is to be left out of the present calculation, on account of its casual
position under the sunbeams.[155] This rule must be particularly
attended to, because, even though the Moon be not prorogatory, the
solar place itself becomes anæretic, if shackled by the simultaneous
presence of a malefic, and not restored to freedom of operation by any

[154] Of the stars and places brought into configuration.

[155] Whalley’s translation of this passage is in direct contradiction
to the sense: and even that of Allatius, as well as other Latin ones,
are (if strictly correct) confused in their meaning.

The number of years, depending on the distances between the prorogatory
and anæretic places, cannot be always gathered simply and at once
from the ascensional times[156] of each respective degree; but only
in cases when the ascendant itself, or some other specific degree or
body, actually ascending in the oriental horizon, may possess the
prorogation. For, if it be desired to calculate agreeably to nature,
every process of calculation that can be adopted must be directed
to the attainment of one object; that is to say, to ascertain after
how many equatorial times[157] the place of the succeeding body, or
degree, will arrive at the position preoccupied at the birth by the
preceding body, or degree: and, as equatorial time transits equally
both the horizon and the meridian, the places in question[158] must
be considered, in respect of their proportionate distances from both
these; each equatorial degree[159] being taken to signify one solar

In conformity with the foregoing remarks, when it may happen that
the prorogatory and preceding place may be actually on the oriental
horizon, it will be proper to reckon, at once, the ascensional times
which may intervene until the meeting of the degrees; because, after
the same number of equatorial times, the anæreta will arrive at the
prorogatory place; that is to say, at the oriental horizon. Should the
prorogatory place be found on the meridian, the whole number of degrees
by right ascension, in which the whole intercepted arc will transit the
meridian, must then be taken. And if the prorogatory place be on the
occidental horizon, the number of descensions, in which every degree of
the distance will be carried down (or, in other words, the number of
ascensions, in which their opposite degrees will ascend), is in that
case to be reckoned.[160]

[156] “_Ascensional times._” These are, in other words, the number of
degrees of the equator, equivalent to a certain number of zodiacal
degrees, ascending in any particular latitude. They are also otherwise
called the _oblique ascension_ of such zodiacal degrees.

[157] “_Equatorial times_” here signify degrees of the equator, by
which all time is measured.

[158] That is to say, of the preceding and of the succeeding body of

[159] Which may be intercepted in the arc between them.

[160] This number is that of the oblique descensional times of the
intercepted arc, or of the oblique ascensional times of the arc
opposite to it. The whole of the instructions in this paragraph are
fully exemplified in the following chapter.

When, however, a prorogatory and preceding place may not be situated
on any one of the three aforesaid points, but in some intermediate
station, it must be observed that _other_ times[161] will then bring
the succeeding place to the preceding one; and _not_ the times of
ascension or descension, or transit of the mid-heaven, as above spoken
of. For any places whatever, which have one particular position, on
the same degree, in regard to the horizon and meridian, are alike and
identical. This is the case, for instance, with all places lying on
any one of those semicircles which are drawn through the arcs of the
meridian and horizon; and each of these semicircles (all of which
have position at the same equal distance from each other) marks one
temporal hour[162]; and, as the time occupied in proceeding through the
places[163] above described, and arriving at the same position of the
horizon and meridian, is rendered unequal to and different from the
time of transits in the zodiac; so, also, the transits of other spaces
are made, agreeably to their position, in time again distinct from this.

[161] Or, times to be reckoned in another manner.

[162] On this passage, there has been founded (to use Whalley’s words)
“what we call Mundane Parallels, or parallels in the world. And, as
zodiacal parallels are equal distances from the tropical or equinoctial
circles, so mundane parallels are a like equal distance from the
horizontal or meridianal points or circles. And as zodiacal parallels
are measured by the zodiacal circle, so those mundane parallels
are measured by the diurnal or nocturnal arcs: and just so long as
the Sun or any other planet is, in proceeding from the cusp of the
twelfth House to the cusp of the tenth, the same Sun or other planet
will be in proceeding from the cusp of the tenth to the cusp of the
eighth House. And the distance between Sun-rising and setting, is the
diurnal arc which the meridian cuts in two equal parts. In directions,
these mundane parallels have a twofold consideration: first, simple;
secondly, according to the rapt motion of the earth, or the _primum
mobile_: all which have been largely explained by the learned Monk,
Placidus,” &c. That Author has certainly stated, in one of his Theses,
that “those seats, or parts of the circle, are to be received, in
which the stars, having a different declination, effect equal temporal
hours” (p. 22, Cooper’s Translation), and he has fully exemplified
this principle in other parts of his “Primum Mobile”; but Ptolemy here
speaks only of _one_ of the _semi_circles between the horizon and
meridian, without reference to any other semicircle, corresponding in
distance from the horizon and mid-heaven; and all that he has said on
the subject amounts only to this, that the prorogation is completed
when the succeeding place arrives at the same semicircle on which the
preceding place had been posited.

[163] The ascendant, mid-heaven, and western horizon; as mentioned in
the preceding paragraph.

There is, however, a method by which the proportion of time, occupied
in the progress of a succeeding place to a prorogatory and preceding
place, in whatever position, whether oriental, meridianal, or
occidental, or any other, may be easily calculated. It is as follows:—

When it has been ascertained what degree of the zodiac is on the
mid-heaven, as also which are the preceding and succeeding degrees,
the period of whose meeting is to be calculated, the position of the
preceding degree, and its distance in temporal hours from the meridian,
are next to be noted; because any part of the zodiac, on becoming
distant from the meridian in the same temporal hours, must fall on the
same individual semicircle.[164] For ascertaining this distance, the
number of ascensions, in a right sphere, found in the intermediate
space between the said preceding degree and the mid-heaven, either
above or under the earth, is to be divided by the number of the diurnal
or nocturnal horary times of the said preceding degree: for instance,
if that degree be above the earth, by its diurnal horary times; and, by
its nocturnal, if it be under the earth. It is then to be discovered in
what number of equatorial times the succeeding degree will be distant
from the same meridian, by as many similar temporal hours as those by
which the preceding degree is distant from it. And, to effect this,
the hours in question must be noted, and it must first be observed, by
the right ascensions again, how many equatorial times the succeeding
degree, at its original position, is distant from the degree on the
mid-heaven; and then it must be seen how many equatorial times it will
be distant, on coming to the preceding degree’s distance in temporal
hours from the said mid-heaven: this will be found, by multiplying
those hours by the succeeding degree’s horary times; diurnal, if the
future position be above the earth, and nocturnal if under; and the
difference in amount, of these two distances, in equatorial times, will
present the number of years inquired for.

[164] _Vide_ Note ², p. 95.



In order to exemplify the foregoing instructions, let the first point
of Aries be supposed as the preceding place, and the first point in
Gemini the succeeding; and let the latitude of the country, to which
the operation relates, be such as will cause the longest day to consist
of fourteen hours[165]; and where the horary magnitude of the beginning
of Gemini will be about seventeen equatorial times.[166]

[165] This, in the Northern Hemisphere, would be the latitude of
Alexandria (where Ptolemy flourished), or, in his own words, that of
the 3rd Climate, passing through Lower Egypt, numbered 30° 22′.—_Vide_
extracts from the Tables of the Almagest, inserted in the Appendix.

[166] This is the magnitude of the diurnal temporal hour of the first
point of Gemini in the latitude prescribed.

Let the first point of Aries be first placed on the ascendant, so that
the beginning of Capricorn may be on the mid-heaven above the earth,
and the first point of Gemini be distant from the said mid-heaven
140 equatorial times.[167] Now, since the first point of Aries is
distant six temporal hours from the mid-heaven above the earth, the
times of that distance will be found, by multiplying the said six
hours by the seventeen equatorial times of the horary magnitude of the
first point of Gemini, to be 102.[168] The whole sum of the distance
to the mid-heaven above the earth, is 148 times; and as 148 times
exceed 102 by 46, the succeeding place will consequently devolve into
the preceding place after 46 times (being the amount of the times of
ascension of Aries and Taurus[169]); since, in this instance, the
prorogatory place is established in the ascendant.

In like manner, let the first point of Aries be next placed on the
mid-heaven, culminating; so that the first point of Gemini, in its
first position, may be distant from the said mid-heaven 58 equatorial
times.[170] Now, as it is required to bring the first point of Gemini,
in its second position, to the mid-heaven, the whole distance is to be
reckoned, viz. 58 times, in which Aries and Taurus pass the mid-heaven;
because, again, the prorogatory place was culminating.[171]

In the same way, let the first point of Aries be descending[172]; so
that the beginning of Cancer may occupy the mid-heaven, and the first
point of Gemini precede the mid-heaven at the distance of 32 equatorial
times.[173] Therefore, as the first point of Aries is on the west,
and again distant six temporal hours from the meridian, let these six
hours be multiplied by the seventeen times; which will produce 102,
making the sum of the distance[174] of the first point of Gemini, at
its future descension, from the meridian.[175] But, as the first point
of Gemini, at its first position, was already distant from the meridian
32 times; which number 102 exceed by 70; it will consequently arrive
at its descension after 70 times, the amount of the excess; in which
space Aries and Taurus will have descended, and their opposite signs
Libra and Scorpio arisen.[176]

[167] By right ascension, as shown by the Extract, inserted in the
Appendix, from the Tables of Ascensions in the Almagest. The exact
distance, however, according to that Table, is 147° 44′.

[168] Or rather, according to the Table, 102° 39′.

[169] That is to say, of the oblique ascension, which is here required
to be reckoned; because the prorogatory and preceding place is in the
ascendant. _Vide_ p. 95, and Note ² in p. 94. And the first point
of Gemini, on arriving at the ascendant, will be distant from the
mid-heaven 102° 39′ by right ascension; the 13th degree of Aquarius
being then in culmination in the prescribed latitude. The oblique
ascensions in the latitude 30° 22′ N. are also shown in the extract
referred to in the preceding note: and it thereby appears, that Aries
and Taurus ascend in 45° 5′, instead of 46°.

[170] Or, rather, 57° 44′—by right ascension.—_Vide_ extract above
referred to.

[171] _Vide_ p. 95.

[172] Or on the cusp of the 7th House.

[173] Or, rather, 32° 16′—by right ascension again.—_Vide_ extract as

[174] By right ascension. The amount according to the Table is,
however, 102° 39′, as before stated.

[175] On which the 10th degree of Virgo will then be posited.

[176] By oblique descension and ascension: _Vide_ p. 95.—The Table
shows the amount to be 70° 23′.

Again, let the first point of Aries have another position, not in
any angle,[177] but, for instance, at the distance of three temporal
hours past the meridian; so that the 18th degree of Taurus may be
on the mid-heaven, and the first point of Gemini be approaching the
mid-heaven, at the distance of thirteen equatorial times. The seventeen
times must, therefore, be again multiplied by the three hours, and the
first point of Gemini, at its second position, will be found to be
past the meridian, at the distance of 51 times.[178] The distance of
13 times of the first position and 51 times of the second position are
then both to be taken; and they will produce 64 times. In the former
instances the prorogatory place performed in the same succession; viz.
occupying 46 times in coming to the ascendant, 58 in coming to the
mid-heaven, and 70 in coming to the west; so that the present number of
times, depending on the intermediate position between the mid-heaven
and the west, and being 64, also differs from each of the other
numbers, in proportion to the three hours’ difference of position. For,
in the other cases which proceeded by quadrants,[179] according to the
angles, the times progressively differed by twelve, but, in the present
case of a minor distance of three hours, they differ by six.[180]

[177] In reference to p. 95, and Note ¹ in the same page.

[178] The 18th degree of Cancer being then in culmination.

[179] Or semi-diurnal arcs, each equal to six temporal hours.

[180] The amount of the progressive difference of the times of
prorogation, as here mentioned, is of course only applicable to the
parallel of declination of the first point of Gemini, in the latitude
before quoted. It must necessarily vary in all other parallels of
declination, and also in all other latitudes.

There is, however, another method which may be used, and which is
still more simple; for instance, should the preceding degree be on
the ascendant, the following intermediate times of ascension,[181]
between it and the succeeding degree, may be reckoned; should it be
on the mid-heaven, the times of ascension must be reckoned on a right
sphere; and, if it be on the west, descending, the intermediate times
of descension[182] are to be reckoned. But, should the preceding degree
be between any two of these angles, as, for instance, at the distance
of Aries, just spoken of, the proper times for each angle must first
be considered. And, since the first point of Aries was assigned a
position between the two angles of the mid-heaven and the west, the
proper times of the distances from these angles to the first point of
Gemini[183] would be found to be 58 from the mid-heaven, and 70 from
the west. The distances, in temporal hours, of the preceding degree
from each of these angles, are then to be ascertained; and whatever
proportion these same temporal hours, contained in such distances
between the said preceding degree and each angle, may bear to the
temporal hours of the whole quadrant, the same proportion, out of the
excess of the times of distance of one angle over those of the other,
is either to be added to, or deducted from, the actual number of times
of the respective angles. For instance, in the example before set
forth, 70 times exceed 58 times by 12; and the preceding place was
distant from the angles three equal temporal hours, which are the half
of six, the number belonging to the whole quadrant. Now, three being
the half of six, and 12 being the amount of the excess, the half of 12
is therefore to be taken, giving 6 to be either added to the 58 times,
or subtracted from the 70: thus, in either way, producing 64, the
required number of times.

[181] Oblique ascension.

[182] The times of oblique descension of any arc of the zodiac are
equal to the times of oblique ascension of its opposite arc; as before

[183] That is to say, at the time of the 1st point of Aries transiting
the cusp of each angle respectively.

If, however, the preceding place should be distant from either angle
two temporal hours, which are the third part of 6, then, in that case,
the third part of 12, the amount of the excess, must be taken, viz.
4: and, if the said two hours be the distance, as calculated from the
mid-heaven, the said 4 times are to be added to the 58 times; but, if
it be the distance from the occidental angle, the 4 times are to be
subtracted from the 70.

In conformity with these rules now laid down, the amount of the times
must necessarily be obtained.[184]

[184] The calculation of time may be greatly facilitated by the use of
a zodiacal planisphere, said to have been invented about thirty years
ago by Mr. Ranger, who died without making his invention public. The
invention consists of a set of instruments perfectly adapted, as far
as relates to the zodiac, for astronomical, as well as astrological,
purposes; and the completeness with which it solves, in the most
intelligible and expeditious manner, all the astronomical problems of
the zodiac, deserves attention. Whether a similar planisphere was known
in the days of Placidus, I am not aware; but it is worthy of remark
that the following words occur in his “Primum Mobile,” and seem almost
to have been predicted of Mr. Ranger’s planisphere:—“If any one would
provide himself with a Ptolemaic planisphere, with the horary circles,
crepuscules, the zodiac’s latitude, and all other things requisite,
it would be of very great service towards foreseeing the aspects.”
(Cooper’s Translation, p. 87.) In the Appendix will be found a plate,
containing diagrams drawn by the instruments in question, which, though
not completely filled up, will show how easily, and, at the same time,
how accurately, the measure of time in directions may be ascertained.
The said diagrams have been adapted to the “exemplification” here given
by Ptolemy; one of them being laid down for the latitude of Alexandria,
and the other for the latitude of southern Britain (51° 30′ N.), with
similar positions of the preceding and succeeding places adverted to in
the text.

The anæretic and critical influences of all meetings or descensions
of prorogators[185] remain to be determined; beginning, in due order,
with such as are accomplished in the shortest time. And whatever else
may happen, by means of any affliction or assistance offered (in the
manner heretofore prescribed) during the actual transit of the meeting,
is also to be decided on, as well as whatever may occur through other
circumstances, arising out of the ingresses taking place at the time:
because, should the places of both the significators be afflicted, and
should the transit of the stars, at the then existing ingress, operate
injuriously on the chief ruling places, it is then altogether probable
that death will ensue;[186] and, even though one of the places[187]
may be disposed favourably to human nature, the crisis will still
be important and perilous; but, if both the places be so disposed
favourably, some debility only, or transient malady, or hurt, will then
happen. It is, however, necessary in these cases, to consider also what
familiarity, or analogy, the peculiar properties of the places, thus
meeting, may bear to the circumstances of the nativity.

In order to obviate the doubts which frequently arise, as to the
particular star or place to which the anæretic dominion ought to be
assigned, all the meetings should be duly contemplated and considered,
each by each; and thus, after considering those chiefly corresponding
with the events already past, and with the future events about to
follow, or with the whole altogether, it will be practicable to found
an observation on the equality or inequality of their influence.

[185] These meetings and descensions are technically termed

[186] On these words Placidus has the following remark: “The
revolutions may possess some virtue, but only according to the
constitution of the stars to the places of the prorogators of the
nativity, and their places of direction, but no farther; as Ptolemy
was of opinion, and briefly expresses himself in his Chapter of Life.
‘Those who are afflicted, both in the places and conclusions of the
years, by the revolution of the stars infecting the principal places,
have reason to expect certain death.’” (Cooper’s Translation, p. 127.)

[187] Of the significators before mentioned.



The matters affecting and regulating the duration of life have now been
disposed of; and it becomes proper to enter into further particulars,
commencing, in due order, with the figure and conformation of the body;
because Nature forms and moulds the body before she inspires it with a
soul. In fact, the body, in its materiality, is endowed with suitable
constitutional properties begotten with it, and almost apparent from
its very birth; but the soul afterwards, and by degrees, develops the
appropriate qualities which it derives from the primary cause, and
which become known much later than external attributes, and in process
of time only.

In regard to the body, therefore, it is in all cases requisite to
observe the oriental horizon, and to ascertain what planets may preside
or have dominion over it, and also to pay particular attention to the
Moon. For, from both these places,[188] and from their rulers, as
well as from the natural formation and contemperament appertaining to
every species of the human race, and also from the figure ascribed
to those fixed stars which may be co-ascending, the conformation of
the body is to be inferred. The planets possessing dominion have the
chief influence, and the proper qualities of their places co-operate
with them. And, in order to simplify these instructions, and as the
planets are first to be treated of, each planet is individually to be
considered as follows, viz.:

[188] That of the ascendant, and that of the Moon.

Saturn, when oriental, acts on the personal figure by producing a
yellowish complexion and a good constitution; with black and curled
hair, a broad and stout chest, eyes of ordinary quality, and a
proportionate size of body, the temperament of which is compounded
principally of moisture and cold. Should he be occidental, he makes the
personal figure black or dark, thin and small, with scanty hair on the
head; the body without hair, but well shaped; the eyes black or dark;
and the bodily temperament consisting chiefly of dryness and cold.

Jupiter ruling, when oriental, makes the person white or fair, with
a clear complexion, moderate growth of hair, and large eyes, and of
good and dignified stature; the temperament being chiefly of heat and
moisture. When occidental, he still causes a fair complexion, but not
of equal clearness; and he produces long straight hair, with baldness
on the forehead or on the crown of the head; and he then also gives a
middle stature to the body, with a temperament of more moisture.

Mars, ascending, gives a fair ruddiness to the person, with large
size, a healthy constitution, blue or grey eyes, a sturdy figure, and
a moderate growth of hair, with a temperament principally of heat and
dryness. When occidental, he makes the complexion simply ruddy, and the
personal figure of moderate stature, with small eyes; the body without
hair, and the hair of the head light or red, and straight; the bodily
temperament being chiefly dry.

Venus operates in a manner similar to that of Jupiter, but, at the same
time, more becomingly and more gracefully; producing qualities of a
nature more applicable to women and female beauty, such as softness,
juiciness, and greater delicacy. She also peculiarly makes the eyes
beautiful, and renders them of an azure tint.

Mercury, when oriental, makes the personal figure of a yellowish
complexion, and of stature proportionate and well shaped, with small
eyes and a moderate growth of hair; and the bodily temperament is
chiefly hot. If occidental, he gives a complexion white or fair, but
not altogether clear; straight, dark hair, a thin and slight figure,
some squint or defect in the eyes, and a long visage[189] faintly red;
the temperament being chiefly dry.

The Sun and Moon, when configurated with any one of the planets,
also co-operate: the Sun adds a greater nobleness to the figure, and
increases the healthiness of the constitution; and the Moon, especially
when holding or delaying her separation,[190] generally contributes
better proportion and greater delicacy of figure, and greater moisture
of temperament; but, at the same time, her influence in this latter
particular is adapted to the proper ratio of her illumination; as
referred to in the modes of temperament mentioned in the beginning of
this treatise.[191]

Again, should the planets be matutine, and fully conspicuous,[192]
they will cause the body to be large; if in their first station, they
will make it strong and vigorous; if they should precede or be in
advance, it will be disproportionate; if in their second station, it
will be weaker, and, if vespertine, altogether mean and subservient
to evil treatment and oppression. At the same time, the places of
the planets,[193] as has been already said, co-operate especially in
producing the shape of the personal figure, and contribute also towards
the temperament.

[189] The original word is (in the accusative plural) αιγοηους, which
Allatius has rendered, by “_pedibus caprinis_,” _goat-footed_, as if
it were compounded of αιξ capra and πους _pes_; but the preferable
derivation seems to be from αιξ and ωψ _vultus_; meaning “_goat-faced_.”

[190] From any one of the said planets.

[191] _Vide_ Chap. VIII, Book I.

[192] The Greek is ποιουμενοι φασεις; literally “_making apparition_”;
but the subsequent context seems to require the meaning I have adopted.

[193] The parts of the signs in which the planets are posited.

And further, it is the general tendency of the quadrant comprised
between the vernal equinox and the summer tropic to produce good
complexions, advantageous stature, fine constitutions, and fine eyes;
with a temperament abounding in heat and moisture. The quadrant from
the summer tropic to the autumnal equinox tends to produce an ordinary
complexion, proportionate stature, a healthy constitution, large eyes,
a stout person, with curled hair, and a temperament abounding in heat
and dryness. The quadrant from the autumnal equinox to the winter
tropic causes yellowish complexions, slender, thin, and sickly persons,
with a moderate growth of hair, fine eyes, and a temperament abundantly
dry and cold. The other quadrant, from the winter tropic to the vernal
equinox, gives a dark complexion, proper stature, straight hair on the
head and none on the body, a goodly figure, and a temperament abounding
in cold and moisture.

To speak, however, more particularly, all constellations of human
form, both those within and those without the zodiac, act in favour of
giving a handsome shape to the body, and due proportion to the figure;
while those not of human form vary its due proportions, and incline it
towards their own shape; assimilating it, in some measure, to their
own peculiarities, either by enlarging or diminishing its size, by
giving it additional strength or weakness, or by otherwise improving
or disfiguring it. Thus, for example, Leo, Virgo, and Sagittarius
enlarge the person; and Pisces, Cancer, and Capricorn tend to make it
diminutive; and thus, again, the upper and anterior parts of Aries,
Taurus, and Leo increase its strength and their lower and posterior
parts render it weaker: while, on the other hand, Sagittarius, Scorpio,
and Gemini act conversely; for their anterior parts produce greater
debility, and their posterior parts greater vigour. In like manner,
Virgo, Libra, and Sagittarius contribute to render the person handsome
and well-proportioned; and Scorpio, Pisces, and Taurus incline it to be
misshapen and disfigured.

The other constellations[194] also operate on similar principles; and
all these influences it is necessary to bear in mind, in order that the
peculiar properties, observed in their joint temperament, may be so
compounded as to authorize an inference therefrom, concerning the form
and temperament of the body.

[194] For the operative qualities of the other constellations, _vide_
Chapters X and XI, Book I.



Next in succession to the foregoing chapter, the circumstances relating
to bodily hurts, injuries, and diseases, claim to be discussed; and
they require to be considered in the following mode.

For the investigation of these circumstances, the two angles on the
horizon, both the ascendant and the western, must in all cases be
remarked; but more especially the western angle and its preceding
house,[195] which is inconjunct with the ascendant. After these angles
have been noted, it must be observed in what manner the malefic planets
may be configurated with them: for, if both the malefics, or even
if one of them, should be stationed bodily on any of the successive
degrees composing the said angles, or be configurated with such degrees
in quartile or in opposition, some bodily disorders or injuries will
attach to the native or person then born: and this will especially
happen if, also, both the luminaries, either together or in opposition,
or even if one of them, should be angularly posited in the manner
described. Because, in such a case, not only a malefic which may have
ascended in succession to the luminaries, but also any one which
may have pre-ascended, if placed in an angle, has power to inflict
certain diseases and injuries, such as may be indicated by the places
of the horizon and of the signs, as well as by the natures of the
planets themselves; whether malefics, or others evilly afflicted and
configurated with them.

[195] The sixth house.

Such parts of the signs, as contain the afflicted part of the horizon,
will show in what part of the body the misfortune will exist, whether
it be a hurt, or disease, or both: and the natures of the planets, in
operating the misfortune, also regulate its particular form or species.
For, among the chief parts of the human body, Saturn rules the right
ear, the spleen, the bladder, the phlegm, and the bones; Jupiter
governs the hand, the lungs, the arteries, and the seed; Mars, the left
ear, the kidneys, the veins, and the privities; the Sun rules the eyes,
the brain, the heart, the sinews or nerves, and all the right side;
Venus, the nostrils, the liver, and the flesh; Mercury, the speech, the
understanding, the bile, the tongue, and the fundament; and the Moon
governs the palate, the throat, the stomach, the belly, the womb, and
all the left parts.

It generally happens that some casual hurt, or injurious affection of
the body, is the utmost that takes effect when the malefics may be
oriental, and that considerable diseases occur only when the malefics
may be occidental. And a hurt is distinct from a disease, inasmuch as
the pain, which it induces at the time, is not afterwards continued;
while a disease is, on the other hand, imposed on the sufferer either
constantly or at repeated intervals. These remarks are applicable to
all cases; but, in order to inquire particularly into the nature of
the hurt or disease, a further attention must be paid to the figures,
or schemes, with which the effects, about to be produced, will for the
most part correspond in character.

For instance, blindness of one eye will ensue, when the Moon may be
in the before-mentioned angles, either operating her conjunction, or
being at the full: it will also happen should she be configurated
with the Sun in any other proportional aspect, and be at the same
time connected with any one of the nebulous collections in the
zodiac; such as the cloudy spot of Cancer, the Pleiades of Taurus,
the arrow-head of Sagittarius, the sting of Scorpio, the parts about
the mane of Leo, or the urn of Aquarius. Moreover, both eyes will be
injured should the Moon be in an angle, and in her decrease, and Mars
or Saturn, being matutine, ascend in succession to her; or, again,
if the Sun be in an angle, and these planets pre-ascend before him,
and be configurated with both luminaries, whether the luminaries be
in one and the same sign, or in opposition; provided also the said
planets, although oriental of the Sun, be occidental of the Moon. Under
these circumstances, therefore, Mars will cause blindness by a stroke
or blow, or by the sword or by burning; and, if he be configurated
with Mercury, it will be effected either in a place of exercise or
sport, or by the assault of robbers. Saturn, however, under the same
circumstances, produces blindness by cataract, or cold, by a white
film, or by other similar disorders.

Venus, if in one of the angles before-mentioned, and especially
if she be in that of the west, and Saturn be in conjunction or in
configuration with her, or be changing place with her,[196] while
Mars, at the same time, is in elevation above her, or in opposition
to her, will produce impotence in the native, if a male; and, if a
female, will render her liable to abortion, or to produce children
stillborn, or not capable of being extracted except in mangled parts.
Such misfortunes especially happen under Cancer, Virgo, and Capricorn;
even though the Moon may be in the ascendant, in conjunction with
Mars. And if, under the same circumstances, Venus be also configurated
with Mercury, as well as Saturn, Mars again being in elevation above
her, or in opposition to her, the native will be either an eunuch
or hermaphrodite, or devoid of the natural channels and vents.
And, when these positions occur, should the Sun also partake in
the configuration, the luminaries and Venus being all masculinely
constituted, the Moon in her decrease, and the malefics brought up in
the degrees next successively ascending, the males will be born maimed
or crippled, or injured in their private members (particularly under
Aries, Leo, Scorpio, Capricorn, and Aquarius); and the females will
remain childless and unprolific. And it also occasionally happens that
the natives, under such a configuration, are likewise injured in the
face or eyes.

If Saturn and Mercury, in conjunction with the Sun, be in the
before-mentioned angles, the native will have some defect in the
tongue, and stammer or speak with difficulty: especially if Mercury be
occidental, and both he and Saturn configurated with the Moon. Should
Mars, however, be found together with them, he will for the most part
remove the defect in the tongue, after the Moon shall have completed
her approach to him.

Further, should the malefics be in angles, and the luminaries, either
together or in opposition, be brought up to them; or, if the malefics
be brought up to the luminaries, especially when the Moon may be in
her nodes, or in her bend,[197] or in obnoxious signs, such as Aries,
Taurus, Cancer, Scorpio, and Capricorn, the body will then be afflicted
with excrescences, distortions, lameness or paralysis.

[196] This seems to imply, if Saturn be in one of Venus’s places of
dignity, and Venus in one of Saturn’s. Such a counterposition is
technically termed “mutual reception.”

[197] In her extreme latitude, whether north or south.

If the malefics be in conjunction with the luminaries, the calamity
will take effect from the very moment of birth: but should they be in
the mid-heaven, in elevation above the luminaries, or in opposition
to each other, it will then arise out of some great and dangerous
accident; such as a fall from some height or precipice, an attack of
robbers, or of quadrupeds. And thus, if Mars hold dominion, he will
produce the misfortune by means of fire or wounds, through quarrels, or
by robbers; and if Saturn, it will be caused by a fall, by shipwreck,
or by convulsive fits or spasms.

The minor bodily disorders mostly occur on the Moon’s being posited
in a tropical or equinoctial sign; and, if in that of the vernal
equinox, these disorders usually arise from the white leprosy; in that
of the summer tropic, from tetters; in that of the autumnal equinox,
from leprosy; and in that of the winter tropic, from the eruption of
pimples, and similar inconveniences.

Considerable diseases, however, take effect when the malefics may be
configurated in the same situations as those before prescribed, yet
differing in one respect; that is to say, being occidental of the
Sun and oriental of the Moon. In such cases, Saturn will generally
produce cold in the bowels, excessive phlegm, rheumatism, emaciation,
sickliness, jaundice, dysentery, cough, obstruction, colic, or scurvy;
and, in women, besides these diseases, he produces complaints of the
womb. Mars will cause expectoration of blood, atrabilarious attacks,
pulmonary complaints, sores, and diseases in the private parts (which
will be rendered still more painful by surgical burning or incision),
such as fistula, hæmorrhoids, or knots in the fundament, and also
inflamed and putrifying ulcers. In women, to these calamities, he adds
abortion, excision of the fœtus or its mortification.

And, even though these planets should not be properly configurated
towards the particular parts of the body, their qualities will still
operate. Mercury also will act with them, and contribute to the
increase of the evil: thus, if he be in familiarity with Saturn,
he will much augment the coldness, and promote the continuance of
rheumatism, and the disturbance of the fluids; especially in the
chest, throat, and stomach. If in familiarity with Mars, he will tend
to produce greater dryness, and will increase ulcers, abscesses, loss
of hair, scarified sores, erysipelas, tetters, blackness of bile,
insanity, epilepsy,[198] and similar disorders.

[198] Της ιερας νοσου; literally, “the holy disease,” which authors
have explained to mean epilepsy. Perhaps the disease was anciently
called holy, because the patient, when possessed by the fit, seemed to
be under the influence of some supernatural agency.

Some of the properties, peculiar to disease, arise out of the
various character of the signs which may contain the above mentioned
configurations in the two angles. Thus Cancer, Capricorn, and Pisces,
and, in short, all signs ascribed to terrestrial animals and fishes,
appropriately cause diseases of putridity, tetters, excoriation,
scrofula, fistula, leprosy, and the like; while Sagittarius and Gemini
produce disease by falling fits and epilepsy. And if the planets happen
to be posited in the latter degrees of the signs containing them, the
extremities of the body will then be chiefly affected by the disease or
hurt; which will arise from humours or accidents, producing leprosy,
gout, or other infirmities, in the hands and feet.

Under the circumstances above detailed, the disease or hurt will
be incurable, provided there shall be not one of the benefics in
configuration with the malefics which effect the evil, nor with the
luminaries posited in angles; and even though the benefics may be so
configurated, the misfortune will still be incapable of remedy, if the
malefics be well fortified, and in elevation above them.

Should the benefics, however, hold principal situations, and be in
elevation above the obnoxious malefics, the disease or hurt will then
be moderate, and have neither deformity nor disgrace attached to it;
and it will sometimes be altogether prevented and set aside, if the
benefics be oriental. Jupiter, for instance, by means of human aid,
such as wealth or rank can command, will conceal and soothe hurts
and diseases; and, if Mercury be joined with him, the assistance
will be further improved by the addition of skilful physicians and
good medicine. Venus, likewise, through the mediation of deities and
oracles, will cause hurts to appear in a manner neither ungraceful nor
unbecoming, and will ameliorate diseases by medicines granted by the

Lastly, should Saturn be present in the configuration, the afflicted
persons will move abroad to show their maladies, and to complain; and
if Mercury also be present, they will do so for the sake of deriving
support and profit from the exhibition.



The consideration of circumstances applicable to the body is practised
under the foregoing rules.

Of the spiritual qualities, however, all those which are national and
intellectual are contemplated by the situation of Mercury; while all
others, which regard the mere sensitive faculties, and are independent
of reason, are considered rather by other luminaries of a less subtle
constitution and more ponderous body; for instance, by the Moon and
such stars as she may be configurated with, as well by separation,[199]
as by application.

[199] That is to say, in the commencement of her separation from the
aspect or conjunction of such stars.

Now the mind is liable to impulse in a multiplicity of directions, and
the investigation of them cannot be summarily nor hastily performed,
but must be conducted by means of many various observations: for the
different qualities of the signs, containing Mercury and the Moon, or
such stars as hold any influence over those two, are well competent
to contribute towards the properties of the mind; so likewise are the
configurations made with the Sun and the angles, by stars bearing any
relation to the point in question; besides, also, the peculiar nature
exercised by each star in operating upon the mental movements.

Thus, the tropical signs generally dispose the mind to enter much into
political matters, rendering it eager to engage in public and turbulent
affairs, fond of distinction, and busy in theology; at the same time,
ingenious, acute, inquisitive, inventive, speculative, and studious of
astronomy and divination.

Bicorporeal signs render the mind variable, versatile, not easy to be
understood, volatile, and unsteady; inclined to duplicity, amorous,
wily, fond of music, careless, full of expedients, and regretful.[200]

Fixed signs make the mind just, uncompromising, constant, firm of
purpose, prudent, patient, industrious, strict, chaste, mindful of
injuries, steady in pursuing its object, contentious, desirous of
honour, seditious, avaricious, and pertinacious.

Oriental positions, and those in the ascendant, especially if made
by planets in their proper faces,[201] make men liberal, frank,
self-confident, brave, ingenious, unreserved, yet acute. Oriental
stations, and positions on the mid-heaven, or culminations, make men
reflective, constant, of good memory, firm, prudent, magnanimous,
successful in pursuing their desires, inflexible, powerful in
intellect, strict, not easily imposed upon, judicious, active, hostile
to crime, and skilful in science.

[200] The Greek is μεταμελητικους, which means “penitent,” or “prone to
repentance,” or “to subsequent regret.” It is difficult to convey its
precise meaning in the text.

[201] _Vide_ Chapter XXVI, Book I.

Precedent and occidental positions make men unsteady, irreverent,
imbecile, impatient of labour, easily impressed, humble, doubting,
wavering, boastful, and cowardly, slothful, lazy, and hard to rouse.
Occidental stations, and positions on the lower heaven (as well as
Mercury and Venus, when making vespertine descension by day, and rising
in the night), will render the mind ingenious and sagacious, but not
capable of great recollection, nor very industrious; yet inquisitive
in occult matters, such as magic and sacred mysteries; also studious
of mechanics, and mechanical instruments: addicted to the observation
of meteors, to philosophy, to augury by means of birds, and to the
judgment of dreams.

Further, should the planets having dominion be in places of their
own, and in conditions suitable to their own qualities, the mental
properties will be rendered exquisite, unimpeded, and successful: and
especially if these planets rule at the same time over both places;
that is to say, be by some mode configurated with Mercury, and
holds separation from, or application to the Moon. Should the said
planets, however, not be thus constituted, but be posited in places
not particularly appropriate to themselves, they will yet, even then,
infuse into the composition of the mental energy the properties of
their own nature; but obscurely and imperfectly, and not with such
force and strong evidence as in the other case.

The peculiar qualities of planets in dominion, or in elevation, are
powerfully impressed upon the mental energy: for instance, persons,
who, in consequence of the familiarity of the malefics, become
wicked and dishonest, have their impulse to commit evil, free and
unrestrained, when the said familiarity is not governed by any contrary
influence. But, should a contrary condition impede and govern that
familiarity, the impulse will be frustrated, and the culprits will
be easily overtaken, and undergo punishment. In like manner, persons
endowed with goodness and virtue, by the familiarity between the
benefics and the before-mentioned places,[202] and when no contrary
influence in elevation may interpose, will exert themselves with
cheerfulness and alacrity in performing good actions, will be subject
to no injustice, but enjoy the advantages of their honesty and virtue.
If, however, this familiarity should be superseded by some contrary
condition, the very mildness and humanity of these persons will operate
to their disadvantage, exposing them to contempt and accusation, and
rendering them liable to be wronged by the multitude.

[202] That of Mercury, and that of the Moon.

The foregoing observations, relative to the moral habit, apply
generally; and the particular properties, created in the mental
energies by the actual nature of the planets, according to the
respective dominion of each, remain to be treated of.

The planet Saturn, therefore, when alone possessing dominion of the
mind, and governing Mercury and the Moon, and if posited in glory,
both cosmically and with respect to the angles,[203] will make men
careful of their bodies,[204] strong and profound in opinion, austere,
singular in their modes of thinking, laborious, imperious, hostile to
crime, avaricious, parsimonious, accumulators of wealth, violent, and
envious: but, if he be not in glory, cosmically, and as regards the
angles, he will debase the mind, making it penurious, pusillanimous,
ill-disposed, indiscriminating, malignant, timorous, slanderous, fond
of solitude, repining, incapable of shame, bigoted, fond of labour,
void of natural affection, treacherous in friendship and in family
connections, incapable of enjoyment, and regardless of the body.[205]
Connected with Jupiter in the mode before-mentioned, being also
situated in glory, Saturn will render the mind virtuous, respectful,
well-intentioned, ready to assist, judicious, frugal, magnanimous,
obliging, solicitous of good, affectionate in all domestic ties, mild,
prudent, patient, and philosophical: but, if thus connected and posited
ingloriously, he makes men outrageous, incapable of learning, timorous,
highly superstitious, yet regardless of religion, suspicious, averse
to children, incapable of friendship, cunning, misjudging, faithless,
foolishly wicked, irascible, hypocritical, idle and useless, without
ambition, yet regretful, morose, highly reserved, over-cautious, and
dull. Conciliated with Mars, and posited in glory, Saturn renders men
reckless, over-diligent, free in speech, turbulent, boastful, austere
in their dealings, pitiless, contemptuous, fierce, warlike, bold,
fond of tumults, insidious, deceitful, and implacable; promoters of
faction, tyrannical, rapacious, hostile to the commonwealth, delighting
in strife, vindictive, profound in guilt, strenuous, impatient,
insolent, mischievous, overbearing, evil, unjust, obstinate, inhuman,
inflexible, immutable in opinion, busy, able in office, active,
submitting to no opposition, and on the whole successful in their
undertakings; but, if thus connected, and not placed in glory, he
will make men plunderers, robbers, adulterers, submissive to evil,
seeking gain by their turpitude, infidels in religion, void of the
common affections, mischievous, treacherous, thievish, perjurers, and
sanguinary; eaters of unlawful food, familiar with guilt, assassins,
sorcerers, sacrilegious, impious, violators of the tomb, and, in short,
thoroughly depraved. Conciliated with Venus, and being again in glory,
Saturn makes men averse to women, and renders them fond of governing,
prone to solitude, highly reserved, regardless of rank, indifferent to
beauty, envious, austere, unsociable, singular in opinion, addicted
to divination and to religious services and mysteries; solicitous
of the priesthood, fanatical, and subservient to religion; solemn,
reverential, sedate, studious of wisdom, faithful in friendship,
continent, reflective, circumspect, and scrupulous in regard to female
virtue: but, if he be thus conciliated, and not posited in glory, he
makes men licentious and libidinous, practisers of lewdness, careless,
and impure in sexual intercourse; obscene, treacherous to women,
especially to those of their own families; wanton, quarrelsome, sordid,
hating elegance; slanderous, drunken, superstitious, adulterous,
and impious; blasphemers of the gods, and scoffers at holy rites;
calumniators, sorcerers, hesitating at nothing. If conciliated with
Mercury, and if in a glorious position, Saturn makes men inquisitive,
loquacious, studious of law and of medicine, mystical, confederate in
secrecy, fabricators of miracles, impostors, improvident, cunning,
familiar with business, quick in perception, petulant, accurate,
vigilant, meditative, fond of employment, and tractable: but, if
connected with Mercury, and not posited gloriously, he causes men to
be frivolous, vindictive, laborious, alienated from their families,
fond of tormenting, and void of enjoyment; night-wanderers, insidious,
treacherous, pitiless, and thievish; magicians, sorcerers, forgers
of writings, cheats, unsuccessful in their undertakings, and quickly
reduced to adversity. Such are the effects of Saturn.

[203] This seems to imply, if well placed in elevation; as, in the
mid-heaven, for instance, or in a conspicuous situation; and in
possession of dignities.

[204] Or, persons: the Greek is φιλοσωματους.

[205] Or, persons: μισοσωματονς.

When Jupiter alone has dominion of the mind, and is gloriously
situated, he renders it generous, gracious, pious, reverent, joyous,
courteous, lofty, liberal, just, magnanimous, noble, self-acting,
compassionate, fond of learning, beneficent, benevolent, and calculated
for government: and, if posited ingloriously, he will endow the mind
with qualities apparently similar to these, but not of such virtue
and lustre: as, instead, of generosity, he will then cause profusion;
instead of piety, bigotry; for modesty, timidity; for nobleness,
arrogance; for courteousness, folly; for elegance, voluptuousness;
for magnanimity, carelessness; and for liberality, indifference.
Conciliated with Mars, and being in glory, Jupiter will make men
rough, warlike, skilful in military affairs, dictatorial, refractory,
impetuous, daring, free in speech, able in action, fond of disputation,
contentious, imperious, generous, ambitious, irascible, judicious, and
fortunate: but, if thus connected, and not placed in glory, he makes
men mischievous, reckless, cruel, pitiless, seditious, quarrelsome,
perverse, calumnious, arrogant, avaricious, rapacious, inconstant,
vain and empty, unsteady, precipitate, faithless, injudicious,
inconsiderate, senseless, and officious; inculpators, prodigals,
triflers, altogether without conduct, and giving way to every impulse.
When conciliated with Venus, and in a glorious position, Jupiter
will render the mind pure, joyous, delighting in elegance, in the
arts and sciences, and in poetry and music; valuable in friendship,
sincere, beneficent, compassionate, inoffensive, religious, fond of
sports and exercises, prudent, amiable, and affectionate, gracious,
noble, brilliant, candid, liberal, discreet, temperate, modest, pious,
just, fond of glory, and in all respects honourable and worthy; but,
if posited ingloriously, when so connected, he makes men luxurious,
soft, effeminate, fond of dancing, indulgent in expenses, incapable
of managing women, yet amorous and lascivious; mean, slanderous,
adulterous, fond of dress, dissolute, dull, wasteful, without energy,
enervated, fond of personal adornment, womanish in mind, yet observant
of holy rites and ceremonies, faithful, harmless, pleasant, affable,
cheerful, and liberal to misfortune. If connected with Mercury, and
posited in glory, Jupiter will render men fit for much business, fond
of learning, and of geometry and the mathematics; poetical, public
orators, acute, temperate, well-disposed, skilful in counsel, politic,
beneficent, able in government, pious, religious, valuable in all
useful professions, benevolent, affectionate in their families, ready
in acquiring knowledge, philosophical, and dignified: but when so
connected, and placed ingloriously, he will produce contrary effects,
rendering men frivolous, empty, contemptible, credulous of falsehood,
senseless, fanatical, trifling, petulant, affectors of wisdom, stupid,
arrogant, pretenders in art, magicians, and vacillating: Yet he will
also produce men skilled in various learning, and of strong memory,
capable of imparting instruction, and pure in their enjoyments.

Mars alone having dominion of the mind, and placed with glory, makes
men noble, imperious, irascible, warlike, versatile, powerful in
intellect, daring, bold, refractory, careless, obstinate, acute,
self-confident, contemptuous, tyrannical, strenuous, stern and able in
government: but, posited ingloriously, he makes men cruel, mischievous,
sanguinary, tumultuous, extravagant in expense, boisterous,
ruffian-like, precipitate, drunken, rapacious, pitiless, familiar with
crime, restless, outrageous, hostile to their families, and infidels in
religion. Should he be conciliated with Venus, and posited in glory,
he renders the mind cheerful, docile, friendly, complacent, joyous,
playful, frank, delighting in songs and dancing, amorous, fond of
the arts, and of dramatic personation, voluptuous, brave, libidinous
in desire, sensible, cautious, and discreet; disposed to free sexual
intercourse,[206] quick in anger, extravagant in expense, and jealous:
but, if he have an inglorious position when thus conciliated, he
makes men overbearing, lascivious, sordid, opprobrious, adulterous,
mischievous, liars, fabricators of deceit, cheats of their own families
as well as others, eager in desire, and at the same time soon satiated,
debauchers of wives and virgins, daring, impetuous, ungovernable,
treacherous, faithless, dangerous, fickle and weak in mind; and
occasionally also wasteful, fond of dress, audacious, and shameless.
Connected with Mercury, and placed in glory, Mars renders men skilful
in command, cautious, strenuous, active, obstinate, yet versatile,
inventive, sophistical, laborious, busy in all things, eloquent,
imposing, deceitful, inconstant, overknowing, maliciously artful, quick
witted, seductive, hypocritical, treacherous, habituated to evil,
inquisitive, fond of strife, and successful; fair dealers with persons
of habits similar to their own, and, in short, altogether mischievous
to their enemies, though beneficial to their friends: but, if Mars be
posited ingloriously, and thus connected, he makes men prodigal, yet
avaricious, cruel, daring, bold, regretful and vacillating; liars,
thieves, infidels in religion, perjurers, and impostors; seditious,
incendiaries, frequenters of theatres, covered with infamy, robbers,
housebreakers, sanguinary, forgers of writings, familiar with crime,
jugglers, magicians, sorcerers, and assassins.

[206] Πρσς μιξιν θηλειων και αρρενων διακειμενσυς.

When Venus rules alone in a position of glory, she renders the mind
benignant, good, voluptuous, copious in wit, pure, gay, fond of
dancing, jealous, abhorring wickedness, delighting in the arts, pious,
modest, well-disposed, happy in dreams, affectionate, beneficent,
compassionate, refined in taste, easily reconciled, tractable, and
entirely amiable: but, if contrarily posited, she renders the mind
dull, amorous, effeminate, timorous, indiscriminating, sordid, faulty,
obscure, and ignominious. Conciliated with Mercury, and posited
with glory, Venus makes men lovers of the arts, philosophical, of
scientific mind and good genius, poetical, delighting in learning
and elegance, polite, voluptuous, luxurious in their habits of life,
joyous, friendly, pious, prudent, fitted for various arts, intelligent,
not misled by error, quick in learning, self-teaching, emulous of
worth, followers of virtue, copious and agreeable in speech, serene
and sincere in manner, delighting in exercise, honest, judicious,
high-minded, and continent in desire as regards women[207]; but, when
so conciliated and posited adversely, she will make men oppressive,
fit for various arts, evil-tongued, unsteady, malevolent, fraudulent,
turbulent, liars, calumniators, faithless, crafty, insidious, practised
in evil, uncourteous, debauchers of women, corrupters of youth,[208]
fond of personal adornment, dissolute, infamous, notoriously offensive
and publicly complained of, yet striving after all things.

Mercury, alone, having dominion of the mind, and being in a glorious
position, renders it prudent, clever, sensible, capable of great
learning, inventive, expert, logical, studious of nature, speculative,
of good genius, emulous, benevolent, skilful in argument, accurate in
conjecture, adapted to sciences and mysteries, and tractable: but,
when placed contrarily, he makes men busy in all things, precipitate,
forgetful, impetuous, frivolous, variable, regretful, foolish,
inconsiderate, void of truth, careless, inconstant, insatiable,
avaricious, unjust; and altogether of slippery intellect, and
predisposed to error.

To these influences and their effects, as above detailed, the Moon
also contributes: for, should she be in the bends of her southern or
northern boundary,[209] she will render the properties of the mind more
various, more versatile in art, and more susceptible of change: if she
be in her nodes, she will make them more acute, more practical, and
more active. Also, when in the ascendant, and during the increase of
her illumination, she augments their ingenuity, perspicuity, firmness
and expansion; but, when found in her decrease, or in occultation, she
renders them more heavy, more obtuse, more variable of purpose, more
timid, and more obscure.

The Sun likewise co-operates, when conciliated with the lord of the
mental temperament; contributing, if he be in a glorious position, to
increase probity, industry, honour, and all laudable qualities; but,
if adversely situated, he increases debasement, depravity, obscurity,
cruelty, obstinacy, moroseness, and all other evil qualities.

[207] Προς αρρενας δε κεκιννμενους και ζηλοτυπους.

[208] Παιδων διαφθορεας.

[209] That is to say, in her extreme latitude, whether south or north.



In connection with the foregoing discussion on the properties of the
mind, the circumstances relating to eminent mental disorders, such as
madness, epilepsy,[210] and others of the like formidable nature, duly
claim attention.

Now, with reference to these, it is always essential to consider the
planet Mercury and the Moon, and to observe in what mode they may
be disposed towards each other, and towards the angles, and also
towards the malefics: for, if the Moon and Mercury be unconnected
with each other, or with the oriental horizon, and provided such
planets as may be adversely and noxiously configurated should be in
elevation above them, or overrule them, or be in opposition to them,
the mental properties will then consequently become impregnated with
various disorders: the characters of which may be clearly known by the
qualities of the stars thus controlling the places.[211]

[210] Epilepsy is defined to be “a conclusive motion of the whole body,
or some parts of its parts, accompanied with a loss of sense.” The
knowledge of this latter effect probably induced the author to rank it
among diseases of the mind.

[211] Of Mercury, the Moon, and the ascendant.

It is true that there are many disorders of a moderate nature, capable
of being distinguished by what has been already stated, in the
preceding chapter, regarding the mental qualities: for it is by the
increase and growth of certain of those qualities, that an injurious
excess is produced; and every irregularity of the moral habit, whether
by deficiency or superabundance, may be fitly termed a moral disorder,
But, at the same time, there are other disorders of so vast and
manifold a disproportion, that they quite, as it were, overpower the
natural course of the intellect and passions of the mind. And of these
greater disorders it is now proposed to treat.

For example, epilepsy generally attaches to all persons born when
Mercury and the Moon may be unconnected either with each other, or
with the oriental horizon, while Saturn and Mars may be in angles and
superintend the scheme; that is to say, provided Saturn be so posited
by day, and Mars by night: otherwise, when the converse may happen in
these schemes, viz. when Saturn may have dominion by night, but Mars
by day (especially if in Cancer, Virgo or Pisces), the persons born
will become insane. And they will become demoniac, and afflicted with
moisture of the brain, if the Moon, being in face to the Sun, should
be governed by Saturn when operating her conjunction, but by Mars
when effecting her opposition; and particularly when it may happen in
Sagittarius and in Pisces.

If the malefics, only, should have ruled the scheme, in the manner
described, the said disorders of the mind will become irremediable,
although at the same time not eminent, but doubtful, and not openly
displayed; but, should the benefics, Jupiter and Venus, be conciliated,
and be posited in eastern parts and in angles, while the malefics may
be in western parts, the disorders, although highly conspicuous, will
then be susceptible to cure. For instance, under Jupiter’s influence,
they will be healed by means of medical or surgical aid, and by diet
and medicine; under Venus, by the guidance of oracles and by divine

Should the benefics, however, be occidental, and the malefics be found
in eastern parts and in angles, the disorders will then become not
only incurable, but most conspicuous: the epileptic persons will then
be subjected to constant fits, and to danger of death; the insane will
become outrageous and unmanageable, breaking away from their families,
raving and wandering in nakedness: the demoniacs and those afflicted
with moisture of the brain will become furious, uttering mysterious
sayings, and wounding themselves.

The several places of position in the scheme also afford co-operation:
for instance, those of the Sun and Mars contribute to insanity; those
of Jupiter and Mercury, to epilepsy; those of Venus, to the fury of
enthusiasm; and those of Saturn and the Moon, to demoniac affections
and moisture of the brain.

It is by such configurations, as those just described, that any morbid
deviation, occurring in the active or reasoning faculties of the mind,
is produced; but a deviation of the passive, or merely sensitive
faculties, is discernible chiefly in the excess and deficiency (as the
case may be) of the masculine and feminine genders; that is to say,
in the superabundance, or deficiency, of the power of either gender,
to produce a conformation agreeable to its own proper nature: and a
knowledge of this latter deviation is to be acquired by means of the
following rules.

When the Sun, instead of Mercury, may be with the Moon, and if Mars,
together with Venus, be then in familiarity with them, in that case,
provided the luminaries only be found in masculine signs, men will
excel in their nature, or, in other words, will possess in full
plenitude the properties becoming their sex; while the properties of
women, who are thus constituted more masculinely and more actively,
will deviate from the usual limits of nature. But, if both Mars and
Venus, or if only one of them, be likewise masculinely situated,
men will be freely and promptly inclined to natural intercourse
and connexion; and women will be, in like manner, licentious and
intemperate in intercourse beyond nature. Their desires will be
practised in privacy, and not openly, should only Venus be situated
masculinely; but shamelessly and publicly, if Mars also masculinely
placed, together with Venus.

But, if the luminaries only be in feminine signs, women will then
possess their natural functions in greater plenitude, and men will
deviate from the limits of nature towards effeminacy and wantonness.
And, if Venus be femininely posited, women will be lustful and
licentious, and men wanton and soft; seeking connexion contrary
to nature; yet in privacy and not openly: but, if Mars be posited
femininely, they will then put their desires in practice shamelessly
and publicly.

The oriental and diurnal positions of Mars and Venus also contribute to
more masculine and more reputable qualities; and their occidental and
vespertine[212] positions to qualities more feminine, and more sordid.

Lastly, if Saturn be in familiarity with them, he will likewise
co-operate, by tending to produce greater impurity and obscenity, and
greater evil altogether; but Jupiter, if in familiarity, tends to
greater decency and modesty, and altogether to better conduct; and
Mercury to greater mobility, diversity, activity, and notoriety of the

[212] Εσπερινοι; perhaps, more properly, _nocturnal_; the word being
used in contrast to ημερινοι, _diurnal_.





All those circumstances have now been set forth, which occur previously
to the birth, as well as at the actual birth, and after it, and which
it seemed necessary to mention, as conducing to a knowledge of the
general quality of the contemperament produced. And of the other
points, now remaining, by which extrinsic events[213] are contemplated,
those regarding the several fortunes of wealth and of rank claim to be
taken first into consideration. Each of these fortunes has a distinct
relationship; for instance, that of wealth relates to the body, and
that of rank to the mind.

[213] That is to say, such events as are independent of the will, and
not necessarily consequent on any peculiar conformation of the mind or



The circumstances regulating the fortune of wealth are to be judged
of from that part alone, which is expressly denominated the Part of
Fortune; the position of which is, in all cases, whether arising in the
day or in the night, always as far removed from the ascendant as the
Sun is distant from the Moon.[214]

[214] _Vide_ Chapter XIII of the 3rd Book.

When the Part of Fortune has been determined, it must be ascertained to
what planets the dominion of it belongs; and their power and connexion,
as also the power and connexion of others configurated with them, or in
elevation above them, whether of the same or of an adverse condition,
are then to be observed: for, if the planets which assume dominion of
the Part of Fortune be in full force, they will create much wealth, and
especially should the luminaries also give them suitable testimony in

In this manner, Saturn will effect the acquirement of wealth by means
of buildings, agriculture, or navigation; Jupiter, by holding some
government, or office of trust, or by the priesthood; Mars, by the
army and military command; Venus by means of friends, by the dowry of
wives, or by other gifts proceeding from women[215]; and Mercury by the
sciences and by trade.

Should Saturn, however, when thus in influence over the fortune of
wealth, be also configurated with Jupiter, he particularly provides
wealth through inheritance; especially, if the configuration should
exist in the superior angles, Jupiter being also in a bicorporeal sign
and receiving the application of the Moon; for, in such a case, the
native will also be adopted by persons unallied to him, and will become
heir to their property.

And, further, if other stars, of the same condition as those which rule
the Part of Fortune, should likewise exhibit testimonies of dominion,
the wealth will be permanent: but, on the other hand, if stars of
an adverse condition should either be in elevation above the ruling
places, or ascend in succession to them, the wealth will not continue.
The general period of its duration is, however, to be calculated by
means of the declination of the stars, which operate the loss, in
respect of the angles and succedent houses.[216]

[215] I have considered the words, γυναικειων δωρερεων, as comprising
“_the dowry of wives_,” as well as other “_gifts from women_.”

[216] That is to say, its duration will depend on the time requisite
to complete the arc of direction or prorogation between the stars,
operating the loss, and the places which give the wealth. And the
calculation is to be made as pointed out in the 14th and 15th Chapters
of the 3rd Book.



The disposition of the luminaries and the respective familiarities,
exercised by the stars attending them, are to be considered as
indicative of the degree of rank or dignity.[217]

For example, should the two luminaries be found in masculine signs and
in angles, or even if only one of them be in an angle,[218] they being
at the same time specially attended by a doryphory[219] composed of
all the five planets; the Sun by such as are oriental, but the Moon by
occidental, the persons then about to be born will consequently become
kings or princes. And, if the attendant stars themselves should also
be in angles, or configurated with the angle above the earth,[220] the
said persons will become great, powerful, and mighty in the world: and
even yet more abundantly so, provided the configurations, made by the
attendant stars with the angles above the earth, be dexter. But, when
both luminaries may not be found in masculine signs as aforesaid, but
the Sun only in a masculine and the Moon in a feminine sign, and only
one of them posited in an angle, the other concomitant circumstances
still existing in the mode above described, the persons about to be
born will then become merely chieftains, invested with the sovereignty
of life and death.

[217] It seems that there have been different opinions on this point.
Placidus makes the following remark on the subject: “I do not take
the dignities from the horoscope, but from the Sun and Medium Cœli,
according to Ptolemy and others.” (Cooper’s Translation, p. 121.)

[218] The Perugio Latin, of 1646, says, “If either both luminaries, or
only that one of the _chief quality_” (which Whalley defines to be the
Sun by day, and the Moon by night) “be in an angle,” &c.

[219] _Doryphory._ _Vide_ Chapter V of the 3rd Book. On the present
passage, Placidus has the following words: “You are not to observe
what is generally alleged by professors, respecting the satellites”
(_quasi_ doryphory) “of the luminaries, for dignities; viz. that the
satellites are those planets which are found within 30°, on either side
of the luminaries; but that a satellite is (also) any kind of aspect
of the stars to the luminaries of what kind soever: which, if it be
made by application, its power extends inwardly over the whole orb of
light of the aspecting planet, and the more so, as the proximity is
greater; but, by separation, it is not so. This doctrine may be seen
in several chapters of Ptolemy; for, an aspecting star influences the
significator, and disposes him to produce effects co-natural to him,
by a subsequent direction. But a star of no aspect does not predispose
the significator, and produces very little or no effect of its nature,
by a subsequent direction; this is the true doctrine of the stars.”
(Cooper’s Translation, pp. 124, 125.)

[220] The angle of the mid-heaven; see the first note to this Chapter.

And if the attendant stars, while the luminaries may be situated in
the manner last-mentioned, should be neither actually in angles, nor
bear any testimony to the angles, the persons then born, although they
will still enjoy eminence, will attain only some limited dignity or
distinction; such as that of a delegated governor, or commander of an
army, or dignitary of the priesthood; and they will not be invested
with sovereignty.

If, however, neither of the luminaries be in an angle, and it happen
that most of the attendant stars be either themselves in angles, or
configurated with the angles, the persons then born will not attain to
any very eminent rank; yet they will take a leading part in ordinary
civil and municipal affairs: but, should the attendant stars have
no configuration with the angles, they will then remain altogether
undistinguished and without advancement; and provided, further, that
neither of the luminaries be found situated in a masculine sign, nor
in an angle, nor be attended by any benefics, they will be born to
complete obscurity and adversity.

The general appearance of exaltation or debasement of rank is to
be contemplated as before stated, but there are many gradations
intermediate to those already specified, and requiring observation
of the particular interchanges and variations, incidental to the
luminaries themselves and their doryphory, and also to the dominion of
the planets which compose their doryphory. For instance, should the
benefics, or stars of the same condition, exercise the chief dominion,
the dignities to be acquired will be not only important, but also more
securely established; and, on the other hand, if the chief dominion
be claimed by the malefics, or by stars of an adverse condition, the
dignities will be more subordinate, and more dangerous and evanescent.

The species of dignity may be inferred by observing the peculiar
qualities of the attendant stars. And, if Saturn have chief dominion
of the doryphory, the power and authority derived therefrom will lead
to wealth and profit: authority proceeding from Jupiter and Venus will
be pleasurable, and attended by presents and honours: that proceeding
from Mars will consist in commanding armies, in obtaining victories,
and in overawing the vanquished: and that proceeding from Mercury will
be intellectual, superintending education and study, and directing the
management of business.



The dominion of the employment, or profession, is claimed in two
quarters; viz. by the Sun, and by the sign on the mid-heaven.

It is, therefore, necessary to observe whether any planet may be
making its oriental appearance nearest to the Sun,[221] and whether
any be posited in the mid-heaven; especially, when also receiving the
application of the Moon. And if one and the same planet possess both
these qualifications, that is to say, make its nearest appearance to
the Sun, and be also in the mid-heaven, that one alone must be elected
to determine the present inquiry: and, likewise, though the planet
should not be thus doubly qualified, but only singly, in whichever
respect, even then that planet alone must still be elected provided
itself alone should possess such single qualification. If, however,
there should be one planet presenting its nearest appearance, and
another in the mid-heaven conciliating the Moon, both must then be
noticed; and whichever of two may have greater sway, and possess
greater rights of dominion, that one must be preferred. But where not
any planet may be found so situated, neither making its appearance as
above described, nor being in the mid-heaven, then that one, possessing
the dominion of the mid-heaven,[222] is to be considered as lord of
the employment: it is, however, only some occasional occupation which
can be thus denoted; because persons, born under such a configuration,
most commonly remain at leisure and unemployed.

[221] See the 4th Chapter of the 8th Book of the Almagest inserted in
the Appendix.

[222] The Greek says merely “that one having the dominion,” without
specifying the place of dominion: the Latin printed at Perugio, is,
however, “_dominum accipe medii cœli_,” which is certainly the sense
required by the tenor of the previous instructions. Whalley also has
similarly rendered it.

What has now been said, relates to the election of the lord of the
employment or profession; but the species of the employment will be
distinguished by means of the respective properties of the three
planets, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and of the signs in which they may
be posited.

Mercury, for instance, produces writers, superintendents of business,
accountants, teachers in the sciences, merchants and bankers: also,
soothsayers, astrologers, and attendants on sacrifices, and, in
short, all who live by the exercise of literature, and by furnishing
explanation or interpretation; as well as by stipend and salary, or
allowance. If Saturn bear testimony jointly with Mercury, persons then
born will become managers of the affairs of others, or interpreters of
dreams, or will be engaged in temples for the purpose of divination,
and for the sake of their fanaticism. But, if Jupiter join testimony,
they will be painters, orators, or pleaders in argument, and occupied
with eminent personages.

Should Venus have dominion of the employment, she will cause persons to
be engaged in the various perfumes of flowers, in unguents and wines,
and also in colours, dyes, and in spices: thus she will produce vendors
of unguents, garland-makers,[223] wine-merchants, dealers in medical
drugs, weavers, dealers in spices, painters, dyers, and vendors of
apparel. If Saturn add his testimony to hers, he will cause persons
to be employed in matters belonging to amusement and decoration; and
will also produce jugglers, sorcerers and charlatans, and all such as
practise similarly. But, if Jupiter join testimony with Venus, persons
will become prize-wrestlers, and garland-wearers,[224] and will be
advanced in honour through female interest.

[223] Among the ancients, a garland was an indispensable decoration
at all public ceremonies, whether civil or religious, and at private
banquets. The making of garlands was, therefore, a considerable

[224] It would seem, from “garland-wearers” being placed here in
connection with “prize-wrestlers” (αθληται), that the author intended
to point out persons competent to obtain the victors’ wreath in
public exhibitions. But it appears that the word σεφανηφορος,
_garland-wearer_, also signifies a person who was annually chosen by
the priests to superintend religious ceremonies, an office similar
to that of high priest. According to Athenæus, the Stephanephorus of
Tarsos was invested with a purple tunic, edged or striped with white,
and wore the laurel chaplet, which Plato, in the treatise _de Legibus_,
describes as being constantly worn by these officers, although the
other priests wore it only during the performance of the ceremonies.

Mars, ruling the employment, and being configurated with the Sun, will
produce persons who operate by means of fire; for instance, cooks,
as well as those who work in copper, brass, and other metals, by
melting, burning, and casting: if Mars be separated from the Sun, he
will make shipwrights, smiths, agriculturists, stonemasons, carpenters,
and subordinate labourers. If Saturn bear testimony, in addition
to Mars, persons will become mariners, workers in wells, vaults or
mines, painters, keepers of beasts or cattle, cooks or butchers,
and attendants on baths or on exhibitions. And, if Jupiter join
testimony, they will be soldiers, or mechanics, collectors of revenue,
inn-keepers, toll-gatherers, or attendants on sacrifices.

Further, should it happen that two arbiters of employment may be found
together, and provided they should be Mercury and Venus, they will then
produce musicians, melodists, and persons engaged in music, poetry,
and songs: they will also produce (especially if changed in their
places)[225], mimics, actors, dealers in slaves, makers of musical
instruments, choristers and musical performers, dancers, weavers,
modellers in wax, and painters. And if Saturn join testimony with
Mercury and Venus, the preparation and sale of female ornaments will
be added to the aforesaid occupations. But, if Jupiter give testimony,
the persons will become administrators of justice, guardians of public
affairs, instructors of youth, and magistrates of the people.

Should Mercury and Mars together be lords of the employment, persons
will become statuaries, armour-makers, sculptors,[226] modellers of
animals, wrestlers, surgeons, spies or informers, adulterers, busy in
crime, and forgers. And, if Saturn also bear testimony in addition
to Mercury and Mars, he will produce assassins, highwaymen, thieves,
robbers lurking in ambush, marauders on cattle, and swindlers. But, if
Jupiter afford testimony, he will engage persons in honourable warfare,
and in industry; making them cautious and diligent in business, curious
in foreign matters, and deriving profit from their pursuits.

[225] Meaning probably “if in mutual reception,” which position has
been before explained.

[226] Or makers of hieroglyphics—ιερογλυφοι.

When Venus and Mars exercise the dominion together, persons will become
dyers, dealers in unguents and perfumes, workers in tin, lead, gold,
and silver, mock combatants or dancers in armour, dealers in medical
drugs, agriculturists, and physicians, healing by means of medicine.
And if Saturn add testimony to Venus and Mars, he will produce persons
attendant on animals consecrated to religion; also grave-diggers and
undertakers, mourners and musicians at funerals, and fanatics occupied
in religious ceremonies, lamentations, and blood. But, if Jupiter
add testimony, the persons will become regulators of sacrifices,
augurs, holders of sacred offices, governors placed over women, and
interpreters; and they will derive support from such occupations.

The properties of the signs, in which the lords of the employment
may be posited, are also influential in varying the employment. For
example, the signs of human shape promote all scientific pursuits, and
such as are of utility to mankind; the quadrupedal signs contribute
to produce employment among metals, in business and trade, in
house-building, and in the work of smiths and mechanics: the tropical
and equinoctial signs tend to give employment in translation or
interpretation, in matters of exchange, in mensuration and agriculture,
and in religious duties: the terrestrial and watery signs tend to
employment in water, and in connection with water, as well in regard to
the nurture of plants, as to ship-building; they likewise contribute to
employment in funerals, in embalming and preserving, and also in salt.

Moreover, should the Moon herself actually occupy the place regulating
the employment,[227] and, after her conjunction, continue in course
with Mercury, being at the same time in Taurus, Capricorn, or Cancer,
she will then produce soothsayers, attendants on sacrifices, and
diviners by the basin.[228] If she be in Sagittarius or Pisces,
she will make necromancers, and evokers of dæmons: if in Virgo or
Scorpio, magicians, astrologers, and oracular persons, possessing
prescience: and, if in Libra, Aries, or Leo, she will produce fanatics,
interpreters of dreams, and makers of false vows and adjurations.

From the foregoing rules, the various forms of employment are to
be inferred; and its magnitude or importance will be manifested by
the existing power of the ruling planets. For instance, if the said
planets be oriental, or in angles, they will give the person eminence
and authority in his employment; but, if occidental or cadent, they
will render him subordinate. And should the benefics be in elevation,
the employment will be important, lucrative, secure, honourable, and
agreeable; but, on the other hand, if the malefics be in elevation
above the lords of the employment, it will then be mean, disreputable,
unprofitable, and insecure: thus, Saturn brings an adverse influence
in coldness or tardiness, and in the composition or mixture of
colours[229]; and Mars produces opposition by audacity and publicity
in enterprise: and both planets are alike hostile to proficiency and

The general period, at which any increase or diminution of the
employment may take place, must, again in this case also, be determined
by the disposition of the stars, which operate the effect towards the
oriental and occidental angles.

[227] That is to say, the mid-heaven; as stated in the 4th Chapter of
the 3rd Book, and in the commencement of the present Chapter.

[228] This mode of divination, as practised by the Greeks, is mentioned
by Potter. It is likewise described by a learned Doctor of Medicine,
Geo. Pictorius Vigillanus (in his Treatise “de Speciebus Magiæ
Ceremonialis,” printed at Strasburgh, 1531), as being used “when the
fraudulent vanity of a dæmon renders things more like each other than
eggs are to eggs.” And, according to this writer, it is practised by
exorcising water, and pouring it into a basin, wherein the vain and
refractory dæmon is immersed: the said dæmon will sometimes remain at
the bottom, and sometimes raise himself to the surface, sending forth a
slender hissing; out of which the desired responses are to be formed.

[229] Κρασεσι των χρωματων.—These words have been rendered literally,
but they seem to contain some figurative meaning, rather than a literal
one. Perhaps the preferable sense of them is, “_by a mixture of
views_,” or “_from various pursuits being blended together_.”



The consideration of circumstances relating to marriage, or the
cohabitation of husband and wife, as sanctioned by law, succeeds to the
foregoing details, and must be pursued in the following method.

With regard to men, it is to be observed in what manner the Moon may
be disposed; for, in the first place, if she be found in the oriental
quadrants, she will cause men either to marry early in life, or, after
having over-passed their prime, to marry young women; “but, should she
be situated in either of the occidental quadrants, men will then marry
either late in life, or to women advanced in age[230]”: and if she be
found under the Sun’s beams, and configurated with Saturn, she then
entirely denies marriage. Secondly, should she be in a sign of single
form, and in application to only one of the planets, she will cause
men to marry only once; but, if she be in a bicorporeal or multiform
sign, or in application to several planets, she will cause them to be
married several times; and, provided also that the planets, which thus,
either by adjacency or by testimony,[231] receive her application, be
benefic, men will then obtain good wives; but if, on the contrary,
the said planets be malefic, bad. For example, if Saturn receive the
Moon’s application, the wives whom he will provide will be troublesome
and morose; but, if Jupiter receive it, they will be decorous and
economical; if Mars, bold and refractory; if Venus, cheerful, handsome,
and agreeable; and, if Mercury, sensible, prudent, and clever.
Moreover, should Venus be found connected with Jupiter, Saturn,[232]
or Mercury, she will render wives provident, and attached to their
husbands and children; but, if she be found connected with Mars, they
will be irascible, unsteady, and indiscreet. Thus far in reference to
the marriage of men.

[230] The words marked with inverted commas are not in the Greek; they
are found, however, in two Latin translations; that of Basle, 1541, and
that of Perugio, 1646.

[231] In other Editions, “whether by conjunction or aspect.”

[232] “_Saturn._” Not found in the Elzevir edition, but in others.

But, in the case of women, the Sun must be observed, instead of the
Moon: and, should he be posited in the oriental quadrants, women
will be married either in their own youth, or to men younger than
themselves; but, if he be in the occidental quadrants, they will either
be married late in life, or to men who have passed their prime, and are
advanced in years. And should the Sun be in a sign of single form, or
configurated with only one oriental planet, he will cause them to enter
into matrimony only once; but, if in a bicorporeal or multiform sign,
or configurated with several oriental planets, he will then cause them
to be often married. And Saturn, being configurated with the Sun, will
provide husbands steadfast, advantageous, and industrious; Jupiter,
such as are honourable and noble-minded; Mars, severe husbands void of
affection and intractable; Venus, amiable and handsome husbands; and
Mercury, such as are provident and expert in business. But, if Venus be
found connected with Saturn, she will indicate dull and timid husbands;
“if with Jupiter, the husbands will be good, just, and modest[233];” if
with Mars, hasty, lustful, and adulterous; and if with Mercury, they
will be extravagantly desirous of young persons.[234]

In regard to the Sun, those quadrants which precede the ascending and
descending points of the zodiac, and, in respect of the Moon, those
which are measured from her conjunction and opposition[235] to her
intermediate quarters, are called oriental quadrants: the occidental
quadrants are, of course, those lying opposite to the oriental.

Whenever both nativities, viz. that of the husband and that of the
wife, may exhibit the luminaries configurated together in concord,
that is to say, either in trine or in sextile to each other, the
cohabitation will most usually be lasting; especially if the said
concord exist by means of interchange[236]; but its duration will be
also much more securely established, provided the Moon in the husband’s
nativity should correspond or agree with the Sun in the wife’s
nativity.[237] If, however, the relative positions of the luminaries be
in signs inconjunct, or in opposition, or in quartile, the cohabitation
will be speedily dissolved upon slight causes, and the total separation
of the parties will ensue.

[233] The words thus marked “ ” are not found in the Elzevir edition,
but appear in the Latin one of Basle, 1541.

[234] Πεpi παιδας επιθυμητικους.

[235] That is to say, from the new and the full Moon.

[236] By mutual reception; according to Whalley, and also according to
the Latin copy of Perugio, 1646.

[237] Meaning, probably, if the Moon in the husband’s nativity
should be in the same position as the Sun in the wife’s nativity, or
harmoniously configurated with that position.

And should the configuration of the luminaries, when made in concord,
be aspected by the benefics, the cohabitation will continue in
respectability, comfort, and advantage; but, on the other hand, it will
abound in strife, contention, and misfortune, if the malefics be in
aspect to the said configuration.

In like manner, even though the luminaries may not be favourably
configurated in concord, should the benefics still offer testimony
to them, the cohabitation will then not be entirely broken off,
nor totally destroyed for ever, but will be again renewed, and
re-established as before. But if, on the contrary, the malefics
bear testimony to such discordant disposition of the luminaries, a
dissolution of the cohabitation will take place, accompanied by scorn
and injury. Should Mercury alone be conjoined with the malefics, it
will be effected by means of some public inculpation; and if Venus also
be found with them, it will be on the ground of adultery, or sorcery,
or some similar offence.

There are, however, other varieties in the married state, which are to
be contemplated by means of Venus, Mars, and Saturn. And should these
planets act in familiarity with the luminaries, the cohabitation will
be appropriate and domestic, and authorised by law; because Venus holds
a certain affinity both to Mars and Saturn: her affinity to Mars, for
instance, consists in each having exaltation in a sign belonging to
the other’s triplicity,[238] and it operates in the cases of youthful
and vigorous persons: while her affinity to Saturn arises from their
respective houses being in the signs, again also, belonging to each
other’s triplicity,[239] and relates to persons of more advanced age.

Hence, if Venus be in concurrence with Mars, she will produce entire
love and affection in the cohabiting parties; and if Mercury also
coincide with the said planets, such affection will become publicly
notorious. Should Venus be found in a sign mutually common and
familiar, such as Capricorn, or Pisces,[240] she will effect marriages
between brothers and sisters and kindred by blood: and, provided she be
also in the presence of the Moon, when the native may be male, she will
cause him to connect himself with two sisters, or other near relatives;
but, if the native be a female, a similar contract on her part, with
two brothers or near relatives, will be indicated, when Venus may be
also with Jupiter.[241]

[238] The exaltation of Venus being in Pisces, and that of Mars in
Capricorn. _Vide_ Chapters XXI and XXII, Book I.

[239] Libra being Venus’s house, and in Saturn’s triplicity; and
Capricorn being Saturn’s house, and in Venus’s triplicity. _Vide_
Chapters XX and XXI, Book I.

[240] _Vide_ Note ¹ in p. 126.

[241] Instead of the Moon.

Again, if Venus be with Saturn, the cohabitation will be established
entirely in happiness and constancy; and if Mercury be present with
them, it will be profitable; but, should Mars be present, it will
be unsettled, calamitous, and afflicted by jealousy. And if Mars be
configurated on equal terms with Venus, Saturn, and Mercury, he will
effect marriage between persons of equal age; but, on the other hand,
should he be more oriental, marriage will take place with a younger
man or woman; and, if more occidental, with an older person. Should
Venus and Saturn be found in signs common to each other, that is to
say, in Capricorn and Libra,[242] marriage will be contracted between
persons kindred by blood: and, when the said position may happen in
the ascendant, or in the mid-heaven, provided the Moon also should
present herself there, men will become connected with their mothers, or
maternal aunts, or with their mothers-in-law; and women with their own
sons, or the sons of their brothers, or with their daughters’ husbands.
But if, instead of the Moon, the Sun should be in concurrence with the
said position, and especially should it happen that the planets in
question may be occidental, men will then connect themselves with their
daughters, or the wives of their sons; and women with their fathers, or
paternal uncles, or the husbands of their daughters.

When the aforesaid configurations,[243] although not existing in signs
of affinity to each other,[244] should be found in feminine places,
they will render the parties obscene, lustful and shameless; for
instance, when found in the anterior and hinder parts of Aries, and
near the Hyades of Taurus, about the urn of Aquarius, in the hinder
parts of Leo, and in the face of Capricorn. And should the last-named
planets, Venus and Saturn, be posited in angles, they will then, if
posited in the first two angles, the eastern and southern, produce
a total exposure of the passions, and cause them to be publicly
canvassed; but, if in the last two angles, the western and northern,
they will produce eunuchs, or persons unprolific, and not possessing
the proper channels of nature.

[242] _Vide_ Note ² in p. 126.

[243] Of the planets before specified.

[244] These are such signs as are connected with each other in any
manner similar to that before described, as connecting Capricorn with
Pisces, and with Libra; or, in other words, signs common to the planets

The passions, liable to operate in males, are to be considered by
observation of Mars: for should he be separated from Venus and Saturn,
but yet, at the same time, be supported by the testimony of Jupiter,
he will make men pure and decorous in sexual intercourse, and incline
them to natural usages only: and, if he attach himself to Saturn only,
he will render them cold in blood and dull in appetite; if, however,
when Saturn and Mars may be thus connected together, Venus and Jupiter
should also be configurated with them, men will then become easily
excited and eager in desire, although they will still be continent,
and restrain themselves in order to avoid reproach. But should Saturn
be absent, and Mars be with Venus alone, or even although Jupiter
also be with her, men will become highly licentious, and attempt to
gratify their desires in every mode.[245] And further, if Venus be
found more occidental, men will connect themselves with low women,
female servants, and aliens or vagabonds; but, should Mars be found
occidental, with women of rank, and gentlewomen; or with women living
with their husbands, or under the protection of men. Thus far with
regard to males.

In the case of females, Venus requires attention: for, if she be
configurated with Jupiter, or with Mercury, she will cause women to be
temperate and pure in sexual intercourse; still, however, when she may
be thus connected with Mercury, if Saturn be not present also, she will
cause them to be easily excited to desire; although they will control
their desires, and avoid reproach. But, should Venus be conjoined
or configurated with Mars alone, she will render women licentious
and lustful; and if, to both these planets, when thus conjoined or
configurated, Jupiter also present himself, Mars being at the same
time under the rays of the Sun, women will then mingle in intercourse
with servants, and persons meaner than themselves, or with aliens,
or vagabonds: but, should it happen that Venus may be under the rays
of the Sun, they will then connect themselves with their superiors
or masters. And, further, should the planets be in feminine places,
or configurated femininely, they will be content with their passive
faculties only.[246]

Saturn, in being conciliated with such positions as those now
described, tends to produce greater obscenity; Jupiter, greater
decency; and Mercury, greater publicity, and greater fickleness, or

[245] The following also occurs here: “και ει μεν o εις τωνασερων
δυτικος, o δε ετερος ανατολικος εσι, και προς ανδρας και γυναικας
εσονται διακειμενοι, ουχ’ υπερβολικως δε, ει δε αμφοτεροι οι ασερες
δυτικοι ευρεθωσι, προς μονον το θηλυ εσονται καταφερεις. θηλυκων δε των
ζωδιων υπαρχοντων εν οις οι ασερες, και αυτοι παοχειν ανεξονται τα του
θηλυος. ει δε αμφοτεροι ανατολικοι ωσι, προς μονον το αρρεν ερμητικως
εξουσι. των δε ζωδιον αρσενικων οντων, προς πασαν αρσενικην ηλικιαν.”

[246] To this the following sentence succeeds: εαν δε αρρενικως
διακειμενοι ωσιν οι ασερες, και προς το ποιειυ.



The next point to be investigated is that concerning children: and, to
accomplish this, observation must be made of the planets posited in,
or configurated with the place on the zenith,[247] or its succedent
house, which latter is called the place of the good dæmon. And should
it happen that not any planets may be present in the said places,
nor configurated with them, it will then be necessary to take into
consideration such as may be in opposition thereto.

[247] The angle of the mid-heaven.

Now the Moon, Jupiter, and Venus are esteemed as givers of offspring;
but the Sun, Mars, and Saturn are considered as denying children
altogether, or as allowing but few: while Mercury, being in quality
common to both parties, lends co-operation to that with which he may be
configurated, and gives offspring, when oriental, but withholds, when

To speak briefly, if the planets, which grant progeny, be so posited as
described,[248] and placed singly, the gift of progeny will be single
only[249]; but should they be in bicorporeal or in feminine signs,
they will grant double offsprings[250]: so likewise if they should be
in prolific or seminal signs, such as Pisces, Cancer, and Scorpio,
they will grant twins, or even more. And provided they should also be
masculinely constituted, as well by configuration with the Sun, as by
being in masculine signs, they will grant male children; but otherwise,
if femininely constituted, female.

But, although the said planets, even if beneath the malefics in
elevation, or, even if found in barren places, or in signs such as
those of Leo and Virgo, will still grant children; yet such children,
thus indicated, will neither be healthy, nor continue in life. Should
it happen, however, that the Sun and the malefics may be in entire
possession of the places above mentioned, viz. that on the zenith,
or the succedent house allotted to the good dæmon; and provided they
be, at the same time, in masculine or barren signs, and the benefics
be not in elevation above them, a total privation of offspring is
thereby indicated; but, should they be in feminine or prolific signs,
or supported by the testimony of the benefics, children will then be
granted; yet they will be liable to disease, and short-lived.

If, however, planets of each condition should be configurated with, and
have prerogative in prolific signs, there will then ensue a loss of
either all the children, or only few, or else the major part of them;
in the same proportion as that in which the planets, bearing testimony
to either condition, may preponderate on one side rather than the
other; by excelling in number, or in influence, in consequence of being
posited more orientally, more genuinely in angles, higher in elevation,
or successively ascending.

When the lords of the aforesaid signs[251] may be such as are givers of
offspring, and be either oriental, or in places proper to themselves,
the children thus granted will become eminent and illustrious: but,
if occidental, or in places not proper to themselves, the children
will then become undistinguished and abject. Should the said lords
also be in concord with the part of fortune, and with the ascendant,
they will render the children amiable, and cause them to be beloved by
their parents, and to inherit their parents’ substance: but, if found
inconjunct, and not in concord with the said parts, the children will
then become odious and mischievous to their parents, and will forfeit
the inheritance of their substance.

[248] The meaning, apparent from the commencement of the chapter, is
this: “Should such planets be in the mid-heaven or its succedent house,
or configurated with either.”

[249] Μοναδικην, single, or one at a birth.

[250] Διδυμογωνιαν, double, or two at a birth.

[251] That on the mid-heaven, and that on the eleventh house.

Further, should the planets which grant progeny be appropriately
configurated with each other, they will promote brotherly love, and
mutual regard and affection among the children; but, if inconjunct,
or in opposition, they will excite in them mutual hatred, deceit, and

The general investigation regarding children is to be conducted
in the foregoing method: but, in order to enquire into particular
circumstances consequent on the above, it will be necessary to assume,
as an ascendant, the position of each planet which gives offspring, and
to observe the separate schemes; drawing inferences therefrom as in the
case of a nativity.



With respect to friendship and enmity, it may be observed that great
and lasting familiarities, or disagreements, are respectively called
sympathies and enmities; while the smaller, such as arise occasionally,
and subsist for a short time only, are denominated casual intimacies
and strifes: the whole are to be contemplated according to the
following rules.

Indications of great and lasting friendships, or enmities, may be
perceived by observation of the ruling places, exhibited in the
respective nativities of both the persons, between whom the friendship
or enmity may subsist. It is consequently essential to observe the
places of the Sun, the Moon, the ascendant, and the part of fortune;
for, should all these in both nativities be in the same signs, or
should either all or most of them be counterchanged in position in
each nativity, and especially should the two ascendants be within the
distance of seventeen degrees from each other,[252] they will create
fixed and indissoluble friendship. On the other hand, should they be
in signs inconjunct, or in opposition, they will produce great and
lasting enmity. If, however, they be not constituted in either of the
modes above mentioned, but merely configurated in signs,[253] they
will then produce minor friendship; provided such configuration exist
by trine or sextile; but, if by quartile, they will excite minor
enmity, so as to take effect at certain particular times, in which
the friendship remains, as it were, inactive and subdued, while the
malefics transit the configuration: and, in a similar manner, enmity
also will be softened and abated, when the benefics may enter upon the

[252] Or, regard each other within the distance of seventeen degrees.

[253] That is to say; if the places of the Sun, &c., in one nativity be
configurated with such parts of the zodiac as are occupied by the Sun,
&c., in the other nativity.

[254] Of any of the four places above described.

The friendship and enmity, which men bear towards each other, may be
classed under three general heads. One kind is suggested by spontaneous
wilfulness; another, by the idea of profit; and another, by pain and
pleasure mutually excited.

And, therefore, should either all or most of the aforesaid places
be in familiarity with each other, friendship of all the three
kinds will be established: so, also, should the places be entirely
without familiarity, similar enmity will be established. If, however,
familiarity, or absence of familiarity (as the case may be), exist
only as regards the places of the luminaries, friendship or enmity
will then be established by spontaneous will; and friendship thus
produced is the best and most secure; while, on the other hand, enmity
so arising is, in like manner, the worst and most dangerous. The
friendship, or enmity, consequent on the familiarity or non-familiarity
of the respective parts of Fortune, will be established on the idea of
profit; and that, consequent on a similar disposition of the respective
ascendants, will arise from pain or pleasure mutually excited between
the parties.

It will, however, be necessary to pay still further attention to the
places in question, in order to observe whether any and what planets
may be in elevation above them, or in aspect to them; because, among
all the said places, that particular one, to which any planet in
elevation, or in succession, may be adjacent, whether in the same
sign, or in the next, will possess the more powerful influence over
friendship or enmity: and whichever place may have its aspecting
planets more powerfully benefic, will operate in a greater degree[255]
to advantage in friendship, and to the relaxation of enmity. The
foregoing instructions are applicable to such friendships or enmities
as are great and lasting.

[255] Than the rest of the places.

But, in the case of others, which subsist only occasionally, and which
have been defined as casual intimacies and strifes, it is essential
to make observation of the motions of the planets, as exhibited by
each nativity; that is to say, the times are to be calculated, on the
completion of which the motions of the planets of one nativity will
cause them to enter on certain places of the other nativity; for it is
at such periods that certain particular friendships and enmities occur,
continuing for a short time, until the said ingress of the planets
shall have passed over.

For instance, Saturn and Jupiter, when making ingress upon each other’s
places, produce friendship by certain agreements, or engagements,
relating either to agriculture or to inheritance: Saturn and Mars
create contention and treachery spontaneously entertained: Saturn and
Venus, friendship between kindred; liable, however, soon to grow cool:
Saturn and Mercury, friendship on account of business, or profit, or
some secret art or mystery.

Jupiter and Mars create friendship in the direction of affairs, and
by means of dignities; Jupiter and Venus also create friendship by
means of female persons, or attendants on religion, or on oracles:
Jupiter and Mercury, friendship by means of eloquence and science, and
philosophical inclinations.

Mars and Venus cause friendship in the course of amours, adultery, and
fornication: Mars and Mercury excite hatred and strife by offences
committed in business and trade, or by sorcery.

And Venus and Mercury produce communion by means of the arts and
sciences, by a mutual interest in literature, or by female persons.

It is in this manner that the planets operate in producing friendship
or enmity. And their comparative intensity or relaxation of vigour is
to be distinguished by the situation of the places, which they occupy,
with regard to the four principal and ruling places[256]: for, should
they be posited in angles, at the places of the respective parts of
Fortune, or at those of the luminaries, they will render the casual
intimacies or strifes more eminent and remarkable; but, if they be
remote from these places, their effects will not be highly conspicuous.
The comparative degree of injury or advantage, liable to be received,
is to be discerned by means of the good or evil properties of such
planets as may be thus in aspect to the aforesaid places.

With respect to servants,[257] the sign of the evil dæmon[258] is
considered as the place to which the disposition ruling over them must
be referred; and it is to be observed what planets are in aspect to
that place, both at the actual time of nativity, and at that of any
ingresses made upon it, or oppositions to it; and also, especially,
whether the lords of the said sign may be configurated in familiarity
with the ruling places of the nativity, or not in familiarity.

[256] Those of the Sun, Moon, Ascendant, and part of Fortune, as before

[257] “—and the attachment, or disagreement, subsisting between them
and their masters”;—so Allatius, and the Latin translation printed at

[258] The twelfth house.



The circumstances indicative of travel are to be considered by means of
the situation held by both the luminaries, in respect to the angles,
and especially, by means of that held by the Moon. For, should she be
descending, or cadent from the angles, she will cause journeys and
changes of residence: Mars, also, if descending, or cadent from the
zenith, will sometimes do the same, provided he may occupy a situation
in quartile, or in opposition to the luminaries. And, if the part
of Fortune, also, should happen to be placed in signs which produce
travelling, the course and practice of the whole life will be engaged
in foreign lands. And further, provided the benefics superintend the
aforesaid places, or ascend in succession to them, the engagements
abroad will be honourable and lucrative, and the return home speedy
and unobstructed: but if, on the contrary, the malefics superintend or
ascend in succession to those places, the journey outward will then
lead to peril and misfortune, and the return will be replete with
difficulty. But it is, at the same time, necessary in all cases to
consider the contemperament also, and to observe such of the existing
configurations as are more predominant.

It most usually happens, that, if the luminaries be posited in the
cadent houses of the oriental quadrants, the travel will take place in
the eastern or southern quarters of the world; and that, if placed in
western situations, or in an occidental quadrant, travel will be then
prosecuted in the northern or western parts. And, should the signs,
which operate travel, be themselves single in form, or should the
planets, having dominion of them, be singly posited, the journeys will
then take place after long intervals, and occasionally only: but, if
the said signs be bicorporeal, or double in form or figure, travel will
be constantly repeated and continued.

Thus, when Jupiter and Venus may be in dominion over the luminaries,
and over the places producing travel, they will render the journeys
agreeable, as well as free from danger: for the traveller will be
joyfully forwarded on his way by the magistrates of the country, and
by the concurrent assistance of friendly persons; the state of the
atmosphere will also be favourable, and he will meet with abundance of
accommodation. And, provided Mercury also be present with the planets
above specified, utility, profit, presents and honours will likewise be
derived from the journey.

Saturn and Mars, if controlling the luminaries, and, especially, if
placed distant from each other,[259] will produce great dangers, and
at the same time render the journey fruitless and unavailing. Should
they be in watery signs, the dangers will arise by shipwreck, or among
deserts and wilderness[260]; if in fixed signs, by precipices, and
adverse blasts of wind; in tropical and equinoctial signs, by want
of food and other necessaries, and by some unwholesome state of the
atmosphere; in signs of human form, by robbery, treachery, and various
depredations; and, if in terrestrial signs, by the attack of wild
beasts, or from earthquakes. And, should Mercury also lend concurrence,
the traveller will incur further danger from accusations made against
him, as well as from reptiles and venomous stings or bites.

The question, whether the events will be advantageous or injurious in
quality, must, however, be further considered by observation (made in
the forms already detailed), of the peculiar properties of the places,
in which the lords of employment, of wealth, of the body, or of rank,
may be posited. And the periods, at which travelling will take place,
are to be considered by the occasional ingress of the five planets.[261]

[259] The probable meaning is, “if not acting in concert”: but the
Latin of Perugio says, “_si sint oppositi secundum longitudinem_.”

[260] There seems a misprint here in the original: δυσωδιων, “foul
vapours,” instead of δυσοδων, “wildernesses.”

[261] On the places indicative of travelling.



It now remains to treat of the kind and species of death. It is,
however, first to be determined, by the rules already delivered
regarding the duration of life,[262] whether death will ensue from an
oriental or occidental position of the predominating influence. And, if
death ensue from some oriental position, or meeting of rays, the place
of such meeting must be observed, and by means of that place the kind
of death is to be distinguished; if from the descension, or setting,
of the significator, or prorogator, the place of descension[263]
must be considered: because death is to be expected conformable in
character to the influences, whatever they may be, which preside over
the said places; or, if not any influences should directly preside, it
will then be conformable to the influences, of whatever kind, which
may be brought first in succession to the places in question: the
configuration of the stars, the property of the aforesaid anæretic
places, and the nature of the signs and of the terms,[264] are, also,
all of them co-operative.

[262] _Vide_ the 14th Chapter of the 3rd Book; on the number of the
modes of prorogation.

[263] That is to say, the sign and degree on the occidental horizon.

[264] See a subsequent note, p. 135, which gives an instance of the
mode in which Placidus applied the power of the terms, in an anæretic

Thus, for example, if the dominion of death be vested in Saturn, he
will produce death by means of lingering diseases; cough, rheumatism,
flux, ague, disorder of the spleen, dropsy, colic, and complaints in
the womb; and, in short, by all such diseases as proceed from the
superabundance of cold.

Jupiter effects death by quinsey, inflammation of the lungs, apoplexy,
spasm, pains in the head, morbid performance of the heart, and by all
diseases arising from the superabundance of air, and from immoderate
and impure respiration.

Mars causes death by constant fevers, semitertians, sudden and
spontaneous wounds, diseases of the kidneys, expectoration of blood,
and hæmorrhages of various kinds; by miscarriage, or abortion, and by
childbirth, by erysipelas, and, in short, by such diseases as proceed
from abundant and immediate heat.

Venus produces death by disorders of the stomach, and of the liver, by
scurvy and dysentry: also by consumption or wasting away,[265] and by
fistula and poison, and by all diseases incident on the superabundance
or poverty of moisture, and its corruption.

Lastly, Mercury causes death to proceed from fury, madness, melancholy,
epilepsy, falling fits, coughs, and obstructions, and by such diseases
as arise from superabundant or disproportionate dryness.

When the lords of death may fully possess their own peculiar and
natural properties, and when neither of the malefics may be in
elevation above them, death will ensue in the modes above detailed,
and in the ordinary course of nature. But a violent and remarkable
death will occur when both the malefics, either in conjunction, or in
quartile or opposition to each other, may be lords of the anæretic
places; or if both, or only one of the two, should attack either both
the luminaries, or even only the Sun or the Moon. In such a case, the
evil character of the death will proceed from the concurrence of the
malefic influence, and its magnitude or remarkable nature from the
additional testimony of the luminaries: its quality, also, will be
known by means of the rest of the planets and stars in configuration,
and by the signs which contain the malefic influence.[266]

[265] Δια σηψεων. Perhaps more properly, putridity or rottenness. The
Perugio Latin translation renders it by “cancer.”

[266] Placidus, in treating of the nativity of Lewis, Cardinal Zachia,
uses these words: “This example also teaches us what the sentiments
of Ptolemy were concerning a violent death; when, in a peremptory
place, both the enemies meet together, it is to be understood, that
in the nativity the violence is sometimes first pre-ordained from the
unfortunate position of the Apheta; at other times quite the contrary.
But, because the direct direction happened to be in the terms of
Mercury, the sickness was attended with a delirium and lethargy, so
that you may perceive this to have been the true cause of the native’s
death.” (Cooper’s Translation, pp. 198, 199.)

Hence, if it happen that Saturn be in fixed signs, and in quartile
or opposition to the Sun, and contrary in condition, he will produce
death by suffocation, occasioned either by multitudes of people, or
by hanging or strangulation: so, likewise, should he be occidental,
and the Moon be succedent to him, he will operate the same effects. If
he be posited in places or signs of bestial form, the native will be
destroyed by wild beasts: and, if Jupiter also offer testimony, being
at the same time badly afflicted, the death will then occur in public,
and by day; for example, by being exposed to combats with wild beasts.
If Saturn be posited in opposition to either of the luminaries in the
ascendant,[267] he will cause death in prison: if he be configurated
with Mercury, and especially if near the constellation of the Serpent
in the sphere, and in terrestrial signs of the zodiac, he will produce
death by venomous wounds or bites, and by reptiles and wild beasts.
And, should Venus also attach herself to Saturn and Mercury thus
combined, death will then ensue by poison or female treachery. If
Saturn be in Virgo or Pisces, or watery signs, and configurated with
the Moon, he will operate death by means of water, by drowning and
suffocation; and, if found near Argo, by shipwreck. Should he be in
tropical or quadrupedal signs, and the Sun be either in conjunction
with him, or in opposition; or if, instead of the Sun, Mars should
so present himself, death will be caused by the fall of houses or
buildings; and, if posited in the mid-heaven, death will happen by
falls from heights or precipices. These are the various effects of
Saturn, when configurated as described.

[267] Ειδε ανθωροσκοπησει προσοιον δηποτε των φωτων: which Allatius has
translated, “if he should be in the ascendant opposed to either of the
luminaries” (_si in horoscopo alteri luminum opponatur_); but the Latin
copy of Basle, 1541, as well as that of Perugio, 1646, give the passage
as now rendered. And it appears in a subsequent place, p. 201 (where
the word ανθωροσκοπων occurs), that it can only be properly translated
“_in opposition to the ascendant_.”

Mars, if in signs of human form, and posited in quartile or in
opposition to the Sun or Moon, and contrary in condition, will operate
death by slaughter, either in civil or foreign war, or by suicide:
if Venus add her testimony, death will be inflicted by women, or by
assassins in the employment of women: and, should Mercury also be
configurated with them, death will happen from robbers, thieves, or
highwaymen. If Mars be in mutilated or imperfect signs, or near the
Gorgon[268] of Perseus, he will produce death by decapitation, or
by mutilation of limb. If found in Scorpio or Taurus, he will cause
death by surgical amputation, burning or searing, or also by spasms
or convulsions. Should he be found in the mid-heaven, either above or
below the earth, death will be inflicted by crucifixion or impalement,
and especially if he be in the vicinity of Cepheus or Andromeda. If
descending, or in opposition to the ascendant,[269] he will produce
death by fire: and, if in quadrupedal signs, by falls and fractures.
Should Jupiter, however, bear testimony to Mars, and be at the same
time afflicted, death will ensue from the wrath of princes and kings,
and from judicial condemnation.

If it happen that the malefics be in concurrence with each other in
the first instance, and afterwards in mutual opposition, in any of
the aforesaid situations, the evil character of the death will be yet
further augmented; but its species or quality, and its dominion, will
depend upon that one which may be in occupation of the anæretic place.
And, if both the malefics claim prerogative in the anæretic places, the
bodies of persons who thus die will be cast abroad without interment,
and will be devoured by beasts and birds: these circumstances will
especially ensue, when the malefics may be found in signs similar in
form to beasts and birds; and provided not any one of the benefics
should offer testimony to the place below the earth,[270] nor to the
anæretic places.

[268] Caput Medusæ.

[269] Ανθωροσκοπων. _Vide_ note ³ in p. 135.

[270] That is to say, the lower heaven, or imum-cœli. Whalley has
translated it, “_above_ the earth,” instead of “_below_”; mistaking νπο
for νπερ.

Lastly, death will occur in foreign lands, when it may happen that
the planets controlling the anæretic places may be posited in cadent
houses; especially if the Moon be present in the said places also, or
if she be found in quartile or in opposition.[271]

[271] On this chapter Whalley makes the following annotations:
“One direction, how malevolent soever, rarely kills; and, in most
nativities, there is required a train of malevolent directions to
concur to death: where several malevolent directions concur so
together, without the aid of intervenings of the benevolents, they fail
not to destroy life.”

“In such trains of directions, the author here distinguisheth between
the killing planet and the causer of the quality of death; for one
planet doth not give both. The foremost of the malevolent train is
the killing place, and shows the time of death; but the following
directions, though benevolent, show the quality. If the train fall
altogether, and none follow, for the quality observe those which
precede, though at a distance and benevolent also; for, though the
benevolent contribute to the preservation of life, yet they frequently
specify the disease which is the cause of death. And with these, our
author tells us, concur the configurating stars, the quality of the
stars and signs, and the terms in which the lords happen. In violent
deaths, the genethliacal positions of the lights are to be observed,
and how the malefics affect them, and (_how they_) are also concerned
by directions in the quality or death.” See also Chap. XIV, Book II.



In addition to the foregoing brief observations, applicable to the
various forms of death, further attention is demanded with respect to
the division of time, which requires to be contemplated in its natural
order and succession.

Now as, in all genethlialogical cases, a certain common and general
arrangement, affecting the region or country and the race or
generation, is pre-supposed to be in operation, to which arrangement
particular inferences, relating to the form of the body, the properties
of the mind, and national habits and variations, must each be
subservient; and as, in these respects, certain causes more general and
predominating are pre-supposed in existence before particular causes,
due care must consequently be taken, in order to make an inference
consistent with the course of nature, to observe always the original
and predominating cause, and never to lose sight of it; lest some
similarity in nativities (if any such should exist) might induce an
assertion when the original predominating cause proceeding from the
region itself has been overlooked, that the native of Æthiopia will
be born of white complexion, and with long and straight hair; or, on
the other hand, that the native of Germany or of Gaul will be black
in complexion, and have curled hair; or, that the said nations are
polished in manners, and cultivate learning, but that the people of
Greece are barbarous and illiterate: and so, in short, of any other
countries; without duly considering the national differences and
variations in their several courses of life. So also, with regard
to the division of time, it is in the same manner essential to
consider the different qualities of the several ages of life, and to
pre-determine the appropriate fitness of every age to such events as
may be expected: in order to avoid the gross error which might arise
from a merely vague consideration of the subject, by attributing
to infancy some deed or circumstance of too complete a nature and
belonging rather to manhood, or by ascribing to extreme old age the
procreation of children, or some other action belonging to youth; and
to adapt, on the contrary, to each separate age such circumstances as
seem, by due observation of the periods, to be suitable and appropriate

The mode of consideration[272] applicable to human nature is
universally one and the same; and it is analogous to the arrangement
of the seven planetary orbs.[273] It, therefore, duly commences with
the first age of human life, and the first sphere next above the earth,
that of the Moon; and it terminates with the final age of man, and the
last of the planetary spheres, which is that of Saturn; and, in fact,
it accordingly happens that the appropriate qualities of each sphere
take effect in a corresponding age of life, each age being subjected to
one particular sphere. These observations are necessary, because the
general divisions of time must be considered by means of the spheres,
as a primary arrangement; although minor distinctions are to be made by
means of the existing peculiarities found in nativities.

[272] With respect to the periodical divisions of time.

[273] It will, of course, be remembered, that the Sun, in the Ptolemaic
astronomy, is counted as a planetary orb.

Hence, the first age of infancy, which endures for four years, agreeing
in number with the quadrennial period of the Moon, is consequently
adapted to her; being in its nature moist and incompact, presenting
rapidity of growth, being nourished by moist things, and possessing
a highly variable habit. Its mental incompleteness is likewise in
accordance with its familiar relation to the Moon, and her operative

The age after this continues for ten years, and accommodates itself to
the second sphere, that of Mercury. In this period, the intellectual
and reasoning faculties of the mind begin to take their character,
imbibing the seeds of learning, and developing, as it were, the
elements and germs of the genius and abilities, and their peculiar
quality. The mind is also roused to discipline and instruction, and to
its first exercises.

Venus corresponds with the next and third age, which lasts throughout
the following eight years, the number of her own period: from her, the
movement of the seminal vessels originates, as well as an unrestrained
impetuosity and precipitancy in amours.

The fourth and adult age next succeeds, and is subject to the fourth
sphere, that of the Sun: it endures for nineteen years, according to
the Sun’s number. Authority of action now commences in the mind, the
career of life is entered upon, distinction and glory are desired, and
puerile irregularities are relinquished for more orderly conduct, and
the pursuit of honour.

Mars, next after the Sun, claims the fifth age, that of manhood,
agreeing in duration with his own period, viz. fifteen years. He
induces greater austerity of life, together with vexation, care, and

Jupiter occupies the sixth sphere, and influences the maturer age,
during the twelve years corresponding to his own period. He operates
the relinquishment of labour, of hazardous employment and tumult, and
produces greater gravity, foresight, prudence, and sagacity, favouring
the claim to honour, respect, and privilege.

Saturn, moving in the last sphere, regulates the final old age, as
agreeing with its chilliness. He obstructs the mental movements,
the appetites and enjoyments; rendering them imbecile and dull, in
conformity with the dullness of his own motion.

The common properties attributable to the various times of life are
subject, in a general manner, to this previous adaptation; but there
are particular periods, arising from the respective peculiarities of
nativities, which also require determination, and must be ascertained
from the ruling prorogations; that is to say, from the whole of them,
and not from any single one only, as in the case of the duration
of life. For example, prorogation made from the ascendant is to be
applied to events affecting the body, and to travelling, or change
of residence; that from the part of Fortune, to incidents affecting
the substance or wealth; that from the Moon, to actions of the
mind, and to communion[274] and cohabitation; that from the Sun, to
dignities and glory; and that from the mid-heaven, to other particular
circumstances of life, such as employment, friendship, and the
possession of children. So that thus, at one and the same time any
single planet, whether benefic or malefic, will not possess the sole
dominion; for many conflicting events frequently occur at the same
period, and a person may, at one and the same time, lose a kinsman,
yet inherit his substance; or be at once ill in health, yet prosperous
and advantageously established in regard to fortune; or be struggling
with adversity and in want, yet, notwithstanding, be also a father
and beget children; or he may experience other similar contrarieties:
because individuals are subject to occurrences which may affect either
the body, the mind, the rank, or the condition of wealth, and which are
not altogether fortunate or unfortunate at the same period. Something
of the kind will, however, frequently happen in cases of perfect good
fortune or distress, when meetings of all the benefics or malefics may
concur in all or most of the prorogations. Still such cases are but
rare, because human nature in general is not subjected to the extremity
either of good or evil, but rather to their moderate alteration and

[274] The Latin copy of Basle, 1541, says, “to marriages.”

The prorogatory places must, therefore, be separately distinguished in
the mode before pointed out; and the planets meeting the prorogations
must again be all taken into consideration: not only those which may be
anæretic (as in the case of the duration of life), nor those only which
may be configurated bodily,[275] or in opposition or quartile, but also
those in trine or sextile. And, first, the times in each prorogation
will be governed by the planet occupying or configurated with the
actual prorogatory degree itself: if, however, there be found no planet
thus constituted, the nearest preceding planet will govern the times
until another, which may be in aspect to the degree following in the
order of the signs, shall take them; and this one, again, will do the
same until the next in succession shall take them.[276] The like rule
obtains with respect to any other planets received into dominion, and
with respect to those in occupation of the terms.

Further, in prorogations of the ascendant, the degrees of distances
will be equal in number to the ascensional times of the particular
latitude; but, in prorogation, from the mid-heaven, to the times of
culmination; and, in other prorogations, they will be in proportion to
the ascensions, or descensions, or culminations, and will depend on
their proximity to the angles; as has been already said in treating of
the duration of life.[277]

[275] “_Bodily_,” or in conjunction.

[276] On this passage, Whalley remarks, “we are to observe in
direction, that the star in exact ray with the prorogator shall be
ruler until the prorogator meets another ray; that then the planet
whose ray it is shall take the dominion, and so on. But if no planet
aspect the hyleg (prorogator) exactly, that which casts its rays before
the prorogator is to be taken for ruler of the time, till another
planet’s ray comes in by direction. And the lord of the term, in
which the direction falls, must be considered as a co-partner in this

[277] _Vide_ Chap. XIV, Book 3.

The arbiters of general times are to be determined by the foregoing
method; but arbiters of annual periods as follows: viz. after
the number of years which have elapsed since the birth has been
ascertained, the amount is to be projected from each place of
prorogation, in the succession of the signs, at the rate of one sign
for a year,[278] and the lord of the last sign[279] is to be assumed
as arbiter. And, with regard to periods reckoned by months, the same
rule is to be observed: for in this case also, the number of the month,
as counted from the month of the nativity, is to be projected from
such places as possess the dominion of the year, in the proportion
of twenty-eight days per sign. So, likewise, in the case of periods
reckoned by days, the number of the day, counted from the day of birth,
must be projected from the monthly places of dominion, allowing for
each sign two days and a third.[280]

[278] The Greek is simply εις τα επομενα κατα ξωδιον; but the context
proves that the entire meaning must be as now given, although the Latin
translation of Perugio renders it “one year to each degree.” Whalley
explains that by annual periods “the author intends profections: for
the taking of which, for every year from the birth, add one sign to
the sign in which the aphetics are at birth, and the sign which ends
at the year desired is the sign profectional for that year, and the
lord of that sign is chronocrator (arbitor) for that year; so far as
the degrees of that sign reach.” For example, if a prorogator at birth
be in 15° of Gemini, to 15° of Cancer serves the first year; but the
first six months are ruled by Mercury, and the last six by the Moon and
Jupiter; and so on.

[279] The Latin translation of Basle, 1541, says, “the lord of that
sign in which the number shall terminate.”

[280] Whalley says here, “let a sign be added for each month to the
sign of the year. So, in the example before proposed, the last 15° of
Gemini, and the first 15° of Cancer, shall serve for the first month:
the last 15° of Cancer and the first 15° of Leo, for the second month;
and so on. And for days, from 15° of Gemini to 15° of Cancer, rules two
days and eight hours after birth, &c.”

Placidus is of opinion, “that Ptolemy, speaking of annual places, is
to be understood of the places of secondary directions; and that when
he speaks of the menstrual, he hints at the places of progressions.”
(Cooper’s Translation, pp. 25 and 57.)

It is, however, necessary to notice the ingresses made on places
allotted to different periods; for they take effect in no small degree
on the events of the period. Thus, the ingresses made by Saturn, on
places of general periods, require special observation; those made by
Jupiter, on places of annual periods; those made by the Sun, Mars,
Venus, and Mercury, on monthly places; and the Moon’s transit over
daily places. It must also be remembered, that arbiters of general
periods are chiefly paramount over the events; and that, to their
influence, the arbiters of particular periods (each of whom acting by
its own proper nature) present either co-operation or obstruction; and
that the ingresses also operate on events, by increasing or diminishing
their force and extent.[281]

[281] Placidus says, that “active ingresses, if they be similar, to
the pre-ordained effects, cause them to influence; if dissimilar, they
either diminish or retard; as Ptolemy has it in the last Chapter of
Book IV.” (Cooper’s Translation, p. 27.)

The general characteristic property, and the duration of the period,
will be indicated by the place of prorogation, as also by the lord of
the general times, and by the planet in possession of the terms; by
means of the familiarity subsisting, from the actual birth, between
each planet, and the places of which they may have respectively
and originally taken dominion. The arbiters of time will also give
indication whether the event will be good or evil, by means of their
own naturally benefic or malefic property and temperament, and by their
original familiarity or variance with the place of which they have
become lords. But the period, at which the event will become more
strongly evident, is shown by the relative positions of the annual and
monthly signs towards the places wherein the causes exist, and also by
the ingresses of the planets.[282]

The mode in which the Sun and Moon may be disposed, in reference to
the signs relating to annual and monthly periods, is also indicative.
For example, should they, from the date of the nativity, be posited in
concord with the operative places, and keep a position of concord at
the ingresses, they will produce good; but, if adversely posited, evil.
And also, if they be not in concord with the said places, and provided
they be contrary in condition, and in opposition or in quartile, to
the transits, they will cause evil: should they, however, not be
in quartile, nor in opposition, but otherwise configurated, their
influence then will not be equally malefic.

Should it happen that the same planets may be lords of the times,[283]
as well as of the ingresses, the effect will be extreme and unalloyed,
if of a favourable nature; and more particularly unmitigated, if
evil. And should the said planets be not only lords of the times, but
likewise hold dominion from the date of the nativity, and provided
also that all the prorogations, or most of them, should tend to, or
depend on, one and the same place, or, should the prorogations not be
so constituted, yet notwithstanding, if the meetings occurring at the
periods be found to be either all, or most of them, benefic or malefic,
they will wholly produce, in all respects, good or evil fortune,

It is in this method, which preserves a natural order and succession,
that times and seasons require to be contemplated.

[282] Placidus observes, that “the primary directions of the
significators to their promittors, and the lords of the terms, Ptolemy
calls the General Arbiters of Times, because they pre-ordain the
general times of their effects; which, as its motion is slow and its
perseverance long, discovers its effects after a very long time; that
is, after months and years. In order that we may know, in this extent
of time, on what particular month and day the effects appear, Ptolemy
proposes these motions for observation, wherein, when the majority of
the causes agree together, then doubtless the effect is accomplished,
or most clearly manifests itself.” (Cooper’s Translation, p. 109.) And
he says afterwards, in speaking of secondary directions, progressions,
ingresses, &c., “these subsequent motions of the causes demand our
greatest attention.” (_Ibid._, p. 110.) In the Appendix to the same
book, at p. 438, the proper equation of time, or measurement of the
arcs of direction, is also treated of, in reference to the 16th canon
of Placidus, which is as follows:—

“_To equate the Arc of Direction._ Add the arc of direction to the
right ascension of the natal Sun; look for this sum in the table
of right ascensions under the ecliptic, and take the degree and
minute of longitude corresponding with that sum; then, in the best
ephemeris, reckon in how many days and hours the Sun, from the day and
hour of birth, has arrived at that degree and minute. The number of
days indicate as many years; every two hours over, reckon a month.”
(_Ibid._, p. 55.)

[283] Whether general or annual.

And now, in adverting to the scope allotted to this work in its
commencement, all further adaptation of the forms of events liable to
take effect at particular times will here be relinquished; because the
operative influences which the stars exercise in all events, whether
general or particular, may be arranged in proper order, if care be
taken that the causes set forth by the Rules of Science, and the causes
arising from any existing commixture, be duly combined and blended





The various constellations of the fixed stars having now been duly
described, their aspects remain to be investigated.

Independently of the steadfast and immutable aspects which the said
stars preserve among themselves, either rectilinearly, or triangularly,
or by other similar forms,[284] they have also certain aspects
considered as referring exclusively to the planets and the Sun and
Moon, or parts of the zodiac; certain others to the earth only; and
others, again, to the earth, the planets and the Sun and Moon, or parts
of the zodiac, combined.

[284] That is to say, by the opposition, trine, &c.

With regard to the planets only, and parts of the zodiac, aspects are
properly considered as made to them by the fixed stars, when the said
planets and fixed stars may be posited on one and the same of those
circles which are drawn through the poles of the zodiac; or, also, if
they be posited on different circles, provided a trinal or sextile
distance between them may be preserved; that is to say, a distance
equal to a right angle and a third part more, or a distance equal to
two-thirds of a right angle; and provided, also, that the fixed stars
be on such parts of the circle as are liable to be transited by any one
of the planets. These parts are situated within the latitude of the
zodiac, which circumscribes the planetary motions. And as far as the
five planets are concerned, the aspects of the fixed stars depend upon
the visible mutual conjunctions, or configurations, made in the forms
above prescribed; but, with respect to the Sun and Moon, they depend
on occultations, conjunctions, and succedent risings of the stars.
Occultation is when a star becomes invisible by being carried under
the rays of the luminary; conjunction, when it is placed under the
luminary’s centre; and succedent rising, when it begins to reappear on
issuing out beyond the rays.

In regard to the earth only, the aspects of the fixed stars are four in
number, and are known by the common term of angles: to speak, however,
more particularly, they are the oriental horizon, the meridian or
mid-heaven above the earth, the occidental horizon, and the meridian
or mid-heaven below the earth. And in that part of the earth where
the equator is in the zenith, the whole of the fixed stars are found
to rise and set, and to be above as well as below the earth, once in
each revolution; because the situation of the poles of the equator,
being in this manner on the plane of the horizon, thereby prevents the
constant visibility or invisibility of any one of the parallel circles.
But in other parts of the earth, where the pole of the equator is in
the zenith, the fixed stars can never set nor rise; because the equator
itself is then on the plane of the horizon, and circumscribes the two
hemispheres (which it thus creates, one above and the other below the
earth) in such a manner, that in one revolution every star must twice
transit the meridian, some of them above, others below the earth. In
other declinations, however, between these extreme positions of the
equator, as just mentioned, there are certain of the circles always
visible, and others never visible; consequently, the stars intercepted
between the first of such circles and the poles can neither rise not
set, but must, in the course of one revolution, twice transit the
meridian; above the earth, if the said stars be on a circle always
visible; but below the earth, if on a circle never visible. The other
stars, however, situated on the greater parallels, both rise and
set, and are found in each revolution once on the meridian above the
earth, and once on that below the earth. In all these cases, the time
occupied in proceeding round from any angle to the same again, must
be everywhere equal in its duration, for it is marked by one sensible
revolution; and the time occupied in passing from either meridianal
angle to the angle diametrically opposite, is also everywhere equal;
because it is marked by the half of one revolution. So, also, the
passage from either horizontal angle to its opposite angle is again
effected in the same equal portion of time, wherever the equator may
be in the zenith, for it is then likewise marked by the half of an
entire revolution; because on such a position of the equator, all the
parallels are then divided, as well by the horizon as by the meridian,
into two equal parts. But in all other declinations, the time of
passage of a semicircle above the earth is not equal to that of its
passage below the earth, except only in the case of the equinoctial
circle itself, which, in an oblique sphere, is the only one divided
by the horizon into two equal parts, all others (its parallels) being
bisected into dissimilar and unequal arcs. It follows, accordingly,
that the time contained in the space between rising or setting, and
either meridian, must be equal to the time between the _same_ meridian
and rising and setting; because the meridian divides equally such
portions of the parallels as are above or under the earth. But in
proceeding in an _oblique_ sphere, from rising or setting to _either_
meridian, the time occupied must be unequal; and in a right sphere,
equal, because the entire portions above the earth are, in a _right_
sphere only, equal to those below the earth; whence, for instance, in a
right sphere, whatever stars may be together on the meridian must also
all rise and set together, until their progress becomes perceptible
by the poles of the zodiac; while, on the other hand, in an oblique
sphere, whatever stars may be together on the meridian can neither all
rise together nor set together; for the more southern stars must always
rise later than those which are more northern, and set earlier.[285]

[285] On this side of the equator.

The aspects made by the fixed stars, in regard to the planets or parts
of the zodiac, and the earth combined, are considered, in a general
manner, by the rising, or meridianal position, or setting of the same
fixed stars in conjunction with any planet or part of the zodiac; but
their aspects are properly distinguishable, by means of the Sun, in the
nine following modes:—

1. The first is called matutine subsolar, when the star is found
together with the Sun in the oriental horizon. Of this aspect, one
species is called the oriental, invisible, and succedent rising; when
the star, at the commencement of its occultation, rises immediately
after the Sun: another is called the precise oriental co-rising; when
the star is found in partile conjunction with the Sun in the oriental
horizon: another is the oriental, precedent, and visible rising; when
the star, beginning to appear, rises before the Sun.

2. The second aspect is termed matutine location in the mid-heaven;
when the star is found on the meridian, either above or below the
earth, while the Sun is on the oriental horizon. And of this aspect,
one species is called a succedent and oriental location in the
mid-heaven, invisible; when, immediately after the Sun’s rising, the
star shall be found on the meridian: another is the precise oriental
location in the mid-heaven; when, exactly as the Sun rises, the star
is at the same time on the meridian; another is the oriental precedent
location in the mid-heaven; when the star first shall come to the
meridian above the earth, and the Sun may then immediately rise.

3. The third, called matutine setting, is when the Sun may be actually
in the oriental horizon, but the star in the occidental. One of the
forms of this aspect is called the oriental, succedent setting,
invisible; when the star sets immediately after the Sun’s rising:
another is the precise oriental co-setting, when the star sets at the
moment of the Sun’s rising: another is the oriental, precedent, and
visible setting, when the Sun does not rise until immediately after the
setting of the star.

4. The fourth aspect is named meridianal subsolar, and takes place
when the Sun is actually on the meridian, but the star on the oriental
horizon. Of this, one is diurnal and invisible; when the star rises
while the Sun is posited on the meridian above the earth: another is
nocturnal and visible; when the star rises while the Sun is placed on
the meridian below the earth.

5. The fifth is called meridianal location in the mid-heaven; when the
Sun, as well as the star, may be at the same time on the meridian. Of
this aspect, two sorts are diurnal and invisible; when the star is on
the meridian above the earth, together with the Sun, or on that below
the earth, diametrically opposite to the Sun. Two also are nocturnal,
and of these, one is invisible; when the star is on the meridian under
the earth, together with the Sun: the other, however, is visible; when
the star is on the meridian above the earth, diametrically opposite to
the Sun.

6. The sixth is meridianal setting; when the star is found on the
occidental horizon, while the Sun is on the meridian. Of this, one
species is diurnal and invisible; when the star sets while the Sun is
above the earth on the meridian: the other is nocturnal and visible;
when the star sets while the Sun is on the meridian below the earth.

7. The seventh aspect is called vespertine subsolar; when the star
is found on the oriental horizon, while the Sun is posited on the
occidental horizon. One form of this aspect is the vespertine succedent
rising, visible; when the star rises immediately after sunset: another
is the precise vespertine co-rising; when the star rises and the Sun
sets at one and the same time: another is the precedent, vespertine
rising, invisible; when the star rises immediately before the Sun sets.

8. The eighth is named vespertine location in the mid-heaven; when
the star is on the meridian, either above or below the earth, while
the Sun is placed on the occidental horizon. Of this aspect, one kind
is called a visible vespertine location in the mid-heaven; when the
star is found there immediately after sunset: another is the precise
vespertine location in the mid-heaven; when the star is found there
at the moment of sunset; another is the vespertine precedent location
in the mid-heaven, invisible; when the star arrives there immediately
before sunset.

9. The ninth aspect is called vespertine setting; when the star,
together with the Sun, is on the occidental horizon. One form of this
aspect is the vespertine, succedent and visible setting; when the star,
at the commencement of its occultation, sets immediately after the Sun:
another is the precise vespertine setting; when the star sets at the
same moment with the Sun: another is the precedent, invisible setting;
when the star, before it emerges from its occultation, sets before the



_Of Circumstances regulated by Ascensions_

In any climate whatever, the magnitude of a given day or night is to be
computed by the number of ascensional times proper to that particular
climate. For example, the magnitude of the day will be ascertained by
numbering the times between the Sun’s zodiacal degree and the degree
diametrically opposite, in the succession of the signs; and that of the
night, by numbering the times, from the degree diametrically opposite
to the Sun, onwards, in the order of the signs, to be the degree
actually occupied by the Sun: because, by dividing the respective
amounts of these times so obtained, by fifteen, the number of
equatorial hours belonging to each space will be exhibited; and if the
division be made by twelve, instead of fifteen, the result will show
the numbers of degrees equivalent to one temporal hour of either of the
said spaces respectively.[286]

The magnitude of any temporal hour may be, however, more easily found
by referring to the annexed Table of Ascensions, and taking the
difference between the respective aggregate numbers, inserted therein
under the heads of the equinoctial parallel or right sphere, and of
any particular climate for which the magnitude of the temporal hour is
required; and, if the said hour be a diurnal hour, the aggregate times
as stated against the zodiacal degree occupied by the Sun; but, if
nocturnal, those stated against the degree diametrically opposite, are
to be compared; and the sixth part of the difference between them is to
be added, if the said degree be in the northern signs, to the fifteen
times of an equatorial hour; but subtracted therefrom, if in the
southern signs. The amount thus obtained will be the required number of
degrees of the temporal hour in question.[287]

[286] Thus (according to the Table inserted at p. 152), in the climate
or latitude of Lower Ægypt, the times of ascension between the first
point of Gemini and the first point of Sagittarius, diametrically
opposite, are 205° 18′, which, being divided by 15, give 13 hours 41
minutes and a fraction of equatorial time, as the length of the day of
the first point of Gemini. And the same number of times of ascension,
divided by 12, give 17° 6′ and a fraction of the equator, as the length
of the diurnal temporal hour. In the latitude of Southern Britain, the
times of ascension between the same points as above mentioned are 236°
2′, which, divided by 15, give 15 hours 44 minutes and a fraction of
equatorial time, as the length of the day of the first point of Gemini;
and, if divided by 12, they produce 19° 40′ and a fraction of the
equator, as the length of the diurnal temporal hour.

[287] Thus, the aggregate times of ascension, in a right sphere, of
the first point of Gemini are 57° 44′; and, in the climate of Lower
Ægypt, 45° 5′: the sixth part of the difference between them is 2° 6′
and a fraction, which, added to 15°, again makes the diurnal temporal
hour of the first point of Gemini equal to 17° 6′ and a fraction of
the equator. In the climate of Southern Britain, the aggregate times
of ascension of the first point of Gemini are 29° 43′: the sixth part
of the difference between that sum and 57° 44′ of right ascension is
4° 40′ and a fraction, which, added to 15°, makes the diurnal temporal
hour of the first point of Gemini, in South Britain, equal to 19° 40′
and a fraction of the equator, as before shown.

And if it be required to reduce the temporal hours of any given day
or night, in a certain climate, into equatorial hours, they must be
multiplied by their proper horary times, whether diurnal or nocturnal,
as the case may be; the product is then to be divided by fifteen, and
the quotient will necessarily be the number of equatorial hours in the
climate in question, on the given day or night.[288] On the other hand,
equatorial hours are also to be reduced into temporal hours by being
multiplied by fifteen, the product of which is to be divided by the
horary times proper to the given day or night in the said climate.

[288] For example,

    Diurnal horary times of the first point of
       Gemini in the latitude of Alexandria             17°  6′ 30″
    Number of temporal hours                                    12
                                                    15)205  18   0
    Diurnal equatorial hours of the first point of
       Gemini in the latitude of Alexandria             13  41  12
    Diurnal horary times of the first point of
        Gemini in the latitude of Southern Britain      19° 40′ 10″
    Number of temporal hours                                    12
                                                    15)236   2   0
    Diurnal equatorial hours of the first point of
        Gemini in the latitude of Southern Britain      15  44   8

The degree ascending in the ecliptic, at any given temporal hour, may
also be ascertained by multiplying the number of temporal hours since
sunrise, if the given hour be diurnal, but if nocturnal, since sunset,
by their proper horary times; and the product is to be added, in the
succession of the signs, to the aggregate number (as shown by the
ascensions proper to the climate) of the Sun’s degree, if the given
hour be diurnal, but, if nocturnal, to that of the degree diametrically
opposite, and that particular degree of the ecliptic which shall
correspond with the total number thus found in the ascensions of the
climate will be the degree then ascending.[289]

[289] Let the first point of Gemini be on the meridian above the earth;
the number of temporal hours since sunrise will then be 6, by which 17°
6′ 30″ are to multiplied. The product will be 102° 39′: this, added
to 45° 5′, the aggregate number of the first point of Gemini in the
latitude of Alexandria, will give 147° 44′, which, in the ascensions
of the climate in question, will correspond to the 3d degree of Virgo,
and show that to be the degree ascending. In the latitude of Southern
Britain the total number would still amount to the same, viz. 147° 44′,
but it would show 7° and about 30′ of Virgo to be ascending.

But, in order to ascertain the degree on the meridian above the earth,
the number of temporal hours since the preceding noon are also to be
multiplied by their proper horary times, and the product is to be added
to the aggregate number of the Sun’s right ascension; and that degree
of the ecliptic, with which the total number as found in the aggregate
times of right ascension shall correspond, will then be on the
meridian.[290] The degree on the oriental horizon will, however, also
show what degrees occupy the meridian; for, by subtracting 90 times
(the amount of the quadrant) from the aggregate number ascribed to the
said ascending degree in the Table proper to the climate, the number
so reduced will be found, in the aggregate times of the Table of Right
Ascension, to correspond with the degree on the meridian. And again, on
the other hand, by adding 90 to the aggregate times ascribed by right
of ascension to the degree on the meridian above the earth, the degree
ascending may be obtained, for it will be that degree which corresponds
to that total number, as stated in the Table proper to the climate.[291]

The Sun always preserves an equal distance in equatorial hours from all
parts of the same meridian; but his distance in equatorial hours from
different meridians varies according to the degrees of distance between
meridian and meridian.

The foregoing extracts have been made to show the entire agreement
between the astronomy of the Tetrabiblos and that of the Almagest. The
Tables herein given from the latter work are, of course, now, in some
degree, superseded by others of modern calculation, infinitely more

[290] Let the first point of Gemini be three temporal hours past
the meridian; these hours reduced to degrees, in the latitude of
Alexandria, will give 51° 19′, which, added to the right ascension of
the first point of Gemini, make 109° 3′, showing the 18th degree of
Cancer on the meridian. In the latitude of Southern Britain, these
hours would produce 59°, which, added to the right ascension, would
make 116° 44′, and show the 25th degree of Cancer on the meridian.

[291] Thus, in the latitude of Alexandria, when the first point of
Gemini is three temporal hours past the meridian, the 16th degree of
Libra will be on the ascendant, and the aggregate times of ascension of
that degree in the said latitude are 109° 3′: by subtracting 90 from
this sum, the remainder will be 19° 3′, the right ascension of the
mid-heaven answering to the 18th degree of Cancer. In the latitude of
Southern Britain, the 18th degree of Libra would be on the ascendant,
of which degree the aggregate times of ascension in that latitude are
206° 44′, from which, if 90 be subtracted, the remainder will be 116°
44′, the right ascension of the mid-heaven answering to the 25th degree
of Cancer. The converse of these operations seems too obvious to need


[From the Almagest.]

         H.      M. |     D.     M.
         12       0 |      0    0
         12      15 |      4   15
         12      30 |      8   25
         12      45 |     12   30
         13       0 |     16   27
         13      15 |     20   14
         13      30 |     23   51
         13      45 |     27   40
         14       0 |[292]30   22
         14      15 |     33   18
         14      30 |     36    0
         14      45 |     38   35
         15       0 |     40   56
         15      15 |     43    5
         15      30 |     45    1
         15      45 |     46   51
         16       0 |     48   32
         16      15 |     50   15
         16      30 |[293]51   35
         16      45 |     52   50
         17       0 |     54    1
         17      15 |     55    0
         17      30 |     56    0
         17      45 |     57    0
         18       0 |     58    0
         18      30 |     59   30
         19       0 |     61    0
         19      30 |     62    0
         20       0 |     63    0
         21       0 |     64   30
         22       0 |     65   30
         23       0 |     66    0
         24       0 |     66   10

    [292] Alexandria.

    Footnote 293: Southern Britain.]


               |     |   In a Right   |  3rd Climate,  |  8th Climate
               |     |Sphere under the|  thro’ Lower   | thro’ Southern
               |     |    Equator,    |  Ægypt, Lat.   | Britain, Lat.
               |     |  Diurnal Arc   |   30° 22′ N.   |   51° 30′ N.
      SIGNS.   |Tenth|   12 Hours.    |   Diurnal Arc  |  Diurnal Arc
               | Deg.|                |    14 Hours.   | 16 Hs. 20 Mts.
               |     +------+---------+------+---------+------+---------
               |     |Times |Aggregate|Times |Aggregate|Times |Aggregate
               |     |  of  | Times.  |  of  | Times.  |  of  | Times.
               |     |Ascen.|         |Ascen.|         |Ascen.|
               |     | D. M.|  D. M.  | D. M.|  D. M.  | D. M.|  D. M.
               |     |      |         |      |         |      |
    Aries      |  10 |  9.10|    9.10 |  6.48|    6.48 |  4.05|    4.05
               |  20 |  9.15|   18.25 |  6.55|   13.43 |  4.12|    8.17
               |  30 |  9.25|   27.50 |  7.10|   20.53 |  4.31|   12.48
    Taurus     |  10 |  9.40|   37.30 |  7.33|   28.26 |  4.56|   17.44
               |  20 |  9.58|   47.28 |  8.02|   36.28 |  5.34|   23.18
               |  30 | 10.16|   57.44 |  8.37|   45.05 |  6.25|   29.43
    Gemini     |  10 | 10.34|   68.18 |  9.17|   54.22 |  7.29|   37.12
               |  20 | 10.47|   79.05 | 10.00|   64.22 |  8.49|   46.01
               |  30 | 10.55|   90.00 | 10.38|   75.00 | 10.14|   56.15
    Cancer     |  10 | 10.55|  100.55 | 11.12|   86.12 | 11.36|   67.51
               |  20 | 10.47|  111.42 | 11.34|   97.46 | 12.45|   80.36
               |  30 | 10.34|  122.16 | 11.51|  109.37 | 13.39|   94.15
    Leo        |  10 | 10.16|  132.32 | 11.55|  121.32 | 14.07|  108.22
               |  20 |  9.58|  142.30 | 11.54|  133.26 | 14.22|  122.44
               |  30 |  9.40|  152.10 | 11.47|  145.13 | 14.24|  137.08
    Virgo      |  10 |  9.25|  161.35 | 11.40|  156.53 | 14.19|  151.27
               |  20 |  9.15|  170.50 | 11.35|  168.28 | 14.18|  165.45
               |  30 |  9.10|  180.00 | 11.32|  180.00 | 14.15|  180.00
    Libra      |  10 |  9.10|  189.10 | 11.32|  191.32 | 14.15|  194.15
               |  20 |  9.15|  198.25 | 11.35|  203.07 | 14.18|  208.33
               |  30 |  9.25|  207.50 | 11.40|  214.47 | 14.19|  222.52
    Scorpio    |  10 |  9.40|  217.30 | 11.47|  226.34 | 14.24|  237.16
               |  20 |  9.58|  227.28 | 11.54|  238.28 | 14.22|  251.38
               |  30 | 10.16|  237.44 | 11.55|  250.23 | 14.07|  265.45
    Sagittarius|  10 | 10.34|  248.18 | 11.51|  262.14 | 13.39|  279.24
               |  20 | 10.47|  269.05 | 11.34|  273.48 | 12.45|  292.09
               |  30 | 10.55|  270.00 | 11.12|  285.00 | 11.36|  303.45
    Capricornus|  10 | 10.55|  280.55 | 10.38|  295.38 | 10.14|  313.59
               |  20 | 10.47|  291.42 | 10.00|  305.38 |  8.49|  322.48
               |  30 | 10.34|  302.16 |  9.17|  314.55 |  7.29|  330.17
    Aquarius   |  10 | 10.16|  312.32 |  8.37|  323.32 |  6.25|  336.42
               |  20 |  9.58|  322.30 |  8.02|  331.34 |  5.34|  342.16
               |  30 |  9.40|  332.10 |  7.33|  339.07 |  4.56|  347.12
    Pisces     |  10 |  9.25|  341.35 |  7.10|  346.17 |  4.31|  351.43
               |  20 |  9.15|  350.50 |  6.55|  353.12 |  4.12|  355.55
               |  30 |  9.10|  360.00 |  6.48|  360.00 |  4.05|  360.00



[294] Moxon’s Mathematical Dictionary says, that the “Centiloquium is a
book containing one hundred astrological aphorisms, commonly ascribed
to Ptolemy, as its author, but by some to Hermes Trismegistus.” This
account, however, seems to be inaccurate; for the Centiloquy attributed
to Osiris’s contemporary and counsellor (eulogized by Lilly as having
been “one of the wisest of all mortal men, and as ancient as Moses”),
is very different from that known by the name of the Καρπος, or “Fruit
of the Tetrabiblos.” Whether this latter Centiloquy be really the work
of Ptolemy is another question: it has been usually edited as his, but
some of the aphorisms seem to relate to horary questions only, which
are not adverted to in the Tetrabiblos, and there are others also which
do not appear to result from the doctrine of that book.

I. Judgment must be regulated by thyself, as well as by the science;
for it is not possible that particular forms of events should be
declared by any person, however scientific; since the understanding
conceives only a certain general idea of some sensible event, and not
its particular form. It is, therefore, necessary for him who practices
herein to adopt inference. They only who are inspired by the deity can
predict particulars.

II. When an enquirer shall make mature search into an expected event,
there will be found no material difference between the event itself and
his idea of it.

III. Whosoever may be adapted to any particular event or pursuit, will
assuredly have the star indicative thereof very potent in his nativity.

IV. A mind apt in knowledge will discover truth more readily than one
practised in the highest branches of science.

V. A skilful person, acquainted with the nature of the stars, is
enabled to avert many of their effects, and to prepare himself for
those effects before they arrive.

VI. It is advantageous to make choice of days and hours at a time well
constituted by the nativity. Should the time be adverse, the choice
will in no respect avail, however favourable an issue it may chance to

VII. The mingled influences of the stars can be understood by no one
who has not previously acquired knowledge of the combinations and
varieties existing in nature.

VIII. A sagacious mind improves the operation of the heavens, as a
skilful farmer, by cultivation, improves nature.

IX. In their generation and corruption forms are influenced by the
celestial forms, of which the framers of talismans consequently avail
themselves, by observing the ingresses of the stars thereupon.

X. In the election of days and hours, make use of the malefics, to the
same moderate extent as the skilful physician would use poisons in
order to perform cures.

XI. A day and hour are not to be elected until the quality of the
object proposed shall be known.

XII. Love and hatred prohibit the true accomplishment of judgments;
and, inasmuch as they lessen the most important, so likewise they
magnify the most trivial things.

XIII. In every indication made by the constitution of the heavens,
secondary stars, whether auxiliary or injurious thereto, are also to be

XIV. The astrologer will be entangled in a labyrinth of error, when the
seventh house and its lord shall be afflicted.

XV. Signs cadent from the ascendant of any kingdom are the ascendants
of that kingdom’s enemies. But the angles and succedent houses are
the ascendants of its friends. It is the same in all doctrines and

XVI. When the benefics may be controlled in the eighth house, they
bring mischief by means of good men: if, on the other hand, they be
well affected, they will prevent mischief.

XVII. Give no judgment as to the future life of an aged person, until
the number of years he may live shall have been reckoned.

XVIII. If, while a benefic may ascend, both the luminaries should be in
the same minute,[295] the native will be equally and highly prosperous
in all things which can befall him. So, likewise, if the luminaries be
mutually opposed by the east and west. But the contrary effect will be
produced, should a malefic be on the ascendant.

[295] Of the same degree and sign.

XIX. The efficacy of purgation is impeded by the Moon’s conjunction
with Jupiter.

XX. Pierce not with iron that part of the body which may be governed by
the sign actually occupied by the Moon.

XXI. When the Moon may be in Scorpio or Pisces, purgation may be
advantageously used, provided the lord of the ascendant be coupled with
some star posited below the earth. If he be coupled with a star placed
above the earth, the potion swallowed will be vomited up.

XXII. Neither put on nor lay aside any garment for the first time, when
the Moon may be located in Leo. And it will be still worse to do so,
should she be badly affected.

XXIII. Aspects between the Moon and stars give the native much
activity; and, if the stars be in power, they indicate an efficient,
but if weak an inert, excitation to action.

XXIV. An eclipse of the luminaries, if in the angles of the nativity,
or of an annual revolution, is noxious; and the effects take place
according to the space between the ascendant and the place of eclipse.
And as, in a solar eclipse, a year is reckoned for an hour, so
likewise, in a lunar eclipse, a month is reckoned for an hour.

XXV. The progression of a significator, posited in the mid-heaven, is
to be made by right ascension; of another posited in the ascendant, by
the oblique ascension of the particular latitude.

XXVI. There is obvious concealment in the case, if the star
significative of any particular affair be in conjunction with the Sun,
either under the earth or in a place foreign to its own nature. On
the other hand, there is manifestation, should the star be raised to
elevation out of its depression, and be located in its own place.

XXVII. Venus gives pleasure to the native in that part of the body
which may be ruled by the sign she occupies. It is the same with other

XXVIII. When the Moon may not hold a familiarity with two planets, as
is desirable, care should be taken to connect her, if possible, with
some fixed star combining their qualities.

XXIX. The fixed stars grant extremely good fortune, unconnected with
the understanding; but it is most commonly marked by calamities, unless
the planets also agree in the felicity.

XXX. Observe the creation of the first king of any dynasty; for if
the ascendant at that creation should agree with the ascendant of the
nativity of the king’s son, he will succeed his father.

XXXI. When the star ruling over any kingdom shall enter into a
climacterical place, either the king, or some one of the chief men of
his kingdom, will die.

XXXII. Concord between two persons is produced by an harmonious
figuration of the stars, indicative of the matter whereby good will is
constituted, in the nativity of either person.

XXXIII. Love and hatred are discernible, as well from the concord and
discord of the luminaries, as from the ascendants of both nativities:
but obeying signs increase good will.

XXXIV. If the lord of the place of the new Moon be in an angle, he is
indicative of the events liable to happen in that month.

XXXV. When the Sun arrives at the place of any star, he excites the
influence of that star in the atmosphere.

XXXVI. In the foundation of cities, consider the fixed stars which may
seem to contribute thereto; but in the erection of houses, observe the
planets. The kings of every city which has Mars in culmination will
most commonly perish by the sword.

XXXVII. If Virgo or Pisces be on the ascendant, the native will create
his own dignity; but if Aries or Libra is on the ascendant, he will
cause his own death. The other signs are to be contemplated in the same

XXXVIII. Mercury, if established in either house of Saturn, and in
power, gives the native a speculative and inquisitive intellect: if in
a house of Mars, and especially if in Aries, he gives eloquence.

XXXIX. Affliction of the eleventh house, in the creation of a king,
indicates damage in his household and his treasury: affliction of the
second house denotes the detriment of his subject’s wealth.

XL. When the ascendant is oppressed by the malefics, the native will
delight in sordid things, and approve ill-favoured odours.

XLI. Beware the affliction of the eighth house and its lord, at a time
of departure; and that of the second house and its lord, at a time of

XLII. Should a disease begin when the Moon may be in a sign occupied
at the birth by some malefic, or in quartile or opposition to any such
sign, such disease will be most severe; and if the malefic also behold
the said sign, it will be dangerous. On the other hand, there will be
no danger if the Moon be in a place held at the time of birth by some

XLIII. The malefic figures of a nation are strengthened by adverse
figurations of existing times.

XLIV. It is an evil case if the ascendant of a sick person resist the
figuration of his own nativity; and if the time should not bring up any

XLV. If the ascendant, or principal significators, be not in human
signs, the native himself will be also estranged from human nature.

XLVI. In nativities much happiness is conferred by the fixed stars; and
also by the angles of the new Moon, and by the place of a kingdom’s
Part of Fortune, should the ascendant be found in any of them.

XLVII. If a malefic in one nativity fall on the place of a benefic in
another nativity, he who has the benefic will suffer damage from him
who has the malefic.

XLVIII. If the mid-heaven of a prince be the ascendant of his subject,
or if their respective significators be configurated in a benevolent
form, they will continue long inseparable. It will be the same, also,
should the sixth house of a subject or servant be the ascendant of his
prince or master.

XLIX. If the ascendant of a servant be the mid-heaven in his master’s
nativity, the master will place so much confidence in that servant as
to be ruled by him.

L. Overlook none of the hundred and nineteen conjunctions; for on them
depends the knowledge of worldly operations, whether of generation or
of corruption.

LI. Make the sign occupied by the Moon at the time of birth the sign
ascending at the conception; and consider that in which she may be
posited at the conception, or the opposite one, as the sign ascending
at the birth.

LII. Men of tall stature have their lords of nativity in elevation, and
their ascendants in the beginnings of signs; but the lords of men of
short stature will be found in declination.[296] It must also be seen
whether the signs be right or oblique.

[296] Or in obscure situations.

LIII. The lords of nativity of slight or thin men have no latitude,
but those of stout or fat men have; and, if the latitude be south, the
native will be active; if north, inactive.

LIV. In the construction of a building, the principal rulers, if
coupled with a star below the earth, will impede the erection.

LV. Mars’ evil influence over ships is diminished if he be neither in
the mid-heaven nor in the eleventh house; but if in either of those
places, he renders the ship liable to be captured by pirates. And if
the ascendant be afflicted by any fixed star of the nature of Mars, the
ship will be burned.

LVI. While the Moon is in her first quarter, withdrawing from her
conjunction with the Sun, the bodily humours expand until her second
quarter: in her other quarters they decrease.

LVII. If, during a sickness, the seventh house and its lord be
afflicted, change the physician.

LVIII. Observe the place of an aspect, and its distance from the
ascendant of the year; for the event will happen when the profection
may arrive thither.

LIX. Before pronouncing that an absent person shall die, observe
whether he may not become intoxicated; before declaring that he shall
receive a wound, see whether he may not be let blood; and before saying
that he shall find treasure, examine whether he may not receive his own
deposit; for the figures of all these things may be similar.

LX. In cases of sickness, observe the critical days, and the Moon’s
progress in the angles of a figure of sixteen sides. If those angles be
well affected, it is favourable for the invalid; if they be afflicted,

LXI. The Moon is significative of bodily matters, which, in respect of
motion, resemble her.

LXII. By marking exactly the beginning of a conjunction,[297] judgment
may be made of the variation of the weather in the ensuing month. It
will depend upon the lord of the angle of every figure, for he controls
the nature of the atmosphere; assuming also at these times the quality
of the existing weather.

[297] Of the Sun and Moon.

LXIII. In the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter, pronounce according
to the nature of that one which may be higher in elevation. Follow the
same rule with other stars.

LXIV. After ascertaining the lord of the inquiry, see what power he may
have in the annual revolution, or in the ascendant of the new Moon; and
pronounce accordingly.

LXV. In the least conjunction, the difference of the mean conjunction,
and in the mean conjunction the difference of the greatest

[298] On this aphorism Partridge has said, “how Ptolemy meant it to be
understood, I know not; and so I leave it.”

LXVI. Consider no profection by itself alone, but make reference also
to the qualifications and impediments of the stars.

LXVII. Years are diminished by the imbecility of the receiver.

LXVIII. A malefic, when matutine, signifies an accident; when
vespertine, a disease.

LXIX. The native’s sight will be impaired if the Moon be opposed to the
Sun, and joined with nebulous stars; and if the Moon be in the western
angle, and both the malefic stars in the eastern angle, the Sun being
in an angle also, the native will become blind.

LXX. Insanity is produced if the Moon have no connection with Mercury;
and, if neither of them be connected with the ascendant, Saturn being
in occupation of the angle by night, but Mars by day, especially if in
Cancer, Virgo, or Pisces, a dæmoniac affection will be produced.

LXXI. If both luminaries may be in masculine signs, in the nativities
of males, their actions will be consonant with nature; but if so placed
in the nativities of females, they increase their action. And Mars and
Venus, if matutine, incline to the masculine gender; if vespertine, to
the feminine.

LXXII. Matters of education are to be considered by the ascending
lords of triplicity; matters of life, by the lords of the conditionary
luminary’s triplicity.

LXXIII. If the Sun be found with the Gorgon’s head (_Caput Medusæ_),
and not aspected by any benefic star, and if there be no benefic
present in the eighth house, and the lord of the conditionary luminary
be opposed to Mars, or in quartile to him, the native will be beheaded.
If the luminary culminate, his body will be maimed or mangled; and if
the aspect in quartile be from Gemini or Pisces, his hands and feet
will be amputated.

LXXIV. Mars, if ascending, uniformly gives a scar in the face.

LXXV. If the Sun be in conjunction with the lord of the ascendant, in
Leo, and Mars has no prerogative in the ascendant, and if there be no
benefic in the eighth house, the native will be burned.

LXXVI. If Saturn hold the mid-heaven, and the conditionary luminary
be opposed to him, the native will perish in the ruins of buildings,
provided the sign on the lower heaven be an earthly sign; if it be a
watery sign, he will be drowned or suffocated by water: if a human
sign, he will be strangled by men, or will perish by the halter or the
scourge. Should there, however, be a benefic in the eighth house, he
will not suffer death, although he will be brought near it.

LXXVII. Profection of the ascendant is to be made for matters affecting
the body; of the Part of Fortune, for extrinsic circumstances; of the
Moon, for the connection between the body and the spirit; and of the
mid-heaven, for the employment or profession.

LXXVIII. A star often dispenses influence in a place in which it has no
prerogative, thus bringing unexpected advantage to the native.

LXXIX. Whoever has Mars in the eleventh house, does not govern his

LXXX. If Venus be in conjunction with Saturn, and have any lord of
house in the seventh house, the native will be of spurious origin.

LXXXI. Times are reckoned in seven ways; viz. by the space between
two significators; by the space between their mutual aspects; by the
approach of one to the other; by the space between either of them
and the place appropriated to the proposed event; by the descension
of a star, with its addition or diminution; by the changing of a
significator; and by the approach of a planet to its place.

LXXXII. When a figure may be equipoised, observe the horoscope (or
figure) at the new or full moon, and, if that also be equipoised, be
not hasty in giving judgment.

LXXXIII. The time of obtaining a grant indicates the affection between
the applicant and his prince; but the seat[299] shows the nature of the

[299] Or part of heaven indicating the grant.

LXXXIV. And if Mars be lord of the ascendant at the time of entering on
possession, and posited in the second house, or coupled with the lord
of the second, he brings much mischief.

LXXXV. Should the lord of the ascendant be configurated with the lord
of the second house, the prince will spontaneously create many charges.

LXXXVI. The Sun is the source of the vital power; the Moon, of the
natural power.

LXXXVII. Monthly revolutions are made in twenty-eight days, two hours
and about eighteen minutes. Judgment is also made by some persons by
means of the Sun’s progress; that is to say, by his partial equations
to that degree and minute which he might hold at the beginning.

LXXXVIII. In making profection of the part of Fortune for a whole
annual revolution, a space equal to that between the Sun and Moon is to
be reckoned from the ascendant.

LXXXIX. Consider the grandfather’s affairs from the seventh house and
the uncle’s from the sixth.

XC. Should the significator be in aspect to the ascendant, the hidden
event or object will correspond in its nature with the ascendant; but
if the ascendant be not so aspected, the nature of the event will
accord with that of the place in which the significator is posited. The
lord of the hour shows its colour; the place of the Moon its time; and,
if above the earth, it will be a novel thing; if below, old. The part
of Fortune indicates its quantity, whether long or short. The lords of
the terms, and of the lower heaven and mid-heaven, and of the Moon,
shows its substance or value.

XCI. Should the ruler of a sick person be combust, it is an evil
portent; and especially if the part of Fortune be afflicted.

XCII. Saturn, if oriental, is not so highly noxious to a sick person;
nor Mars, if occidental.

XCIII. Judgment is not to be drawn from any figure until the next
conjunction shall have been considered: for principles are varied by
every conjunction; and therefore, to avoid error, both the last and the
next should be combined.

XCIV. The place of the more potent significator indicates the thoughts
of the inquirer.

XCV. The stars rising with the tenth house prove how far the native may
be fitted to the occupation which he follows.

XCVI. In an eclipse, such significations as are made nearest the
angles, show the events decreed. The nature of the stars in accordance
with the eclipse, plants as well as fixed stars, and also the
appearances co-ascending, are likewise to be considered, and judgment
is to be given accordingly.

XCVII. The event inquired about will be speedily accomplished, should
the lord of the new or full Moon be in an angle.

XCVIII. Shooting stars, and meteors like flowing hair, bear a secondary
part in judgments.

XCIX. Shooting stars denote the dryness of the air; and, if they are
projected to one part only, they indicate wind therefrom: if to various
parts, they indicate diminution of waters, a turbulent atmosphere, and
incursions of armies.

C. If comets, whose distance is eleven signs behind the Sun, appear
in angles, the king of some kingdom, or one of the princes or chief
men of a kingdom, will die. If in a succedent house, the affairs of
the kingdom’s treasury will prosper, but the governor or ruler will
be changed. If in a cadent house, there will be diseases and sudden
deaths. And if comets be in motion from the west towards the east, a
foreign foe will invade the country: if not in motion, the foe will be
provincial, or domestic.




The Reader is desired to refer to the Plate at end of book containing
diagrams of the Zodiacal Planisphere, which has been spoken of in the
Note in p. 99.

Fig. 1 is the Planisphere adjusted for the northern latitude of 30°
22′ (where the longest day consists of fourteen equatorial hours),
agreeably to the “Exemplification” given by Ptolemy in Chapter XV,
Book 3. It represents that portion of the celestial sphere which is
contained between the tropics: the central horizontal line is the
equator; the curved line extending longitudinally from east to west
is the ecliptic; the central perpendicular line is the meridian, or
cusp of the 10th house; the other short lines, cutting the equator
transversely, are the cusps of the other houses; that of the 1st house
being the eastern horizon; that of the 7th, the western horizon.
Hence, the distance from the 1st house to the meridian, or from the
meridian to the 7th house, shows the semi-diurnal arc of any parallel
of declination in the ecliptic; and the distance of the 7th house to
the 4th, or from the 4th to the 1st, shows the semi-nocturnal arc. The
distance from the cusp of one house to that of the next, taken on the
same parallel, is also equal to two temporal hours; thus, for instance,
in the latitude above quoted, the semi-diurnal arc of 0° ♊ is 6 h. 50
m., or 102° 39′ of the equator; consequently the diurnal temporal hour
is equal to one equatorial hour and eight minutes, or to 17° 6′ of the

In his first example, Ptolemy directs 0° ♉ to be placed on the
ascendant, so that the beginning of ♑ may be on the mid-heaven; 0° ♊
must, therefore, fall on the point A, distant from the mid-heaven 147°
44′ of the equator, as measured by the line AB; because every point in
the sphere always preserves one and the same parallel with the equator;
and 0° ♊, in passing to the mid-heaven, must proceed along the line
AB. In the present case, however, it is required to know how long 0° ♊
will be in coming to the ascendant, the given position of 0° ♉. Now 0°
♊ will be on the ascendant when it arrives at the point G; therefore
the distance from A to C is the amount of the prorogation between 0° ♉
(when posited on the ascendant) and 0° ♊, and it is equal to 45° 5′ of
the equator. In the second example, 0° ♉ is placed on the mid-heaven,
which position must be at D, so that 0° ♊ must necessarily be at E;
and the distance from E to B, equal to 57° 44′ of the equator, is the
prorogation between 0° ♉ and 0° ♊, when 0⁴ ♉ is on the mid-heaven. In
the third example, 0° ♉ is supposed to be on the 7th house, descending,
at F, so that ♓ is on the mid-heaven, and 0° ♊ at the point G, in
advance of the mid-heaven 32° 16′ of the equator, as shown by the
distance BG. Now it is required to bring 0° ♊ to the 7th house (the
place of 0° ♉), and it will be there on arriving at H, distant from
B 102° 39′ of the equator; but as 0° ♊ is already at G, the distance
from G to H, equal to 70° 23′ of the equator, is the amount of the
prorogation between 0° ♉ and 0° ♊, when 0° ♉ is on the 7th house.
The fourth example places 0° ♉ at I, three temporal hours past the
meridian; 0° ♊ therefore falls on the point K, at the distance of 13
equatorial degrees before the meridian or mid-heaven, and will be three
temporal hours past the meridian (the position of 0° ♉) on arriving
at L, distant 51 equatorial degrees from the mid-heaven: the whole
distance from K (the first position of 0° ♊) to L, its second position,
equal to 64 degrees of the equator, is therefore the prorogation
between 0° ♉ and 0° ♊, when 0° ♉ is past the meridian at the distance
of three temporal hours. Ptolemy has also instanced two other positions
for 0° ♉; viz. at two temporal hours past the meridian, and at two
temporal hours before the occidental angle; or, in other words, on the
cusp of the 9th house, and on that of the 8th. Now, if 0° ♉ be on the
cusp of the 9th house, it must be at M, and 0° ♊ will be at N, distant
62 equatorial degrees from Q, which is also on the cusp of the 9th. If
0° ♉ be on the cusp of the 8th, it must be at O, and 0° ♊ will be at
P, distant 66 equatorial degrees from R, which is also on the cusp of
the 8th: these two several numbers of degrees will be the respective
prorogations between 0° ♉ and 0° ♊, when 0° ♉ is placed on the 9th and
8th houses.

Ptolemy’s “Exemplification” has been followed thus minutely in order to
show how perfectly Mr. Ranger’s invention is adapted to assist (if not
to supersede) arithmetical calculation; for, after the Planisphere has
once been accurately laid down, a line drawn parallel to the equator,
from the significator to the promittor, or to the promittor’s pole of
position, and measured by degrees of the equator, will accomplish the
whole operation of ascertaining the amount of prorogation.

Fig. 2 is the Equator extended, _in plano_, on a scale proportionate
to the planispheres in Figs. 1 and 3: it is divided into 360 degrees,
and into equal time, as measured by the 24 hours of the earth’s daily
rotation on its axis, and by smaller portions of four minutes each,
corresponding with degrees of the equator.

Fig. 3 is the Planisphere set for the latitude of Southern Britain,
51° 30′ N., where the longest day is 16 h. 30 m., the semi-diurnal arc
of 0° ♊ being consequently 7 h. 52 m., or 118° of the equator, and its
diurnal temporal hour equal to one hour and nearly nineteen minutes of
equatorial time, or to 19° 40′ of the equator. In applying Ptolemy’s
examples, given in Chapter XV, Book 3, to this latitude, it will follow
that, when 0° ♉ may be on the ascendant, 0° ♊ will be at A, and will
subsequently arrive at the ascendant at C, after the passage of 29°
43′ of the equator. When 0° ♉ may be on the mid-heaven at D, 0° ♊ will
be at E, and will arrive at B, on the mid-heaven, after the passage
of 57° 44′ of the equator, as in Fig. 1. When 0° ♉ may be on the 7th
house, at F, 0° ♊ will be at G, and will come to the 7th house, at H,
after the passage of 85° 45′ of the equator. If 0° ♉ be three temporal
hours past the meridian, at I, 0° ♊ would be at K, again 13 equatorial
degrees before the meridian, as in Fig. 1, and will be three temporal
hours past the meridian, a position similar to that assumed for 0° ♉,
on arriving at L, distant from the mid-heaven 59 equatorial degrees;
thus making the whole distance, from K to L, 17 equatorial degrees. If
0° ♉ be on the 9th house, at M, 0° ♊ will be at N, distant from Q (also
on the 9th house) about 67 equatorial degrees. If 0° ♉ be on the 8th
house, at O, 0° ♊ will be at P, distant from R (also on the 8th house)
about 76 equatorial degrees.

By taking the trouble to calculate the distances between the several
positions given by Ptolemy, the Reader may satisfy himself of the
sufficiency of this Planisphere for the purpose for which it was first
projected; viz. for the more expeditious measurement of the arcs of
direction. The Tables of Ascensions, extracted from the Almagest,
in p. 152, will show that the arcs, as measured in Figs. 1 and 2 of
the plate, exactly tally with the amounts of distance obtained by
calculating arithmetically, according to the respective latitudes, as
quoted in the Tables.

The slight view which has been here given of the Zodiacal Planisphere
invented by Mr. Ranger, must not be considered as pretending to offer
a complete idea of its powers: they are so manifold and various,
that another volume would be required to detail them fully; and it
has now been used only in order to give a better illustration of
Ptolemy’s examples of the spaces of prorogation than mere words can
do. To persons conversant with the mathematical part of astronomy, the
facility with which a complete representation of zodiacal latitude,
declination, the poles of position, crepusculine circles, and other
phenomena, may be made by this Planisphere, will be sufficiently
obvious from the accompanying Figures.


[Illustration: _Fig. 1._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 2._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 3._]


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