Nigeria and its tin fields

By Albert Frederick Calvert

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Title: Nigeria and its tin fields

Author: Albert Frederick Calvert

Release date: July 8, 2024 [eBook #73990]

Language: English

Original publication: London: Edward Stanford, 1910

Credits: Charlene Taylor and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)



                               NIGERIA AND
                              ITS TIN FIELDS

                            ALBERT F. CALVERT
                                ETC. ETC.

                         LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD
                      12, 13, & 14, LONG ACRE, W.C.

                   Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
                    At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh


The present conspicuous position which Northern Nigeria holds in the
public eye is of very recent attainment, and its development has been,
comparatively speaking, the work of a moment. The discovery of tin in
paying quantities within its boundaries is the secret of its sudden leap
to an eminence from which it compels interest, and attracts to itself
more than ordinary curiosity and attention. It is with Northern Nigeria
as it was with New South Wales and California, with the Malay Peninsula
and Rhodesia. Their potentialities were admitted long before the
existence of their mineral wealth was made known, but it was not until
their minerals were discovered that they loomed into absorbing prominence.

The importance of Northern Nigeria as a British possession was
demonstrated by the Niger Company; her possibilities as an exporter of
cotton, rubber, and other vegetable products were early admitted; but
it needed the revelation of her enormous alluvial tin deposits in the
Province of Bauchi to attract to the development of her resources the
capital and enterprise which alone can ensure the growth of a country’s

But this sudden and surprising discovery also served to expose the
widespread ignorance which prevailed in connection with our newest
Protectorate, while it generated a desire for information concerning it.
This little volume is put forward to satisfy this new-felt want, and it
has, I think, the merit of being the first issued with that object. It
has been compiled in haste, but care has been taken to verify the facts,
and, as far as possible, the data has been derived from official sources.

I believe that no apology will be required for the illustrations, but
for the use of the photographs from which they were produced I tender
my grateful and sincere thanks to his Excellency Sir Walter Egerton,
K.C.M.G., Governor and High Commissioner of Southern Nigeria; Sir William
Wallace, K.C.M.G., late Acting Governor of Northern Nigeria; Mr. H. W.
Laws, Engineer to the Niger Company; Mr. C. G. Lush, Consulting Engineer
to the principal Nigerian Tin Companies; Mr. S. R. Bastard, Chairman and
Director of several of the most important Nigerian tin mining companies;
the Editor of the _Engineer_, Mr. R. Ernest Hope; Messrs. John Holt &
Co., Ltd.; Mr. G. W. Christian; Messrs. E. H. Stein & Co., Ltd., and
other prominent traders in Northern Nigeria.

                                                            A. F. CALVERT.




  Part of Marina, Lagos, Southern Nigeria                                1

  Marina, showing Customs, Lagos, Southern Nigeria                       2

  Lagos                                                                  3

  Lagos. Amongst the Palms                                               4

  Bird’s-eye View showing Marina and Town, Lagos                         5

  A portion of Lagos Town from Roof of New Mosque                        6

  Lagos                                                                  7

  West End of Lagos from the French Factory                              8

  Steam Tram, Marina, Lagos                                              9

  Lagos                                                                 10

  Business Premises, Marina, Lagos                                      11

  Part of Marina, Lagos                                                 12

  The Marina, Lagos                                                     13

  Club House, Lagos                                                     14

  Post Office, Lagos                                                    15

  Government House, Lagos                                               16

  Public Wash “Houses,” Lagos                                           17

  Public Washing Place, Elegrata, Lagos                                 18

  Railway, Iddo                                                         19

  Yams (potatoes) on the Beach, Lagos                                   20

  Fruit Market, Lagos                                                   21

  Corner of Market, Lagos                                               22

  Iddo Station, Lagos                                                   23

  Railway Engine, Iddo                                                  24

  Fulani Sheep, Lagos                                                   25

  Bullock Cart                                                          26

  Forcados, Southern Nigeria                                            27

  “Sir Alfred” Dry Dock, Forcados                                       28

  Botanical Gardens, Ebute Metta, Lagos                                 29

  Botanical Gardens, Ebute Metta, Lagos                                 30

  Railway Crossing, Ebute Metta, Lagos                                  31

  On the Road to Ebute Metta, Lagos                                     32

  The Market, Burutu, Southern Nigeria                                  33

  Burutu Market                                                         34

  Government Boat at Burutu                                             35

  Palm Oil Stores, Burutu                                               36

  Hospital, Burutu                                                      37

  Kwa River, Calabar Motor Boat “Spider,” Draught 9 inches              38

  Two Jakrie Women, Burutu, Southern Nigeria                            39

  Jakrie Chief and one of his Wives                                     40

  Large “Cotton Tree” at Okuni, Cross River                             41

  Jakrie Woman, Burutu                                                  42

  Chief Okrododo and two of his Sons, Burutu                            43

  Chief Okrododo, his Sons and Daughters: Jakrie Tribe, Burutu          44

  Native Dancers at Awka in the Onitsha Hinterland, between Niger
    and the Cross River                                                 45

  Native Market at Itu on Cross River                                   46

  A Landing-place on Cross River                                        47

  On the Ewayong, a Tributary of the Cross River                        48

  A Bridge over Auja River near Ogoja                                   49

  Bridge built of Vines by Pagans                                       50

  The “Spider” at Itu                                                   51

  Oshogbo Railway Station: Lady Egerton and District Commissioner
    Mr. Gladstone, in Foreground                                        52

  Cocoanut and Banana Palms                                             53

  Sir Walter Egerton, Lady Egerton, Capt. Lawrence, Private Secretary,
    Capt. Lloyd, A.D.C.                                                 54

  Lower Niger                                                           55

  Lower Niger                                                           56

  On the Banks of the Lower Niger                                       57

  Shipping Rubber, Lower Niger                                          58

  Village on the Lower Niger                                            59

  Idah, River Niger                                                     60

  Messrs. G. W. Christian’s Store at Idah, Niger River                  61

  Ejaws: Village Scene, Lower Niger                                     62

  Bridge of Sighs, Lokoja, Northern Nigeria                             63

  Main Street, Lokoja Market                                            64

  Native Judge or Alkale at Lokoja (A Copy of the Koran on his Lap)     65

  Asaba Boys, Southern Nigeria                                          66

  “Boys” who work the Cargo                                             67

  Shipping Cotton, Lokoja, Northern Nigeria                             68

  Niger Company’s Depot at Lokoja                                       69

  Produce Stores, Lokoja                                                70

  Lokoja Market                                                         71

  Lokoja Market                                                         72

  Lokoja Market                                                         73

  Lokoja Market                                                         74

  Yams on the Beach, Lokoja                                             75

  At the River-side, Lokoja                                             76

  Lokoja                                                                77

  Lokoja                                                                78

  Marine Bungalow, Lokoja                                               79

  European Hospital, Lokoja                                             80

  Canteen at Lokoja                                                     81

  Bank, Lokoja                                                          82

  King Abiga, Lokoja, Northern Nigeria                                  83

  Devil Man, Lokoja                                                     84

  Lokoja                                                                85

  Lokoja                                                                86

  Camp Road, Lokoja                                                     87

  Camp Road, Lokoja                                                     88

  Barracks, Lokoja                                                      89

  The Serrikin (King of Lokoja) and his Chiefs at the King’s House      90

  Meat Market, Lokoja                                                   91

  Guard on Government Treasury, Lokoja                                  92

  Messrs. Christian’s Store, Lokoja                                     93

  Hausas Love Soap and Water                                            94

  Coming in from the Country, Lokoja                                    95

  Lokoja                                                                96

  Bridge of Sighs, Lokoja                                               97

  Government Officials and others watching Gymkana, Lokoja              98

  Hausa Women Hairdressing, Lokoja, Northern Nigeria                    99

  Barbers, Lokoja Market                                               100

  Native Barber                                                        101

  Preparing Foofoo (Crushed Yams), Lokoja                              102

  Children at Play, Lokoja                                             103

  Children in the Market, Lokoja, Northern Nigeria                     104

  Washing up, River Nigeria                                            105

  A Quarrel, Lokoja Market                                             106

  Washing Day on the Niger River, Northern Nigeria                     107

  Native Trading Canoe, Upper Niger, Northern Nigeria                  108

  Group of Hausa and Nupe Chiefs (Serrikin of Lokoja in Centre)        109

  Black Bluejackets on the Government River Steamer “Kapelli”          110

  S. W. “Ndoni” (Cargo Boat) on the Niger River                        111

  “Halstead” (Cargo Boat) on Niger River                               112

  High Commissioner’s Yacht “Corona” on the Niger                      113

  Hausa Canoe                                                          114

  Chief’s Canoe being saluted on the Niger                             115

  Nupe Town of Egga on the Niger                                       116

  Egga, Northern Nigeria                                               117

  Egbohu, Northern Nigeria, Landing-place of Expedition against Beda   118

  Part of Rabba Village, Northern Nigeria                              119

  Unloading Salt, Jebba                                                120

  Loading Steamer, Jebba                                               121

  The S.S. “Scarborough” at Jebba                                      122

  Looking up the Niger from Jebba                                      123

  Mohammedan Mosque, Northern Nigeria                                  124

  Palm Village, Northern Nigeria                                       125

  Shonga, Northern Nigeria                                             126

  Fulani Cattle, Northern Nigeria                                      127

  On the Benue River                                                   128

  Camping on Benue River                                               129

  Market at Lamugo, near Keffi                                         130

  Cowrie Men paying Carriers per Basket                                131

  Making Lama Mats                                                     132

  Making Stools                                                        133

  Grinding Guinea Corn                                                 134

  Jukums at Abinsi                                                     135

  The Emir of Kano. (Now a Prisoner in Lokoja. Was the cause of the
    Kano Rising in 1907)                                               136

  Three Hausa Traders with Bundles of Skins from Kano                  137

  Cattle, near Nafada                                                  138

  Camels at Nafada                                                     139

  Selling Cotton in Nafada Market                                      140

  Chief of Kanam                                                       141

  Head Men in Vom                                                      142

  Miango Chief and Head Men (Ex-Chief on Left)                         143

  Chief of Wase                                                        144

  Camps in Hos                                                         145

  Hausa Loom                                                           146

  Second Chief at Ibi                                                  147

  Wase Rock                                                            148

  Amo Men                                                              149

  Hausa Girl                                                           150

  Kabba Boy                                                            151

  Hausa Woman                                                          152

  Hausa Boy                                                            153

  Brother Healy and some of his Pupils, Onitsha                        154

  View on the Niger River                                              155

  Messrs. G. W. Christian’s Store, Onitsha                             156

  Sir William Wallace, K.C.M.G.                                        157

  Mr. S. R. Bastard                                                    158

  Mr. Laws in front of Office with Bars of Tin ready for Transport     159

  First Camp at the Tin Mines, Naraguta                                160

  Naraguta Camp                                                        161

  Part of the Fuel Market, Bauchi                                      162

  Surveying Party at Juga                                              163

  Pagans paying a Visit to discuss Matters at Jos                      164

  Pagans bringing in a Present, Jos                                    165

  Naraguta. Pagans coming in for Tin Loads to Jermaan. (We were
    fighting them a year before)                                       166

  Carriers leaving Naraguta Camp                                       167

  Carriers crossing Delimi River                                       168

  Naraguta. 190 Bars of Tin leaving Camp by Asab Pagans                169

  A Camp. Survey Camp at Jos                                           170

  Horses being brought as Tax                                          171

  Part of actual Working Face, Naraguta                                172

  Launders at end of Tail Race at River’s Edge, Naraguta               173

  Naraguta. Making Dam                                                 174

  Naraguta. Construction of Dam. Rukubar Pagans                        175

  Naraguta. View showing Back of Dam                                   176

  Naraguta Dam                                                         177

  Naraguta                                                             178

  Naraguta                                                             179

  Naraguta                                                             180

  Naraguta. Four Sluice-boxes in Labourers’ Creek                      181

  Naraguta                                                             182

  Naraguta. View of Sluice-boxes, Labourers’ Creek                     183

  Naraguta. Moving Boxes to Face of Stope, Bala’s Stope                184

  Naraguta. Two Sluice-boxes                                           185

  Naraguta                                                             186

  Naraguta                                                             187

  Naraguta Camp                                                        188

  Opening Foot-bridge, Delimi River, Naraguta                          189

  Labourers’ Camp on the Tin Fields                                    190

  Naraguta. Tin-workers working the Bed of the River in dry season     191

  Naraguta. Construction of Leat by Rukubar Pagans                     192

  Naraguta. Construction of Leat by Rukubar Pagans                     193

  Washing Tin in Delimi River, Naraguta                                194

  Delimi River                                                         195

  View of Delimi River between Naraguta and Jos                        196

  Naraguta. View showing Flood-boxes on Leat                           197

  Naraguta                                                             198

  A Camp                                                               199

  Naraguta. Tributers washing Tin                                      200

  Tin Washing                                                          201

  Naraguta. Half-length new Main Tail Race                             202

  Naraguta. No. 2. Looking up Main Tail Race                           203

  Naraguta. Lower View, No. 2, Main Tail Race                          204

  Naraguta. Close to Main Working Face, No. 2 Stope                    205

  Naraguta. Tin Mining. Yorubus Working in the Ground                  206

  Troops leaving Naraguta Camp for Bauchi                              207

  Nafuta Gorge, looking towards Juga. The Juga River runs down
    the centre and passes to the Nafuta Flats                          208

  Nafuta Gorge. The River at this point is lost to sight to thirty
    feet below the big boulders in the middle of the Ravine            209

  Proposed Dam Site, Juga                                              210

  Prospecting on Dubbo or Topaz Valley                                 211

  Mr. C. G. Lush’s Camp at Juga                                        212

  Camp of Messrs. Lush, Huddart and Walter Wethered                    213

  Messrs. Huddart and Lush prospecting on one of the Creeks of the
    Dubbo or Topaz Valley Property                                     214

  Face of Alluvial, 16 feet deep, averaging about 6 lbs. of Tin per
    cubic yard; Dubbo or Topaz Valley Mine                             215

  Juga Camp: Pay-day                                                   216

  Rafinsiroma Camp                                                     217

  Rafinsiroma Dam, looking south-east                                  218

  House-building, Rafinsiroma Tin Mines                                219

  A Group of Natives                                                   220

  View in Amo                                                          221

  A View in Vom                                                        222

  Mr. G. W. Christian, a Nigerian Trader                               223

  Steamers discharging at Baro                                         224

  Baro Yard                                                            225

  Baro Beach just before the Railway was begun: Baro-Kano Railway      226

  Setting out Earthwork at Patatifi, Baro-Kano Line                    227

  Temporary Bridge over the Bakogi River, Baro-Kano Line               228

  Engine of the Emir Class on Steel Bridge, Baro-Kano Line             229

  Earthwork in Progress, Baro-Kano Line                                230

  Straightening Road at Railhead, Baro-Kano Line                       231

  Niger End of the Line: View from Baro Hill                           232

  General View of Baro Station                                         233

  Mr. H. W. Laws, Engineer to the Niger Company                        234

  Map of Southern Nigeria                                              235

  Map of Northern Nigeria                                              236

  Map showing Route of Railway from Baro to Rigachika                  237

  Map showing Railway and Roads to Tin Fields                          238

  Alluvial Tin Districts in the Bauchi Province                        239

  Plan of the Naraguta Tin Mines showing Workings                      240

  Properties of the Juga (Nigeria) Tin & Power Company, Limited        241

  Properties of the Lucky Chance Mines, Limited, in the Dubbo
    District                                                           242

  The Dubbo or Topaz Valley Property, belonging to the Lucky Chance
    Mines, Limited                                                     243

  Rafinsiroma Tin Property, belonging to the Lucky Chance Mines,
    Limited                                                            244

  The Polchi Alluvial Tin Property, belonging to the Lucky Chance
    Mines, Limited                                                     245

  The Bilidi Alluvial Tin Property, belonging to the Lucky Chance
    Mines, Limited                                                     246

  The Federri Alluvial Tin Property, the Tin Fields of Northern
    Nigeria, Limited                                                   247

  Doss or Dila Tin Property, the Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria,
    Limited                                                            248

  The Kurdum River Alluvial Tin Area                                   249

  The Rein, Forum, Ribon, and Kurdum Alluvial Tin Areas                250

  The Rein Alluvial Tin Area                                           251

  The Farum Alluvial Tin Area                                          252

  The Shen Alluvial Tin Area                                           253

  South Bukeru Tin Area                                                254

  Juga District                                                        255

  Gel Tin Lode and Alluvial Company                                    256

  The Northern Nigeria (Bauchi) Tin Mines                              257

  Route from Minna to Tin Fields                                       258

  New road from Railhead to Tin Fields                                 259



In 1879, when Sir George Taubman Goldie organised the amalgamation
of the rival trading firms of the Lower Niger and formed the United
Africa Company, only a few far-sighted people could have had any idea
of the possibilities of future commercial greatness that were possessed
by this utterly unattractive and uncivilised region. “The Niger,” as
Colonel Mockler-Ferryman tells us, “was absolutely tabooed; its name was
mentioned only in whispers, and the British public regarded it as an
unlucky, pestilential spot, out of which no good could ever come.” It
must be remembered, in explanation of this pessimistic attitude, that all
attempts to explore Nigeria and open up commerce on the river had failed
more or less completely; a great number of lives had been sacrificed in
successive expeditions, and no practical good had been accomplished.
McGregor Laird, some quarter of a century earlier, had founded the
African Shipping Company, with monthly sailings to the West African ports
and, with the grudging co-operation of the Government, had contracted to
keep a steamer on the Niger. But Laird died in 1857, when his spirited
enterprise appeared to be on the point of yielding tangible results, and
the country was still under a cloud when, twenty years later, the first
organised attempt was made to develop its commercial resources.


The United Africa Company’s efforts were recognised by the grant of a
Royal Charter in 1886, but its mission and its potentialities failed
to appeal to the general public; and even when in 1900 the Territory,
with its area equal to that of Germany and the British Isles combined,
was added to the Dependencies of the Empire, the new Protectorate was
regarded with indifference and suspicion as a present burden and a
probable source of future trouble.

That was but a decade since, yet it was only the other day that Lord
Crewe declared that “there is no part of the Empire about which higher
hopes may properly be entertained than the Protectorate of Northern
Nigeria;” and the Colonial Report, in emphatic corroboration of this
optimistic opinion, asserted that “very few countries have witnessed such
great changes for the better in such a short space of time, as has been
the case with this Cinderella of the British Dominions.”

It must be admitted that the Nigerias have been of late years more
favoured in the matters of ocean transport and inter-communication.
Since McGregor Laird started his monthly service to Lagos, the African
Shipping Company has been succeeded by six shipping lines—the British and
African Steam Navigation, African Steamship, Elder Dempster, Woermann,
Hamburg-America, and the Hamburg-Bremen-Africa—the first three of
which, to all intents and purposes, may be classed as Elder Dempster’s.
Twenty-five liners and Elder Dempster’s regular services call at Lagos
each month—one nearly every day of the week. Two vessels of some four
thousand tons are exclusively employed in bringing Welsh coal to Lagos;
and a cargo service, another Elder Dempster enterprise, now runs from
inside Lagos Lagoon to Hamburg, thus avoiding the transhipping of cargo
in Lagos Roads or at Forcados. Persons who only know of Elder Dempster’s
famous service of ocean liners, which leave Liverpool every Wednesday and
arrive at Lagos Roads sixteen days later, may be surprised to learn that
they have a large and distinct inter-colonial service between Lagos and
Secondi. These vessels, built of light draught to enable them to cross
Lagos bar, not only afford shippers a short and rapid means of forwarding
their produce, but are of immense service to the growing number of
natives who travel, mostly for trade purposes, between Lagos and the
smaller ports along the Gold Coast; while another Elder Dempster service
runs weekly to and from Porto Novo in Dahomey and Lagos, carrying general
outward cargo and bringing back produce for shipment to the United
Kingdom and the Continent.

These services, which cater for the ramifications of the commercial
activities of West Africa, are practically unknown at home, and the
organisation and development of this enormous industry was, to a
great extent, the work of one man—the late Sir Alfred Lewis Jones. It
has been said of him that “when the story of our times comes to be
written comprehensively, he will be bracketed with Cecil John Rhodes.
One obtained a large territory for the Empire; the other enhanced
immeasurably countries formerly judged as of questionable value. He
was a pioneer in building up their commerce, and is of still higher
estimate—he was instrumental in making them more fit to live in by
revolutionising the health conditions.” His varied commercial enterprises
in West Africa are well known, and it is unnecessary here to enlarge
upon them. They ranged from coaling and engineering companies with dry
docks, to banking—which facilitated relations between the natives and the
European traders—and included his cold-storage scheme, which the medical
faculty admit has been one of the most powerful factors in lowering the
mortality of West Africa. This object was also largely assisted by the
investigations carried out at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
The school was financed by Sir Alfred Jones, who also provided the
means for putting the resultant discoveries into practice. He further
established a branch of the School at Grand Canary, and arranged with
Elder Dempster a cheap service from the West African Coast to the Canary
Islands for malaria patients, whose lives depend upon their reaching that
Mecca for invalids. By such means the dead merchant prince has lowered
the death-rate among Europeans and natives in West Africa to a degree
unthought of fifteen years ago, and he has built in that part of the
Continent a monument to his name more enduring than brass, because the
foundation was made for the betterment of his fellow-men.


But if the Elder Dempster Line have accomplished great things in
establishing regular communication between England and the new
Dependencies, much splendid pioneer work has been done in the country
by the Niger Company. During the last few years they have opened up the
Bauchi tin field in Northern Nigeria, and their trading and transport
facilities have made it possible for them to carry out an enormous amount
of development under great difficulties. The directors have had the
courage of their convictions. In forwarding their own interests they have
benefited the Protectorate, and if they have profited by their enterprise
they have made the country a source of profit for others.

From the proceeds of the surrender of its charter to the British
Government in 1900, the company were able to make a special distribution
to its shareholders amounting to 145 per cent., and the sale of certain
of their mining rights in the Bauchi Province has more than repaid them
for the work that they had carried on in the district since 1902, and
resulted in raising their dividend payment in 1909 from ten to twenty
per cent. And in addition the Niger Company possess practically a
monopoly of the transport to the tin fields, the value of which cannot be

The Niger Company’s share of the credit that is due for effecting this
great improvement in the present condition and future prospects of the
Protectorate may be at once admitted; but much has been accomplished
since the control of the country devolved upon the British Colonial
Office. In 1900 only some 30,000 square miles, out of a total of 250,000
in Northern Nigeria, were under some form of organised control. The
remainder was controlled and ruled under conditions giving no guarantee
of liberty or even life. To-day the whole condition of the country is
entirely altered. Sixteen provinces, comprising the entire Protectorate,
have been organised by the never-ceasing efforts of Residents, and the
sum total of the unadministered area does not now exceed the 30,000
square miles that were under administration ten years ago.


At the date of the proclamation of the Nigerian Protectorates the
Southern Colony was in a much more advanced state of development than its
Northern neighbour, and was naturally regarded as the paramount partner.
It had a sea border, a port at Lagos, which to-day is the most important
town in West Africa, and it was destined to be the terminus of the first
railway to be built in the new Dependencies. The markets and trading
stations of the Niger Company were within its boundaries, the fertility
of the soil was proved, its richness in rubber, tobacco, and coal was
established, and its wealth of other vegetable products was well known.
It is not at all surprising, then, that British pioneers and capitalists
saw the splendid commercial future that was before Southern Nigeria,
and were somewhat neglectful of the distant, isolated, and inaccessible
Northern territories. Nor were they wrong, for the advance of its trade
justified the most sanguine predictions, and, as will be seen by a glance
at the appended tables (prepared in francs by Mr. C. A. Birtwistle, the
Commercial Intelligence Officer of the Colony), its commerce to-day
practically equals the total of the French Colonies of Senegal, Guinea,
the Ivory Coast, and Dahomey:—

                        All French
                  West African Colonies.           Nigeria.
                   Imports and Exports.      Imports and Exports.
                     Value in Francs.          Value in Francs.

    1899               116,843,000                78,000,000
    1900               129,861,000                90,575,000
    1901               131,459,000                96,625,000
    1902               130,906,000               112,325,000
    1903               161,819,000               111,700,000
    1904               155,949,000               130,100,000
    1905               152,471,000               128,775,000
    1906               163,442,000               144,925,000
    1907               177,436,000               192,550,000
    1908               193,090,000               184,550,000

It will be noted at a glance that whilst French West African trade has
increased by 65 per cent., that of Nigeria has grown by 136 per cent.


Northern Nigeria, however, was known to be rich in iron, and the
existence of other minerals was suspected; its suitability as a field
for the exploitation of the cotton-growing industry was realised and
the British Cotton-Growing Association reported a few years ago that
“in Northern Nigeria alone lies the possible salvation of Lancashire.”
Moreover, the Directors of the Niger Company had always foretold the
ultimate importance that would be attained by the regions north of the
Niger and the Benue. The company’s trade flourished in the south, new
products were being continually discovered and new factories opened, and
the optimism of its shareholders was justified by the declaration of
substantial dividends, but Sir George Goldie consistently predicted the
boundless potentialities of the unopened North, and as far back as 1889
declared: “We can hardly impress too strongly upon our shareholders that
our hopes of future prosperity rest far less on the lower regions of the
Niger than upon the higher, inner, and recently explored country.”

Sir Percy Girouard and others have warned the public against confusing
Northern and Southern Nigeria, and running away with the idea that there
is no great difference between them. As Colonel Mockler-Ferryman says:
“Commencing with what is called the Niger Delta, we have a land of swamps
and impenetrable forests, intersected by a vast network of streams and
creeks and inhabited by numerous pagan tribes addicted to every species
of vile custom, including even cannibalism and human sacrifices.... Above
the pagan land—_i.e._, at the confluence [of the rivers Niger and Benue]
there is a marked change, not only in the type of the people but also in
the nature of the country. Mohammedan influence commences to show itself,
and low swampy wastes are superseded by rocky hills or far-extending
grassy plains, well studded with magnificent trees.”


The existence of alluvial tin in these Northern regions was known for
some considerable time, but until a year or two ago its value as a
commercial asset was not seriously considered. Rumours of such sources
of wealth frequently reached the Niger Company, and quantities of small
faggots of very pure metal, which occasionally found their way down
to the coast, afforded evidence that the natives had been working and
smelting tin for a lengthy period. It was subsequently discovered that
the procedure adopted by the native Nigerian tin miners, and described by
Mr. Nicolaus, is as follows:

“The washers, usually working in gangs of three or four, wade into the
river, tributary creeks and gullies, generally at or near some shallow
rapids, and, loosening the gravel under water with a short hoe-like
implement, scoop it into large calabashes about 18 inches to 24 inches
in diameter. As soon as sufficient gravel is collected (about 30 lbs.),
it is washed, and the resulting rough concentrate placed in a smaller
calabash, 6 inches to 8 inches in diameter, and thoroughly cleansed,
nearly all the fine tinstone being lost. The resulting ‘black tin’
containing the equivalent of from 60 to 65 per cent. metal, is sun-dried,
and packed in bags and skins for transport to the smelting furnaces.

“This ‘black tin’ is usually smelted in various parcels on a royalty
basis, exclusively by members of one family, who hold the process
a profound secret. Only three native smelting furnaces are in use,
and these are each capable of turning out about 2 cwt. of metal per
diem. They are built of well-puddled clay, and are 3 feet 6 inches in
diameter, and have at the back four tuyère holes conducting the blast
from primitive sheepskin bellows to the hearth. The tin is reduced by
means of charcoal, and runs through a channel 2 feet 6 inches long and
4 inches broad to a catch-pot, whence it is ladled by small gourds or
calabashes and poured. The tin is cast in the form of thin bars of about
an eighth of an inch in diameter and 12 inches long, which are produced
by pouring the molten metal on semi-circular banks of clay, 18 inches
high, perforated by dry Guinea corn-halms.”


The first actual discovery of tin in the Protectorate, or the first
conclusive evidence of its actual existence there, has hitherto been
‘wrop in mystery,’ but, thanks to the courtesy of Sir William Wallace,
late acting Governor of Northern Nigeria, I am in a position to dispel
all uncertainty on the subject. In the course of a letter I received
from Sir William, dated 21st October 1910, he says:—“Up to ’84 we used
to believe that the tin used by the Hausa people for tinning their brass
ware was brought across the desert. I then, being busily engaged opening
up the Benue River to trade, got a hint that the tin was being smelted
in some of the Hausa States, and, on making inquiries, found that it
was being produced in Bauchi. We did all possible to develop the trade
in the tin straws, but with little success, as the pagan tribes would
have no dealings with the Hausa merchants, and rightly so, as it would
have only led to the subjection of the tribes to the Fulani, whom they
kept at bay till our advent in 1902. Early in that year I went with the
little army as Political Agent to subdue the Emir of Bauchi, and after
settling that matter I was able to get messengers through to the Delimi
River, close to the Naraguta, from whence they brought about a quarter
of a hundredweight of the tin sands, the first ever procured or seen by
Europeans. This sample I brought home, and submitted to the Directors of
the Niger Company, who shortly afterwards took out a prospecting licence
over 1000 square miles. Since then, thanks principally to Mr. Laws, the
mining industry has slowly forged ahead, until the rush came along this
year. Year in, year out, I have been urging companies and encouraging
prospectors to come along until I almost despaired of success; but now,
given a railway to the tin field, the industry cannot but prosper if the
Government do not hamper it with too many restrictions.”


Sir William Wallace’s tribute to the work done by Mr. Laws, the plucky
and importunate mining adviser of the Niger Company, is entirely
merited. The existence of paying tin was regarded with some scepticism.
It has also been surmised that the officials and civil servants had
too comfortable berths to risk the disappointments and discomforts
of prospecting work. Moreover, the Niger Company was in a flourishing
condition, and its directors were not anxious to launch into mining
enterprises. But Mr. Laws and his assistants were indefatigable. In 1902
and 1903 three expeditions were despatched to locate the tin areas. The
little party, under the protection of an armed escort—for at that time
the natives, now so friendly, were somewhat hostile—proceeded to make a
geological examination of the country east of the Niger, and eventually
found tin in the Province of Bauchi, some 600 miles to the north-east of
Lokoja. Further prospecting located the stanniferous area to the outlines
of the Gura Mountains, a small range known as the Naraguta and Shere
Hills in the Badiko district of that province.


The geology of the area, as described by Mr. R. C. Nicolaus, is composed
of granites, igneous intrusions of diabase and porphyry forming the
prominent peaks of the hill range. Near the river a coarse grey gneiss
forms a contact with the granite, both of which rocks are traversed by
lenticles and gash veins of quartz, and several small igneous dykes
cross diagonally the general strike of country, which is north-east and
dips west.

Although the stream tin had so far only been prospected in the
neighbourhood of the rivers, there was abundant evidence to show that the
source of the tin supply came from a stockwork formation in the granite
at the slopes and at the base of the foot-hills. A somewhat remarkable
feature of this deposit was that a considerable quantity of metallic
tin was discovered under the river banks during prospecting operations.
It was found in small grains and nodules about the size of a bean,
its surface very thinly coated with only a trace of iron. It was very
ductile, and emitted, on crushing, the peculiar tin cry. Its mode of
occurrence in the gravels, associated with coarse grains of stream tin
at a depth of some 15 feet under the surface, did not at first allow its
genesis being determinable, but it was unhesitatingly put down as “native
tin”—a mineral up to that time of very rare occurrence.


Mr. Laws and his engineers were so well satisfied with their work, and
the results they produced were so encouraging, that the Niger Company
applied in 1905 for a number of mining leases in selected areas. In
spite of slight difficulties arising from a scarcity of water in the dry
season, a considerable amount of development work was accomplished, and
the company secured an output of one ton of black tin per diem. These
results proved that the gravels could be worked profitably, while the
geological structure of the country compelled experts to the conclusion
that the field represented by far the most important discovery of native
tin that had been made. Further examination of the district, which fully
confirmed the expectations raised by the first reports, has inspired the
prediction that this Northern Nigerian tin field is perhaps the richest
in the world.

The Niger Company continued to treat the alluvial in the old primitive
method, which consists in the main of the use of calabash and sluice
boxes, by which they have, up to the present time, secured over 1000
tons of black tin. Still, the mineral resources of the colony were not,
until recently, appreciated in accordance with the proved facts. Lord
Scarborough year after year had told the British public, in his annual
speech to the shareholders of the Niger Company, that there was treasure
in Northern Nigeria in the shape of alluvial tin. He told them, in March
1907, that during the previous fifteen months roughly 240 tons of black
tin, of the approximate gross value of £30,000, had been obtained from
one property, the Naraguta, or an average of 16 tons a month. He told
his shareholders in 1908 that the Niger Company had won £29,933 worth of
tin for that year. Last year he said: “As regards tin development, we
have brought home and marketed an increased quantity of ore compared with
the previous year.” This year the chairman of the Niger Company declared
a 2s. dividend per share as a result of the sale of a small portion of
their mining lands.


The first official recognition of the importance of the Bauchi tin
deposits was conveyed to the public in the Colonial Report on Northern
Nigeria in 1905, and in 1906 was published the First Report on the
Results of the Mineral Survey of Northern Nigeria, 1904-5. “The mineral
resource of Northern Nigeria being virtually unknown” (to quote the
report), “a mineral survey of the Protectorate to be carried out under
the general supervision of the Director of the Imperial Institute by
surveyors nominated by him, was proposed by Sir F. Lugard, the High
Commissioner of Northern Nigeria, and sanctioned by the Secretary of
State for the Colonies in 1904.” It was arranged that the officers of the
Survey should spend about eight months of each year in Northern Nigeria
in exploring the mineral deposits of selected districts.

In the general introductory summary of the first report of the surveyors,
the prospects of the tin fields of Northern Nigeria are described with
the customary official reserve. “Tin, in the form of cassiterite,” the
report stated, “has now been found in the stream beds of other districts.
It is probable that as soon as suitable transport is provided Northern
Nigeria will become an important tin-producing country. Already deposits
in the Bauchi Province are being worked by the Niger Company, and
the metal smelted on the spot. The first consignment of tin from the
Protectorate has reached this country.”

The prospect presented by this information, backed up by substantial
shipments of tin, might have been expected to stimulate the curiosity
of both prospectors and capitalists, and that other Richmonds would
have made an appearance in the Bauchi field. But any hopes of such a
result were doomed to disappointment. The Niger Company continued to
win mineral, and the Mineral Survey persisted in their efforts to prove
the extent of country over which the granites were tin bearing. It is
possible that the remoteness and inaccessibility of the Protectorate
operated unfavourably in the minds of mining adventurers, and the evil
reputation which had been erroneously given to the country may have moved
financiers to an excess of cautiousness. The colony made no new friends,
and, as will be shown later, it was not until last year and then only by
the accident of failure in another direction, that capital was diverted
into the new tin field.


Eleven specimens of tinstone concentrates from the Zagi River, south
of Bauchi, from Bula, Tilde, and the river beyond Joss were forwarded
to the Imperial Institute, and with only one exception were found upon
analysis to contain tin in quantities of from mere traces up to 80.85 per
cent, of tin oxide, equivalent to 63.5 per cent. of metallic tin in the

The official general remarks on the specimens analysed were as follows:

“Most of the concentrates were obtained from the plateaux of Tilde,
Rukuba, Joss, and Ngell. On the first three of these the principal
surveyor reports that the Niger Company has prospecting camps. The finest
grained tinstone is found on the Tilde plateau, the coarser material
coming from Joss and Ngell. The tinstone is said to be irregularly
distributed, and adjoining pits may furnish such different yields as
10 lbs., or less, and 400 lbs. per ton on gravel worked. The average
yield at the Rukuba camp is 25 lbs. per ton. The present works, it is
stated, are all in the near neighbourhood of the river Delimi, but it
appears that the gravels are more or less rich in tin over the whole
surface of the plateau. The river-beds in some cases contain valuable
tinstone-bearing gravels, as is shown by the results of the analysis
of the concentrate from the river-bed at Tilde, which contained 68 per
cent. of tinstone. That from beyond Joss contained only 40 per cent. of
tinstone, possibly owing to the difficulty of separating the ilmenite
from the tinstone by washing. The concentrate from the Kende River
consisted almost entirely of ilmenite. The presence of the latter mineral
in the stream beds will introduce a difficulty in the concentration of
the tinstone, as it is not readily distinguishable by inspection from
tinstone, and collects with it in the first concentration.

“The results so far obtained show that tinstone is widely distributed
in the province of Bauchi in the alluvium of both the high and low
plateaux. As these tinstone districts are in process of being prospected,
it is scarcely worth while to discuss the commercial value of the tin
concentrates here, but it may be pointed out that several of these
concentrates contain monazite, and this may be worth recovering.
The amount of monazite present is usually small, and it is scarcely
likely that its recovery under present circumstances would pay for the
working of an electro-magnetic concentrator, which would be required to
effect its separation. If, however, it becomes necessary to use such
concentrators in order to separate the ilmenite, which occurs with the
tinstone, then it would probably be worth while to recover the monazite
as a by-product.

“The question of the origin of the tinstone occurring in this region
is of great interest, and the officers of the Survey propose to devote
further attention to the subject.”

The Colonial Report for 1907-8 carried us no further, as the third Survey
party which arrived in the country in December 1907 were still upon
their seven months expedition, and the results of their work had not
been received. The report referred, however, to the fact that the Niger
Company, continuing its work on its licensed area in the Bauchi Province,
were exporting black tin to the amount of 500 tons per annum, and added:
“The main difficulty in the development of this promising industry is its
situation. With the construction of the railway through Zaria it should
be possible to place the mines in close connection with it by means of a
road, which should also serve the Bauchi Province.”


In one of his reports on the Bauchi tin area, Mr. Lush says:

“There is not the slightest doubt that before very long many of the deep
alluvial flats that are some distance from the shallow and more easily
worked tin ground will be worked. The values may turn out to be poorer
than the shallow ground, but the natural facilities are better owing to
the water supply being sufficient for continuous working without the
expense of erection of dams. On the other hand, when you get out of the
granite country, the further you are away from the source of the tin the
greater are the impurities mixed with it. The numerous creeks, after
passing through the schists and other rocks emptying into the main river,
all tend to this, and titanic iron, tourmaline, rutile, and gem sand form
a large percentage of the concentrates. However, if on boring, the deep
ground turns out payable, there should be no difficulty in getting rid of
the impurities and dressing the tin up to 70 per cent.”

Mr. L. H. L. Huddart, writing on this subject in his report on the South
Juga property, says:

“_Sources of the Tin._—The black tin is probably derived from the granite
of which it is a rock constituent, and from stockworks in the granite
quartz porphyry occurs very similar to the ‘elvans’ in Cornwall.

“_Nature of the Wash._—In the upper end the wash is a fine whitish
granite, containing no large pebbles or boulders, and is near the
original source of some of the Juga tin. The surface is slightly cemented
with iron oxides in which cassiterite often grows. The whole wash very
easily breaks down with water. The ground further down the property is
similar except that the alluvial has travelled further, and consequently
has been sorted to a greater extent.

“Taken generally, the tin bearing is the product of denudation from the
granite of which the bed-rock, and sides of the valley are composed. The
tin occurs in the wash right up against the granite on both sides of
the valley. The topaz is abundant in the wash, and with some zircon and
rootile is almost the only mineral besides cassiterite occurring in the

In his report on the Kurdum River Tin Concession, Mr. Huddart says:

“_Geology._—The base rock is a foliated gneiss and schist; the great
granite _massif_ forming the Jarawa Hills lies to the west of the
property. There is a good deal of granite on the property, with some
dolerite. The rocks are compact, and show considerable signs of regional

“_Source of the Tin._—The tin has been carried down from the rich placers
at the head water of the Kurdum River, and form feeders that come in
above the property from the Jarawa and Fuersum country. In one or two
places the natives work the river-bed, an indication in itself of high
value, as it does not pay them to work any but rich gravel. The alluvial
ground is a quartz gravel with sand near the top. There is very little
clay, and long boulders are unlikely, and the wash is friable and easy to
work. The river-bed gravel where coarse is very rich.

“_Concentrates._—These contain usually minerals such as ilmenite,
rootile, zircon, and some topaz and garnet. The tin is of good quality,
and varies in colour from black to ruby and pale yellow. A little
monazite is found, and an occasional colour of gold. There should be no
difficulty in shipping concentrates that will assay 71 or 72 per cent.
metallic tin. The tinstone is of a good average size for saving in the
sluice boxes which can be given a good grade.”


The Government Report on Northern Nigeria for 1908-9 contained the
announcement that tin in paying quantities had been located in the
Provinces of Bauchi, Nassarawa, and on the Kobba-Ilorin border, and
this information has since been supplemented by the Akerri (Nigeria)
Tin Company Ltd., which has taken up a tin area in an entirely fresh
district, one day’s journey west of Zungeru, and one and a half day’s
journey north-east of Jebba.

Meanwhile, in a White Paper on “Nigeria, September 1910,” issued in the
following month of October, we get an official reference to the new tin

“Mr. Parkinson states that in the Oban Hills, Southern Nigeria, there
are tourmaline pegmatites, and Schmeisser has recorded that since the
discovery of an apparently rich tin deposit near Banyo, there has been
much prospecting for that mineral in the Cameroons. Surface tin is found
in Northern Nigeria by the natives, and sold, chiefly to the Niger
Company, but mines on a large scale have not as yet been worked. The
geological surveyors sent out by the Imperial Institute have detected
the presence of alluvial tin in many sand and river gravels. At Uwet, in
Old Calabar, Mr. Parkinson reports the occurrence of tinstone during the
year 1906, and of the washed samples 80 per cent. was tinstone, and the
remainder was garnet, tourmaline, quartz, and columbite.”


The Bauchi tin won by the Niger Company is of rich quality, and commands
a considerably higher price than ordinary English tin; but while
Lord Scarborough persistently told the public of the results of their
operations, mining was not energetically proceeded with, and as has
been said the new field attracted less attention than it deserved.
But as prospecting work in the district became more general, it was
realised from the virgin nature of the area, the cheapness and abundance
of labour available in the district, and the enormous extent of the
surface deposits, that the regions were extremely valuable and presented
potentialities of great and continuous profits. In the face of this later
information the first feeling of scepticism with which the discovery was
received passed away, doubt yielded to confidence, and it was soon known
that some of the most astute and influential groups in the City were
interested in the exploitation of the new field.

But although the future of the Bauchi tin district was assured, it was
necessary for some one to be first in the systematic development of the
new field. Every report emanating from the colony confirmed the story
of the richness of Nigerian tin, and a Royal Colonial Institute address
had admitted that “if the professional reports were anything like
approximately correct and the supply is regulated, a fabulous amount of
wealth is waiting to be extracted,” but the opportunity to make fortunes
out of Northern Nigeria was neglected until the Champion Gold Reefs of
West Africa, Ltd., who had abandoned their gold property on the Gold
Coast, boldly threw their remaining capital of £12,000 into the new field.


The credit, therefore, for placing the Nigerian tin fields before the
British investor is due to Messrs. Walter and Oliver Wethered, and Mr.
S. R. Bastard. It was Mr. Walter Wethered, being impressed by the large
quantities of metal which were being brought down by the natives and sold
to the Niger Company, who formed the opinion that these fields might be
suitable for working on a large scale. Having satisfied himself on this
point he was able to induce Mr. Bastard, and his brother, Mr. Oliver
Wethered, to join in the business, and as a result the Champion Gold
Reefs of West Africa, Ltd., of which Mr. Bastard was Chairman, decided in
the month of September 1909 to embark its remaining capital and all its
energies in the exploitation of the new Nigerian tin field. In October
the first members of their staff were sent out to the properties they
had already secured, to be followed on 3rd November by Mr. C. G. Lush,
the well-known tin expert, who was to advise them as to the best method
of developing their properties. Everything that happened satisfied this
pioneer group of the value of the field, and they formed the Tin Fields
of Northern Nigeria, Ltd., which was registered on 7th October 1909, with
a capital of £100,000. Mr. Bastard became chairman of this company.

The Nigerian Tin Corporation, Ltd., was registered on 14th October 1909,
with a capital of £100,000. On this occasion Mr. Oliver Wethered took the
chairmanship. No further company was floated during the year 1909, but
on 15th January 1910 this same group issued the Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin
Mines, Ltd., with a capital of £175,000. This company has already, in
the few months it has been working, recovered over 300 tons of tin, and
has declared its first dividend. The next venture to be floated by the
Champion Gold Reefs company was the Northern Nigerian (Bauchi) Tin Mines,
Ltd., registered on 2nd February 1910, with a capital of £200,000, of
which Mr. Oliver Wethered became a director.

The foregoing were the first five companies registered for the sole
purpose of working the alluvial tin deposits of Northern Nigeria, and
they were all promoted by this pioneer group, comprising Messrs. Walter
and Oliver Wethered, and Mr. S. R. Bastard. All these companies are
doing excellent work, and showing good results. After February of this
year others entered the field, and since March last a large number of
companies and syndicates have been registered and formed, several of
which are at work.

It was only to be expected that such brilliant results as these would
have the effect of inducing the more conservative firms to enter into the
fields of Northern Nigerian mineral enterprise, and now Messrs. Wernher,
Beit, the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, Fanti Consolidated,
and many other leading groups of bankers and capitalists are represented
in the Bauchi Province.


But while the prospecting and actual mining work being done on the Bauchi
field are establishing an ever-widening recognition of its mineral
wealth, its inaccessibility and the difficulties of transport, which
represent its chief drawbacks, have not yet been overcome, and it may be
opportune to explain here the methods of transport employed in the two
Nigerias, to describe the railway system, and to give some ideas of the
difficulties of carriage with which the mine owners of Northern Nigeria
have to contend.

Southern Nigeria, through which the Northern Protectorate is reached
from the coast, is covered with a network of waterways, which are the
natural transport roads of the entire region, and the Marine Department
is continually surveying old and overgrown streams and opening up new
river routes. It is possible, travelling by the Niger River from Forcados
to the confluence at Lokoja, and following from that point the Benue
River to Loko, to arrive within about 180 miles of Bauchi, or going by
rail from Lagos to Jebba, the present northern terminus of the line, to
get, as the crow flies, within 300 miles of that centre. The river route
is obviously the quickest and cheapest, and is the one still in use, the
natives carrying the tin in parcels of 60 lbs. weight on their heads from
the field to Loko, travelling about 15 miles a day. At Loko, the metal is
put into small steamers or barges, according to the season, and conveyed
to the confluence, where it is transferred to Niger boats and taken
to Forcados for shipment to Liverpool, the entire journey occupying
thirty-five days and costing £29 10s. per ton.


When the construction of the Kano Railway from Baro on the Niger to
railhead is opened, and the road connecting the railway to Bauchi is
made, the journey will be appreciably shortened. The completion of the
railway from Lagos in 1911 should further reduce it to about twenty-eight
days, and again when motors are available on the new road, to about three

The cost per ton by the Forcados-Baro route will be:—

                                                £   _s._ _d._

    By sea to Forcados                          2    0    0

    Forcados to Baro by boat and by train from
      Baro to railhead by cheapest rate         7   12    6

    From railhead to tin field, about           9    0    0
                                              £18   12    6

This will be increased when the maximum rate is charged, and will be
reduced when the motor transport on the new road is available.


The future cost and time of transport depends upon the completion of
the railway construction at present in hand, and the decision of the
Government with regard to the suggested new line to connect the tin
fields with some selected spot upon the Baro-Kano line of railway. The
Lagos railway to Jebba in Northern Nigeria is 307 miles in length, but
although the last constructed stretch of 60½ miles from Ilorin was only
opened in August last, the line has already been continued for some 50
miles beyond the Niger, and the balance of 70 miles to be completed to
Zungeru, the capital of Northern Nigeria, is expected to be finished
early in the coming year. By this route, when the connecting line from
Zungeru to the Baro-Kano railway is constructed, and the branch from the
latter railway to Bauchi is built, it will be possible to carry machinery
all the way from Lagos to the new field by train, and bring the metal
down to the port by the same service.

But although this Lagos railway, as it is still called, taps a fertile
and thickly populated country and connects the capital of the north with
the coast, it became, with the commencement of the new Baro-Kano line the
second, instead of the first, most important factor in the development of
Northern Nigeria. Until the year 1907 the Northern Protectorate possessed
in the way of railways but one light 2 feet 6 inch tramway of 22 miles
in length, which connected its capital, Zungeru, with Baro, the nearest
navigable point on the river.

It was in May 1907 that Sir Percy Girouard, the Governor, whose name had
already become famous in connection with his splendid railway work in the
Sudan and in South Africa, formulated the railway policy, and recommended
the construction by the Public Works Department of the Protectorate of
a 3 feet 6 inch gauge railway from Baro, on the Niger River, to Kano,
a distance of a little short of 400 miles, on an estimate of £3000 per
mile. In August of the same year the Imperial Government sanctioned the
construction of the proposed line.

At the same time the views of the administrative Southern Protectorate
were met by the extension of the Lagos line into Northern Nigeria, with
a connection to be established from Zungeru with the Baro-Kano railway,
making it possible to travel from Kano either all the way by rail to
the coast at Lagos, or by rail to Baro, and thence by river steamers
to the mouth of the Niger. It is expected that the bulk of the exports
will follow the line to Baro, and thence be carried to the sea by water
transport, but the Lagos line serves such a rich and well populated
country, that when the Port of Lagos has been rendered accessible by
the harbour improvements now in construction, the line should prove of
increasing economic value, quite apart from any trade it may attract from
the more easterly provinces of Northern Nigeria.


The Baro-Kano railway was put in hand at an extremely opportune time, and
it was while the work of construction was being rapidly pushed forward
that the discovery of tin in the Bauchi Province turned the thoughts
of railway construction in an easterly direction, and the continuous
and consistently rich finds which rewarded the efforts of prospectors
in this region called daily and hourly attention to its remoteness. At
first it was considered that the formation of a good road from Bauchi
to strike the Baro-Kano line about Zaria would suffice for the needs of
the field, but the extraordinary extent and richness of the deposits,
and the phenomenal success achieved by the Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines,
Ltd., the Lucky Chance Mines, Ltd., and other companies at work there,
emphasised the self-evident fact that nothing less than a branch railway
would be sufficient to adequately develop the new industry. London
capitalists expressed their willingness to find the money to finance the
new line, but the question was, and still is, under the consideration of
the Colonial Office, and Sir Walter Egerton, the Governor of Southern
Nigeria, and Sir Hesketh Bell, the High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria,
and Sir William Wallace, the late acting Governor of that colony, all
strongly favour the construction of the line by the Government rather
than by private enterprise.


Sir Walter Egerton, in an interview he granted to a Press representative
in June last, said: “Everybody believes the tin deposits to be very rich,
and if only half the reports concerning them are true, there is more than
enough to warrant the expenditure of making a branch to the tin fields
of the Province of Bauchi. This would give direct access from the sea
at Lagos to the tin fields. The reports show that the tin alluvial is
similar to that of the Malay Peninsula, which produces more than half the
tin of the world. Southern Nigeria has already lent the money required
for the construction of the railway to Kano, and it is a question
for the consideration of the Secretary of State whether we should
not also finance the building of the line to the tin areas. I should
think it would be a great advantage to Southern Nigeria to have such
communication, as a large traffic might be expected. If the Secretary
of State agrees, there is no reason to expect that there will be any
opposition in Southern Nigeria to financing the line, for the success of
the tin industry will have a wonderful effect not only on Northern, but
also on Southern Nigeria, for the Protectorates, though two politically,
are one geographically.”


Since this interview was published it has been persistently rumoured that
the Government have decided to build the suggested line from a point
near Rigachiko, on the Baro-Kano line, to a place called Toro, between
120 and 130 miles distant, in the centre of the tin district, and midway
between Naraguta and Juga. The country which the line would traverse has
been surveyed, and a new road, 12 feet wide throughout, and capable of
conveying light motor traffic in the dry season is being constructed, and
will probably be completed before the end of the present year. But the
Government have not yet announced their decision, and it is doubtful,
although efforts have been made to induce them to divert the funds for
extending the line from Zaria to Kano for the purpose of the tin fields
branch, whether they can be persuaded to do so. It is believed, as Sir
Walter Egerton said, that if the Government acts on the recommendation
of the Governor of Northern Nigeria, the Government of Southern Nigeria
would be willing to undertake the construction of the line, and should
the Colonial Office decline to sanction the scheme, representatives of
several of the companies interested in the new tin field have expressed
their readiness to finance the railway.

As recently as October 22nd a meeting of representatives of the various
Northern Nigerian tin companies was held at the London Offices of the
Niger Company, when a general committee, to be named the Northern
Nigerian Mines Association, was formed, composed of a representative of
each of the companies, and a sub-committee, composed of Lord Scarborough,
Mr. S. R. Bastard, Mr. O. Wethered, Mr. Godfrey, and Mr. Berry was
appointed to deal with urgent business. The chief attention of this
meeting was naturally paid to the question of transport, and the first
business done was the passing of a resolution urging the Colonial Office
to construct the railway to the Bauchi tin fields as early as possible.
The Association decided on the appointment of a medical officer, and
they have, furthermore, given instructions for a hospital to be built on
the field at Joss. It will therefore be seen that everything possible is
being done to urge upon the Government the importance of pushing forward
this work, which will doubtless be taken seriously in hand before long.


Everybody connected with the Protectorate or interested in the new tin
field is agreed as to the absolute necessity of constructing the line.

Mr. J. Tomson, the chief engineer of the Anglo-Continental Mines Company,
who recently returned to England after an extended tour in the Bauchi
district, declared that the difficulties of transport are at present
tremendous, but he is of opinion that they could best be overcome by
running a railway from Minna, a point on the Baro-Kano line to Naraguta,
the capital of Bauchi.

“Before I left,” said Mr. Tomson to a representative of the _Morning
Post_, “I had an interview with Sir Hesketh Bell, the Governor, and found
him most sympathetic towards the mining industry. He recognises that the
railway should be built to the tin fields as quickly as possible, but
of course it is a question of ways and means. If the Colonial Office
came to the rescue and made a special grant for laying the line, or else
allowed the united mining companies to construct it themselves, which
they are quite willing to do, all would be well. But it is important that
something should be done at once. If not, there is going to be a serious
difficulty over the food supply, because so many mining companies have
gone to the Bauchi district that the farmers are unable to cope with the
demand for food. With a railway to Minna and then along the line now
being laid to Zungeru, which connects up the Lagos railway and the line
from Baro, the ore would reach port in a few days.”

Mr. Beresford, the Secretary of the Administration of Northern Nigeria,
in an official letter written to a correspondent, discussing new means
of transport in the Protectorate, says:— “A survey for a road has just
been completed, and it has been found that the Rishi Pass is not a
practicable line, and it is considered that Toro or Tilde, and not
Liruei, should be the point of objective. It is hoped that by December
next a rough road, fit for carts or light motors, may be completed to
Toro _via_ the Gusu Pass, but the Governor is strongly of opinion that
nothing but a railway will suit the requirements of the tin fields, even
in the near future, and he hopes that it may be possible to find funds
for such a project.”


When the work of seeing these pages through the press was nearing
completion, a letter arrived at the London offices of the Tin Fields
of Northern Nigeria, Ltd., from their engineer, Mr. Jerome J. Collins,
describing the means of transport from the coast to the seat of
operations in the Bauchi Province. The particulars, which are given from
personal experience of the journey, are both interesting and instructive,
as they are also the last word to hand on the subject, and the excerpts
which follow are published by the courtesy of the directors of the
company, by whom the letter was received.

Writing from Kogin Jarawa, under date September 13, Mr. Collins says:—

_Niger River Transport._—Forcados to Baro.

The distance is 407 miles. The Niger Company, Ltd., and the Government
run shallow draught steamers carrying passengers and cargo. The
Government steamers run a weekly service in connection with the mail
steamers from Liverpool. The Niger Company run steamers as inducement

The time occupied is about ten days by both services, but a great deal of
this time is taken up with stoppages at the various towns along the river.

The Government steamers are in a very bad state of repair, and much time
is lost owing to breakdowns. In the rainy season branch steamers travel
between the coast and Baro, at present carrying railway material. They
have facilities for handling heavy cargo.

The season extends from July to September.

The Government and Niger Company’s boats have no facilities for handling
heavy cargo, being limited to packages capable of being handled by native
labour, which is tedious and expensive.

The cost of transport by Government steamers for ordinary cargo from
Forcados to Baro is from 40s. to 60s., and down from Baro to Forcados is
from 21s. to 33s.

_Railway Transport._—Baro to Rigachiko.

The distance is 225 miles. The railway is not yet completed to Rigachiko,
where the Bauchi road starts, but I understand from railway officials
that the line will be through by next March, 1911. Railhead at present is
at Kogin Serikin Pawa, 172 miles from Baro, but rails are laid to within
fifteen miles of Rigachiko, and this part of the line will be ready as
soon as the bridges are completed.

The railway is 3 feet 6 inch gauge, and has been constructed with economy
always in view. Up to the present there is no ballast on the line, and
consequently there are serious delays during the rainy season owing to
derailment of engines and the washout of embankments. My journey from
Baro to railhead occupied fifteen days; the most of this time was lost
owing to breakdowns on the line.

The journey should occupy two days, and I have no doubt that by March
next it will be possible to get from Baro to Rigachiko in two days.

The freight on the line at present is 8s. per ton per mile, equal to £7
10s. per ton from Baro to Rigachiko, but at present the railway company
will not undertake to transport cargo unless it is accompanied, and even
then they will take no responsibility.

I understand that in the next year, when the railway is open to Zaria,
the freight will be reduced to 6s. per ton per mile, equal to £5 12s. 6d.
per ton from Baro to Rigachiko.

_Road Transport._—Rigachiko to Naraguta.

The distance is approximately 135 miles. On my journey across by this
road I took eight days, which is as quick as can be expected.

The Government engineers are clearing a track twelve feet wide, and
pulling out tree stumps. They are also grading down banks of creeks to
one in ten.

They are expending £20 per mile on this work, and have completed fifty
miles in two months.

This road track will come into the tin fields at Toro, twelve miles
north-east of Naraguta, and twelve miles west of the company’s property
at Federri. This track should be finished by the end of the year.

The country is flat and very easy for road building. There are four large
rivers to cross, which would require bridges of over 100 feet in length,
and numerous small creeks which could be bridged cheaply.

There is plenty of stone suitable for road ballast, available near
the road. When the road track is through to the tin fields it will be
possible to transport stores by carrier in seven days from railway.

It may be mentioned here that the Niger Company up to the present have
had great difficulty with the prospectors and others travelling up to the
tin fields, owing, in some cases, to their not having left themselves
entirely in the hands of the company. The Niger Company have practically
controlled the country, and have perfected arrangements by which they
can supply large numbers of natives for carrying goods from the river
to the tin field, but on several occasions their organisation has been
interfered with by persons offering the natives three or four times their
usual pay in order to get them through quickly to the fields. This, of
course, as will be seen, is a dangerous policy, for if a scale is not
strictly adhered to, the time will come when the natives will start
attempting to dictate their own terms.

The Niger Company are not in favour of the motor route from the head
of the Baro-Kano to the fields. Their opinion is that the money would
be wasted on such a road, and that the mining community should be
satisfied to wait until the railway is made. Their view is that the
mining companies should join together and come to an arrangement with
the Niger Company for carrying all the goods along their own route from
Loko to the field _via_ Keffi and Bukeru. This road, they say, could
be reserved for mining business, and they would open up another route,
starting from a point near Sinkai higher up the Benue River, which could
be used for ordinary commercial purposes. They point out that with the
rush of goods required for the mines, they have been unable to get up a
sufficient and proper supply of provisions. This question, of course,
requires careful consideration, as although the Niger Company wish to be
considered as offering this advice in a purely disinterested manner, it
should be remembered that they are asking for contracts for the whole of
the transport, which would enable them to employ thousands of natives at
a very low figure.


Meantime the energetic prospecting and mining work that is being done in
the Province of Bauchi is establishing the fact that the new tin area is
of enormous extent and value both in the nature of alluvial gravels and
the more permanent form of tin lodes. Mr. Lush, the well-known mining
authority, who has examined a great part of the Province, estimates that
these deposits are scattered over an area of no less than 2,500 square
miles, and the tin produced is considered to be some of the best ever
imported into Europe, and commands a price equal, if not higher, than
the Straits tin. The land is situated about 3,000 to 4,000 feet above
sea-level, and the late Director of Mines in Northern Nigeria states that
the climate is equal to that of Rhodesia, if not even better.

“Few people have any idea,” Mr. Tomson asserts, “of the possibilities of
this country. It is quite a mistake to think it is unhealthy. Naraguta
is over 3,500 feet above the sea-level, and is a healthy and fertile
district. Here you are hundreds of miles away from the malarial swamps
and the coast. If you walk up out of the town of Naraguta on to rising
ground, as far as you can see stretch out great plains of waving grass,
here and there dotted with masses of the Fulani cattle. It would make
a splendid wheat-growing district, for the land requires very little
cultivation, and there is no bush country. Kano, which lies nearly two
hundred miles to the north, is a remarkable place. Several travellers
have stated that it is the largest market in the world.”


Mr. Huddart, until recently Director of Mines, who has declared that the
climate of Northern Nigeria is better than that of Rhodesia, and that the
country is without a single tsetse belt, says:

“The nights are quite cold, and any man who lives well ought to have
perfect health. I do not reckon it in the least like any other part of
West Africa; it is more like Eastern Soudan, and it is known as the
Western Soudan. With regard to water, which, as you know, is a very
important question, it is quite erroneous to imagine that there is
very little water here. In Northern Queensland and South-Eastern and
Western Australia there is much less water than here; in fact there is
no comparison between them. Mr. Lush and I—and I had the pleasure of
travelling with him—were never at any trouble in getting water, we never
had even to carry water, and those who have travelled know what that

In Nigeria they have only two well-defined seasons, the wet and the
dry season. The wet season lasts from April till the end of October,
and during that time it is very difficult to do any prospecting work,
although, of course, mining can be carried on in certain districts. It is
during the dry season, from the end of October to April, that most of the
work can be accomplished, especially from a prospector’s point of view.


Mr. Lush, writing on the subject of the cost of living and provisions,
says “living is cheap, there being plenty of beef, mutton, fowls, milk,
eggs, &c. Any kind of vegetable grows well, especially English varieties;
in fact very few mining fields that I have visited can be compared to
Northern Nigeria in respect of the various sorts of wholesome fresh
food that can be obtained. In fact all one requires is flour and a few
groceries. The country will provide the rest.”


The new mining regulations, incorporated in the “Minerals Proclamation,
1910,” have already been published in Nigeria, but they are not yet
obtainable in this country, and I am privileged to be able to reproduce
a copy of them as an appendix to this book. From this document it will
be seen that a prospector must either take out a prospecting right, which
costs £5 per annum, and entitles the holder to explore for minerals
in those parts of the Protectorate not already leased or reserved by
Government notice, or an exclusive licence to prospect within an area
not exceeding 16 square miles for a fee of £5 per square mile. Mining
leases are only granted to holders of either one of these permits, who,
upon application, must show that _bonâ fide_ prospecting operations
have been carried on on the area applied for, and that they possess or
command sufficient working capital to ensure the proper development
and working of the mine. Leases of tin areas, which are granted for a
term up to twenty-one years, with the option to renew for a further
twenty-one years, are three in number, viz., lode mining leases, which
may be obtained up to a maximum of thirty claims of 80,000 square feet
per claim, at the rental of £4 per claim per annum; alluvial mining
leases, not exceeding 800 acres in area, with a minimum width throughout
of 400 yards, at a rate of 5s. per acre per annum; and stream mining
leases, which shall be confined to the bed of a stream, not exceeding one
mile in length, at a rental of £1 per 100 yards per annum. Penalties in
the shape of fines or imprisonment are to be inflicted for prospecting
without a licence or working a mine without a lease, for interfering with
a prospector in the exercise of his rights, for giving false information
in an application for a mining lease, or for “salting” a mine, and the
Government reserve the power to cancel a prospecting right or revoke
a mining lease for certain breaches of the new regulations. Over and
above the fees charged for yearly rental of leases, the holder is by
statute required to pay a royalty of 5 per cent. to the Niger Company on
the value of all metal won, and another royalty of 5 per cent. to the
Government, who collect their royalty in the form of export duty.


A population estimated at seven to nine millions is already on the land,
and although their labour would not be very efficient so far as skilled
work is concerned, there is plenty of rough work to be done, for which
about 6d. per day is paid. The costs of treatment are not expected to
exceed 6d. per cubic yard. When it is remembered that it is possible for
one property to contain many hundreds of thousands of cubic yards of
alluvial wash, and that this alluvial tinstone is worth approximately
10d. per lb. at the present time, it will be realised that with the
working costs at the liberal figure of 6d. per cubic yard, there is a
very considerable margin of profit in these undertakings.

Mr. J. Tomson says of the natives that they make very good labourers:
“They insist on being paid with English money, ‘threepenny bits’ being
very popular. They have no liking for gold, and do not consider it so
valuable as silver. The pagans, who are the farming class, appear to be
a most industrious people. They still live in fear of invading Fulani,
and always take their bows and arrows with them to the field. Neither men
nor women wear dress of any kind. They have a juju or secret oath which
forbids them to put on any garment. With these people the missionaries
make no headway at all. Neither do they with the Mohammedans.”

The manager of the Lucky Chance Mines, reporting under date 29th August,
said he was still paying 6d. per day for ordinary labour, and so far
he had had little trouble with the men on day wages, although they had
several times tried to get him to raise the rate of pay.

Reporting on a property at Juga in the tin district, Mr. Huddart says:

“The properties are very favourably situated to obtain labour. The men
from Bauchi and the east come along the main caravan route looking
for work to enable them to earn money to pay the taxes, &c. As this
particular property is near the market, and the men usually halt at the
market, they can easily be recruited. The cost of ordinary labour is
1d. per hour, and is easily trained. The Bornu and Eastern Kanuri are,
in my opinion, the best workers available. A further advantage lies in
the position of the property in settled country under the control of the
Filani Emir of Bauchi, and the men prefer this to the pagan country.”

Referring to another property about twenty miles further south, Mr.
Huddart says:

“When all is in proper working order, I am convinced that ample labour
will be forthcoming, as the property is favourably situated in that it
can tap the Angass country and the western part of Bornu, as well as
the eastern Bauchi territory. When the proper camps are made, markets
organised, and the natives learn that a certain income awaits them, I
feel sure that labour will come in without any difficulty, and I speak
as one knowing their language and having an intimate knowledge of the

Mr. H. W. Laws, General Mining Manager of the Niger Company, in his
report to the Bisichi Company, whose property is near Naraguta, says:

“There is a good supply of labour in the country; owing to a sudden
increase in the demand for labour a temporary shortage was reported this
wet season, but the labour market is now rapidly recovering, and in view
of the very large amount of labour available in the Hausa States, and the
Province of Bornu, no difficulties need be anticipated as to the supply
in future.”

The concensus of opinions held by men who understand the amount and
nature of the work entailed in this particular form of mining, and are,
at the same time, personally familiar with the material that the country
has to offer for the purpose, shows that the supply of labour in Northern
Nigeria is entirely adequate, and although the development of West Africa
depends almost entirely upon the labour question, there is no prospect
of any difficulty on this account. Mr. Astley Cooper believes the chief
grounds upon which trouble might arise, are the desire of the majority
of the natives not to do too much work, the fear that a few months’
work in the mines would give a native sufficient money to live on for a
year or two, and the difficulty of getting the right sort of European
to take charge of the native labourers. But after all there is little
reason to anticipate trouble on any one of these counts. No native in any
part of the globe does more work than he is kindly but firmly obliged to
perform, and there is no necessity for employers to demoralise the native
labourers by a policy of over-payment. But the necessity of employing
the right sort of European to put in control over the natives is quite
to the point. The West African is more domestic than the Kaffir—of whom
there are over 200,000 at work in the Transvaal mines—and there is no
more willing worker if he has the proper white man over him. But it is
the duty of the Government and the trading companies, and the mining
corporations, to select the right men for their purpose, and if they are
wise in this respect there need be no fear of labour troubles in either
Southern or Northern Nigeria.


The published opinions of Government officials, engineers of repute,
capitalists, traders, and travellers, all tend to prove that in Northern
Nigeria we have one of the largest, if not the very largest, of the
tin-producing areas of the world. Other minerals are known to exist,
and very big developments may be looked for in the near future, as the
pioneering efforts of the Niger Company and the Champion Gold Reefs of
West Africa are being followed by powerful financial houses, but alluvial
tin stands out, and will always stand out, as the leading product of this
remarkable mineral country.

Two such astute men and persons so well acquainted with the country as
Sir Walter Egerton, the Governor of Southern Nigeria, and the late Sir
Alfred Jones, have expressed the strongest views as to the extent and
importance of these tin deposits, and the acting Governor of Northern
Nigeria in his latest report asserted that “with the introduction of more
capital and a good means of transport from the field to the railway a
very large development is anticipated.”

Mr. Lush says the Bauchi tin deposits are richer than he has seen in
any part of the world. It is, he says, a granite country, and although
the existence of reefs has been proved in one part of the district, the
alluvial deposits—which yield tin oxide containing about 72 per cent. of
metallic tin—are of principal importance.


Alluvial mining, has, of course, the demerit of being short-lived. There
is no great depth in the deposits, and especially if they are worked
economically—that is to say rapidly—they are exhausted in a comparatively
short time. But the attention directed to the district in these alluvial
workings will certainly lead to the discovery and opening-up of the
tin lodes, which in course of time should prove a more lasting source
of supply than the alluvials. Indeed, at two points, two tin lodes are
already being opened up, and before long a good idea should be obtained
of their value. The interests at work in the district will certainly see
that every chance is given to this side of the business, but, of course,
development upon a lode is very different work to that upon alluvial
deposits, and progress may be slower in their case. It is very unlikely,
with such an enormous area of stanniferous gravels, that lodes of
importance should not be discovered as time goes on, and there appears to
be no doubt that the tin production of Nigeria will become quite a factor
in the markets of the world. Many things will have to happen before lode
producing can be carried out upon a large scale, but as the alluvials
are worked out, the labour employed upon them can be concentrated upon
the most lasting deposits, and the operations of the alluvial miners
should produce a working population which should be fitted to deal with
the higher form of mining. Certain facilities will doubtless be given
to the district, and some idea of the importance and the developments
in this part of Nigeria can be gathered from the fact that the Bank
of British West Africa has been earnestly invited to open an office
in Bauchi. At present this matter is under consideration, since it is
difficult to fix upon a spot which will be most suitable for such an
institution to work, but before long it is probable that the tin-mining
district will have the facilities offered by a bank.


Mr. Oliver Wethered, whose name is so well known in connection with the
tin industry, has described to a meeting of shareholders the peculiar
advantages of the country which is now attracting the attention of the
tin markets of the world, and in the course of his address he said:

“Now as to the country in which our interests are centred, judging by the
information that I have received from all available quarters, I have no
hesitation in stating that we are interested in one of the most important
virgin alluvial tin fields the world has ever seen, and certainly the
most important that capitalists have had an opportunity of working as
a new field. In Tasmania, Australia, and other countries which have
produced large quantities of alluvial tin, the prospectors have gone in
by hundreds, and even thousands, and have washed out large quantities of
tin greatly to their own individual benefit. Subsequently the ground has
been worked over and over again, and in recent years again re-worked by
means of modern appliances. I may say here, that in Cornwall some of the
ground must have been worked eight or ten times, and big plants are now
being erected for the purpose of working it again by modern methods. It
will be obvious to every one that with a practically untouched field,
and working in the most economical and thorough way from the start, the
results cannot fail to be extremely satisfactory.

“Undoubtedly one of the factors which has delayed the opening up of the
tin fields of Nigeria has been the question of economical transport. But
the Nigeria tin is of very high quality. It fetches, as a rule, anywhere
from £6 to £8 more a ton than Cornish tin, and in this connection I
should like to read an extract from a letter which was written to me by
the managing director of the largest tin smelting works in Europe, to
whom I sent a sample of the tin oxide as it was received here, and of
which, in acknowledging it, he says, ‘It is about 75 per cent. metallic
tin, of excellent quality, equal to anything being put on the market, so
far as my observation goes.’ I am very closely connected with Cornish
mining, and there we get Bolivian, Straits, and all kinds of tin, and
it is the general opinion that Nigerian tin is one of the very best
tins imported into Europe, and will always command a price equal to, if
not better than, that of the Straits. Even under existing conditions
alluvial tin mining in Nigeria is a highly profitable business, but
when the present railway system is completed, and the road made from
the Government line to the tin field, the freight should be reduced by
many pounds per ton, and the profit largely increased. The completion of
the road would enable heavy machinery to be brought to the mines, when
larger quantities of the rich alluvial ground would be handled in an
economical way, and the work done at a cost much below what is possible
under existing conditions. The lodes, too, of which there is undoubted
evidence, could be worked. Meanwhile some machinery can be transported in
sections, and the output of tin should be rapidly increased and the costs
greatly reduced.”

Mr. Assheton Lever, in summing up the situation generally in Northern
Nigeria to a meeting of shareholders, said:

“We know that there are considerable areas there which in some cases are
very rich in alluvial tin. There are also tin lodes there; but that for
the present is another story, because alluvial tin is a thing which is
easily and comparatively inexpensively worked, whereas to work a lode
mine requires good means of transport, and to be able to get up to the
mines easily expensive and heavy machinery. We have a good climate, we
have a sufficiency of water, and so far as we can ascertain, we have a
sufficiency of native labour. All the companies which are interested in
Northern Nigeria appear anxious to co-operate, and are willing to work
together generally for their mutual benefit, and for the tin industry in

Mr. H. W. Lake, the consulting engineer, speaking in a professional
capacity at the same meeting, referred to the phenomenal richness of
the river banks in the tin district in Northern Nigeria, while very rich
alluvials are found on the flats, and when it comes to investigation of
the river banks themselves very much larger quantities of black tin to
the cubic yard are won. “I am speaking now,” he added, “from a certain
amount of experience, because four years ago we had an expedition in the
Bauchi district, and our engineer obtained some quite remarkable results
from the alluvial. Of course, it is a new country. There is a great deal
of pioneering work to be done, and what we have still to look forward
to is steady systematic organisation for the next year or two. We do
not want to make the mistakes that have been made in the opening up of
many new countries—some of them not very far from Nigeria—but we do want
to settle down to steady systematic development. As far as the railway
is concerned, there seems no doubt that we shall have a line into the
tin fields, which is going to simplify the question of transport, and
reduce the costs very materially. With regard to the actual working of
these alluvials, to begin with, I am of opinion that we should use the
simplest methods possible—ground sluicing and so forth, but there will
come a time when we shall have very seriously to consider the question
of hydraulicing and treating these alluvials on a very much larger scale
than would be possible by means of sluicing.”


The extraordinary results obtained by the Naraguta Company might be
regarded as exceptional, since it was a proved mine when taken over from
the Niger Company, and the actual work done upon it has only confirmed
what was previously known of its phenomenal value. But it may be said
with great confidence, after careful examination, by not one, but many
engineers, that the picture is not in any degree overdrawn. Moreover, the
head of a great firm of mining engineers who was inclined to ridicule
the values reported, has since admitted that he has altogether changed
his opinion, and that he thinks from advices he has received, that the
Malay Peninsula fields, even in their palmiest days, were never “in it”
with the Northern Nigerian alluvial tin fields. In one place tin has been
taken out, on the Dubbo property, belonging to the Lucky Chance Mines,
extending over 640 acres, which actually goes 120 lbs. to the cubic
yard. That is to say, that the calabashers must be getting out tin almost
pure. This may be only a pocket; but the whole character of the reports
from the fields makes it perfectly certain that the general nature of
the Bauchi district, where the alluvial tin is mostly found, is of an
absolutely phenomenal character.

There is no doubt whatever that in this remote district of Nigeria, which
until a few years ago, was closed to the white man by the ferocity of its
inhabitants, nature has been concentrating tin for thousands and tens of
thousands of years, until we have it now in very large quantities in an
almost pure condition. To Sir Percy Girouard is largely due the honour of
opening up this country, through the discipline he and his subordinates
dealt out to the original inhabitants. To his successor, Sir Hesketh
Bell, fell the duty and the honour of opening up further the country by a
railway system which will make it a great Imperial acquisition.

The work of Sir Percy Girouard and Sir Hesketh Bell may be specially
referred to, for they represent the Imperial Government; but we must not
forget the work of the directors of the pioneer companies in London, who
must have worked continually to do what they have done. In the short
space of only twelve months they have accomplished an amount of work
which ordinary directors without enthusiasm would have taken years to
do. The country has been searched for good properties, engineers have
been despatched and machinery ordered, and such is the good work done
in a small way with high values, that it is no exaggeration to say that
many properties are now paying their way. All has been so swiftly done,
and with so little fuss, that it seems like a fairy tale, and the public
have no conception yet of the extraordinary value of these alluvial tin
propositions in Northern Nigeria.


It is satisfactory to gather from the report of the acting Governor
dated 11th December last, that the year 1909 was a very peaceful one,
the military operations which it was found necessary to carry out being
on a small scale, and chiefly on account of highway robberies. From all
the Provinces it is reported that the general feeling of the Emirs and
native chiefs towards the British Administration continues to be most
friendly. They are beginning to show an intelligent interest and zeal in
the political work, and political officers are receiving support in any
scheme proposed for the improvement of the Native Administration. The
people show signs of wishing to be on friendly terms with the Government,
and the agricultural classes are feeling a sense of security which
enables them to spread out in all directions and take up new holdings.
Their present position is described as “one of progressive tranquillity
and content.” The inter-colonial traffic in slaves has already ceased;
local slave-dealing is not entirely stamped out, but it is not extensive,
and last year 1,392 slaves were freed, practically all by means of native
courts, the majority of these ex-slaves being self-redeemed.

The cultivation of food stuffs has increased; new markets have been
established, and the present safety of the roads has greatly stimulated
the internal trade of the country. A great improvement in the export
trade has followed the extension of the Baro-Kano Railway. To the north
of Minna there is a most extensive area of shea butter trees, but very
little of the produce of this area has so far been placed on the
market, partly on account of the cost of transport, and partly owing to
the reluctance of the pagans to have intercourse with markets outside
their districts. The construction of the railway has done much towards
gaining the confidence of these people, and the reduction in the cost of
transport, consequent upon the completion of the railway, will render it
possible to place profitably this sylvan produce on European markets.
Further north the railway will pass through the rich agricultural and
stock-raising Lausa provinces, which at present export live-stock, skins,
and potass by means of annual caravans. The idea that Northern Nigeria is
an especially unhealthy place for European residents is scarcely borne
out by the total death-rate of roughly twenty per thousand, calculated on
the average resident European population; but the proportion of officers
invalided home is still large, though it is much smaller than it was a
few years ago, when less satisfactory sanitary conditions prevailed at
the stations.

Although the addition of the Nigerian Protectorates to the Empire is
primarily due to the prescience and enterprise of the Niger Company,
that corporation has no monopoly of trade within their boundaries nor
any special advantage over other traders. It takes its chances against
rival firms in the many spots in which it comes into competition with
them. At Gana Gana, for instance, the company’s first station beyond
Burutu, the German firm of Bey & Zimmer has a depôt. John Holt & Co., E.
H. Stern & Co., J. T. Palmer & Co., Pagenstecher, and the British Cotton
Growing Association are all represented in Nigeria, and the firm of G.
W. Christian & Co. has established important trading stations at most of
the principal towns on the river. As recently as 1904 Messrs. Christian
started operations in Nigeria at a small place named Proropro on the
left bank of the Niger; to-day they have branches at Forcados, Burutu,
Onitsha, Illah, Illushi, Idah, and Lokoja, and at all these centres they
not only conduct a large cash and barter trade, but undertake equipments
and accept commissions, and cater in every way for the requirements of
both Europeans and natives. The extraordinarily rapid rise and progress
of this firm is almost entirely due to the exceptional qualifications for
the trade possessed by the principal, Mr. George William Christian, who
was born in Liverpool in 1872, and who, from the early age of fifteen
has been associated with West Africa, and in twenty-five years has
acquired a thorough experience and first-hand knowledge of the British
and native needs of the Protectorates.



    _Capital._—£50,000, in 200,000 shares of 5s. each; all are
    issued and fully paid.

    _Directors._—S. R. Bastard (Chairman), F. N. Best, Sir Horace
    C. Regnart, John Waddington.

    _Secretary._—Newman Ogle.

    _Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

To this company belongs the credit of being one of the first to
appreciate the almost unlimited opportunities the tin fields of
Northern Nigeria offer for the employment of British capital. It is not
surprising, therefore, that it has to-day, not merely one finger, but
the whole of its digits in the Nigerian “pie,” from which it has already
pulled out a “plum” in the shape of a dividend of 100 per cent. paid
in March last. It is not always the pioneer in a new mining field who
strikes the richest areas, but under the guidance of its highly capable
engineers, Champion Gold Reefs of West Africa obtained exclusive rights
over some properties and interests in options over others which promise a
magnificent harvest in years to come.

It was in September 1909, that the company decided to abandon gold mining
in Ashanti and devote attention to tin mining in Northern Nigeria. What
were described as “very extensive alluvial tin areas” were acquired
on September 20. In a circular to the shareholders, dated October 6,
it was stated that the work carried on by the Niger Company, and the
investigations of mining engineers in the district had “proved the
existence of very rich alluvial ground, and already upwards of 1,000
tons of black tin, won by means of calabashes and sluice boxes, had been
shipped.” It was further stated that on one of the properties, over
which the company had exclusive rights, there was a waterfall of 480
feet, which would secure cheap and ample power; that the properties were
situated some 3,500 feet above sea-level, and the climate was good; that
the district was thickly populated, and the natives willing and anxious
to work.

The first members of the staff sailed for Northern Nigeria on October 6,
and were followed a month later by Mr. Charles G. Lush, the well-known
expert on the working of alluvial tin deposits. Mr. Lush was to advise
as to the best method of developing the company’s property, which was
then stated to be 13 square miles in extent. Parenthetically it may be
mentioned that other suitable areas were afterwards taken up and several
handed over to subsidiary concerns. Mr. Lush first went to the Juga and
Sub-Juga properties, and the first communication received from him was
the following cable, dated Bauchi, December 17: “Have visited Juga, am
very favourably impressed. Up to the present time proved alluvial extends
over 200 acres and averages 9 feet; alluvial contains 4s. per cubic yard;
the value of stream tin, £600,000. I will visit Sub-Juga this week.” On
December 22 he again cabled as follows: “Sub-Juga—Have visited, am very
favourably impressed. I consider admirably adapted for the Australian
method of working. It will be necessary to erect a dam; will make survey
and report upon. Alluvial extends over 500 acres and averages 9 feet.
Estimated value of stream tin, 2s. 6d. per cubic yard.” From these and
other communications subsequently received it was evident that Mr. Lush
had been most favourably impressed with the field generally, and with the
value of the Champion Gold Reefs property in particular.

Four subsidiary companies have been formed to date, viz.:

    Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines, Ltd.
    Lucky Chance Mines, Ltd.
    Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power Company, Ltd.
    Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria, Ltd.

The Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines is not only a productive concern, but
one that has already entered the dividend list, 1s. per share having been
distributed. The property was originally five square miles in extent, but
the area has since been extended. It was held under option by Champion
Gold Reefs, who transferred their option to the present company. The
purchase consideration paid to the Niger Company was £50,000, payable
as to £30,000 in cash and £20,000 in fully-paid shares. The Government
and the Niger Company are together entitled to a royalty of 10 per cent.
on the profits. Before the present company was formed the Niger Company
obtained from the Naraguta property over 1,000 tons of tin concentrates,
and it is stated that in one square mile of the property, which has
been systematically tested by pits, there are 10,000 tons of black tin
awaiting extraction. Up to the present time, the ground treated has
produced tin to the value of £3,000 per acre, whereas in other countries,
such as Australia and the Malay Peninsula, £1,000 per acre is considered
phenomenal. Some of the ground gives fully 5 lbs. of tin to the cubic
yard. There can be no doubt that Naraguta is going to be one of the
“gems” of the district.

The Lucky Chance Mines, Ltd., was originally formed in May, 1905, to
acquire property in New Zealand, but at the end of 1908 only seven shares
had been issued, and the paid-up capital was £5 5s., the company having
no assets or liabilities. Towards the end of last year, however, it was
placed on its financial legs by the Champion Gold Reefs of West Africa.
The latter company sold certain of its tin areas to the Lucky Chance
Company for 200,000 shares, and agreed to procure the subscription of
8,000 further shares. To-day the Lucky Chance Company is a robust and
ably-controlled enterprise, with excellent prospects of development.
Its properties comprise nearly 12,000 acres. The South Juga property
has recently been sold to the Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power Company for

The Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power Company owns what is known as the Juga
property, which is situated on a plateau 3,280 feet above sea-level,
having a total area of 1,600 acres, and the Sub-Juga property, which
lies upon the lower plateau immediately below Juga, the area in this
case being 6,720 acres. As already remarked, the South Juga property
has recently been added. Mr. Lush estimates that 200 acres of the Juga
property will be highly payable. For the purposes of his estimate, he
took the average depth as 9 feet, which, extending over 200 acres, equals
2,904,000 cubic yards, each cubic yard containing 6 lbs. “In valuing the
ground at 6 lbs. per cubic yard,” Mr. Lush said, “I am not taking into
account only the high results obtained from some of the bottom wash, but
am reckoning it as a whole. I do this because working results may prove
that the wash does not extend over the whole 200 acres, but the gravel
does, and I feel confident will average what I state.” In a similar way
he estimated that the Sub-Juga property would yield 3 lbs. per cubic yard
over 5,808,000 cubic yards.

Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria, Ltd., is a company owning eight square
miles at Federri and nine square miles near Dila River, both in the
Bauchi Province.

In addition to having floated these companies—in which, of course,
Champion Gold Reefs retains a large interest—the company has also large
holdings in the following concerns:

    Northern Nigeria (Bauchi) Tin Mines.
    Anglo-Continental Mines, Ltd.
    Anchor Diamond Mines.

It also still owns a lease over five square miles in Ashanti.


    _Capital._—£175,000, divided into 175,000 shares of £1 each, of
    which 158,500 are issued and fully paid.

    _Directors._—Frank N. Best (Chairman), H. C. Godfray, Herbert
    Moir, John Waddington, H. Bousquet, H. S. Reitlinger.

    _Secretary._—Newman Ogle.

    _Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company owns an area of 3,200 acres at Naraguta, and two further
blocks known as the “C” and “Q” areas of eight square miles. It was
formerly worked by the Niger Company, who won from the alluvial beds
its 1,000 tons of tin concentrates. The company was registered on 15th
January, and the property was taken over on 4th February. Mr. C. G. Lush,
the company’s consulting engineer, has inspected the property, and has
stated that on the Naraguta property they had ground which would give
fully 5 lbs. of tin to the cubic yard. He further reported that ten
acres had already been treated and given that result, which could be
taken as a very fair prospecting whole.

The returns up to and including the month of October 1910 amounted to a
total of 350 tons of tin oxide made up as follows:

      1910      Tons
    February     28
    March        34
    April        36
    May          36
    June         37
    July         44
    August       45
    September    45
    October      45

Good profits can be, and are being, made under the present primitive
methods in use, but the greatly increased profits to which the management
is looking forward can only be secured by adopting the most up-to-date
machinery, such as is used in Tasmania and other countries. In order to
assure success experienced men are being brought from Tasmania by the
Champion Gold Reefs group, and the Naraguta Company will have the benefit
of their advice.

At the statutory meeting in April last the chairman stated: “We have
the proud distinction of owning the property from which the first
shipments of tin were made—not only that, but one of the richest out
there, and I am quite confident this company can look forward to a very
successful career. The extent of our property is four square miles, one
mile only of which has been thoroughly prospected, and calculated to
contain 10,000 tons of tin oxide. At the present market price of tin
this should yield over £500,000 profit. Our engineer tells me that up to
the present time every acre of ground so far treated has produced tin to
the value of £3,000, whereas in other countries, such as Australia and
Malay, £1,000 per acre is considered phenomenal: therefore, I consider
we can congratulate ourselves upon being interested in such a unique

As an indication of what may be expected when improved working methods
have been introduced, Mr. C. G. Lush states that thirty men and one
plant will be able to produce as much and even more tin than is now
being obtained with three hundred men. “If we put only one plant on the
property,” he says, “it will take us, perhaps, a hundred years to work it
out, but there is no reason why we should not have four or five plants,
and work it out in a lifetime!” In Australia, Tasmania, and the Straits
Settlements 1½ lbs. of tin per cubic yard is considered very good, but
Mr. Lush is of opinion that in Naraguta the ground will give fully 5 lbs.
of tin per cubic yard; in fact, 10 acres have already been treated, and
have given that result, which can be taken as “a very fair prospecting
whole.” All that is necessary is to get the plant there as soon as

In Mr. Frank D. Bourke the company has an excellent and indefatigable
manager, and recently the directors engaged the services of Mr. A. F.
Kitto, who left on October 12 to assist Mr. Bourke in the management.


    _Capital._—£75,000 in 300,000 shares of 5s. each, all issued
    and fully paid.

    _Directors._—Mr. S. R. Bastard (Chairman), Mr. F. N. Best, and
    Mr. Oliver Wethered.

    _Secretary._—Mr. Newman Ogle.

    _Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company owns the following properties:—

(1) _Dubbo._—A property in Bauchi, Northern Nigeria, consisting of 632
acres. This property is under the charge of two engineers.

(2) _Rafinsiroma._—This is a small rich property of 33 acres adjoining
Dubbo to the south, and capable of immediately producing tin by ground
sluicing and calabashing.

(3) _Bengalili._—A property of about 320 acres on the river Bukeru,
situated about one mile to the north of Dubbo, and capable of producing
tin by handworking at once.

(4) _Bengalili North._—This is an area of about 120 acres adjoining and
to the north of the Bengalili property, also capable of producing tin by
sluicing and calabashing. The river runs through this property.

(5) _Polchi._—A property of 84 acres adjoining South Juga, and situated
on the main road from Toro to Bauchi. The property is now being worked
and is producing tin.

(6) _Boidun._—This property is situated on the road from Dubbo to Bri,
and is about one mile west of Dubbo. It extends for a distance of about a
mile along the river.

(7) _Bilidi River._—Three square miles, or 1,920 acres. Good tin was
found on this property, besides an appreciable amount of gold in the wash.

(8) _Kurdum._—Five square miles, or 3,200 acres. On the tests made the
overburden went 3 lbs. of tin for 7 feet, and the bottom wash went 60
lbs. of tin for 1 foot.

(9) _Kwall Falls._—The first application was made on behalf of this
company for this power, which would be of great value, as it gives 2,000
horse-power in the dry season, and commands several properties.

The _Dubbo_ property is situated near the village of Dubbo, on the Dubbo
River, and west of the Soli Hills. It is sometimes described as Topaz
Valley, so named on account of the large quantity of topaz found in the
wash. It is situated about six miles north of Juga. The Lireui natives
have done a lot of work on this property, sinking shafts in some cases a
hundred yards back from the Dubbo River. These shafts run from 8 to 10
feet in depth, proving that the bottom wash must have been very rich for,
as a rule, the Lireuis only mined shallow ground where the wash is easily
got. Mr. Lush said that he had not seen similar work in any other part of
the tin district.

Mr. Lush reported that the pannings from the river bed gave very high
values, and four shafts sunk to a depth of 8 feet averaged 6 lbs. of tin
to the cubic yard. One shaft, which bottomed at 5 feet, went 30 lbs. of
tin to the cubic yard. An open-cut on the river bank exposed 17 feet of
gravel, which went 6 lbs. to the cubic yard. The overburden thrown out at
the shafts sunk by the Lireuis, where tried, gave an average of 5 lbs. of
tin to the cubic yard. At the southern end of this property Mr. Lush says
the river comes down from a hill with a fall of some 350 feet through
a rocky gorge. By working a dam at the top of the rapids sufficient
water could be conserved to run a plant by electrical transmission. This
country is mostly granite sand, no stiff clay or pug. Mr. Lush states
that nearly the whole of the 632 acres are an alluvial deposit, and in
his estimates, in order to be well within the mark, he estimates that the
payable dirt extends over 300 acres and averages 6 feet in depth. The
manager reported on August 29 that he had 300 men employed, and for the
four weeks ending August 27 he had recovered 31½ tons of tin, and had cut
735 feet of water leads.

_Rafinsiroma_ adjoins Dubbo to the south, and the manager, reporting on
August 29, said he had just started work on this property. On September
4 the manager reported that he had already shipped 505 lbs., and a
cablegram received October 9 states that a further shipment is being

Work has been started on Polchi, and on October 9 a cablegram was
received stating that the first shipment had been made.

On the _Bilidi River_ property Mr. Lush reported that he made several
tests from wash exposed on the river bank below the Kofai crossing, and
obtained payable tin results in all. He then followed up the river for
about three miles, and in one part he says he got gold as well as tin
in the concentrates. In five pannings he reports there were from six
to ten colours of gold in every dish, which in his opinion was highly
satisfactory. Two miles below the Kofai crossing he found some very
promising flats, where he also got eight colours of gold in one dish. At
the time of his visit he says there was sufficient water running in the
Bauchi River for centrifugal pump work.

As regards _Kurdum_ and _Dila Rivers_, at the lower end of the ground,
near the village of Bundas, Mr. Lush says he obtained very good prospects
of tin in gravel from the river bed. At Dawka, some eight miles upstream,
the wash taken out of the river went 80 lbs. to the cubic yard. Several
pits were sunk on the banks, but owing to soakage water only one
bottomed, the depth of which was 8 feet, and gave the following result:

Overburden 7 feet went 3 lbs. of tin to the cubic yard.

Bottom wash 1 foot went 60 lbs. of tin to the cubic yard.

The river between Dawka and Bundas falls 400 feet, and at the latter town
it is 30 feet by 2 feet deep, flowing at the rate of 60 feet per minute.
Even in the middle of the dry season Mr. Lush says a race cut from a
point about a mile upstream would give sufficient head to generate 500
h.p. by electricity.

Mr. L. H. L. Huddart, in his report on the Kurdum River concession, says
he feels justified in making a preliminary estimate in order to give an
idea of what the property may be proved to contain, and he bases it on
the following reasons:—

    (_a_) The tin falls above the property.

    (_b_) The river has its source in a country rich in tin.

    (_c_) The good values obtained in the stream bed and samples
    taken from the banks.

    (_d_) The method of deposition of the alluvial which indicates
    that “wash outs” are unlikely to be found. In fact some good
    leads should have been left by the river in the older gravels.

Upon these grounds he is of opinion that there are about 300 acres of
alluvial ground that should prove to be about 2½ yards deep with values
of about 3 lbs. per cubic yard. Mr. Huddart adds that an output of about
30 tons per month, or 360 tons per year, should be reached without
difficulty. In conclusion, he says: “The property is a good one, and its
ample supply of water cannot be too strongly emphasised. Tin will be
produced quickly from the river bed, and systematic development should
bear out the above estimate, and enable the work to be laid out with a
view on ultimate production of about 40 tons per month.”

Application for the Kwall Falls for electric power has been made on
behalf of this company, and great importance is attached to them. They
are situated about 14 miles west of the Niger (Bauchi) Syndicate’s area,
and it is stated that in the driest months there is ample water flowing
with a drop of 400 feet to generate 2,000 h.p. without any expense of


    _Capital._—£100,000 in 100,000 shares of £1 each, of which
    45,000 were issued to the vendors and 24,507 for cash, 10s.

    _Directors._—Mr. S. R. Bastard (Chairman), Mr. F. N. Best, and
    Mr. C. H. Dudley Ward.

    _Secretary._—Mr. Newman Ogle.

    _Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company owns alluvial tin property at Federri comprising an area of
5,120 acres, and a further property situated on the Dila River or Doss,
comprising an area of 5,760 acres.

On the Federri property a tin-bearing area of 300 acres has been proved
containing tin alluvial from 2½ to 3½ yards deep, going from 3 lbs. to 6
lbs. per cubic yard, and it is estimated that the property has a life of
twenty-six years.

The second property is the Dila River or Doss, which has a proved area
of tin alluvial deposit from 3 to 5 yards deep over 400 acres, with an
average value of 3 lbs. per cubic yard. The life of the property has been
estimated at twenty-three years. A fully qualified engineer is now in
charge of the properties, and production of tin is expected to commence
immediately. The consulting engineer is Mr. C. G. Lush.


    _Capital._—£275,000, in 275,000 £1 shares, of which all are

    _Directors._—Sir J. West Ridgeway (Chairman), Mr. Segar Richard
    Bastard, Mr. Frank Norman Best, Sir Horace G. Regnart, J.P.,
    and Mr. Henry S. Reitlinger.

    _Secretary._—Mr. Newman Ogle.

    _Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company owns three properties, as follows:—

    (1) Juga         1600
    (2) Sub-Juga     6720
    (3) South Juga   1280

_South Juga._—Mr. C. G. Lush, in reporting on the South Juga property,
said: “On the northern end there are several native workings, in which
payable prospects can be got. It would be advisable to have shafts sunk
right along the lead from the Juga boundary to the Bauchi road, and
boring plant used if water hindered sinking to bed-rock.... Some of the
tin carried into Juga must have found its way into South Juga.” Mr. L.
H. L. Huddart, reporting on the property, said: “The elevation is about
3,000 feet above the sea-level, with precipitous granite hills rising at
least 1,500 feet above the valley on both sides.... The tin occurs in a
valley about four miles long, running north-east and south-west. Bed-rock
is granite with frequent outcrops of granite and granulite, which form
baths more or less at right angles to the valley. The average width is
about 2,000 feet.... The ground is friable and easy to work.... A water
course which rises on Juga runs right down to the valley. From December
to April there is practically no running water, but from May to November
the stream runs freely.... If the small tributaries are dammed, and skill
is used in saving the water, there should be sufficient for all purposes
for six or seven months in the year. Later on a portable pump elevating
plant would have sufficient water for at least nine months. There is a
considerable quantity of water held up between the granite baths, and the
water-locked ground provides natural reservoirs.... A thorough system
of prospecting should be inaugurated.... Pits should be put in right
across the valley at 100 feet intervals, and a property plan made out
showing the depth of ground valued. These will enable the mining work to
be laid out in a systematic manner, and will disclose the rich leads.”
Mr. Huddart has formed a favourable opinion of the property, and gives
the following reasons for the estimates he has prepared: (1) Amount
of work previously done by natives who never touch anything but rich
wash; (2) sampling and inspection of native working and their tailings;
(3) the fact that this proposition is geographically a part of Juga on
which rich wash exists; (4) personal knowledge of the ground tested and
discoveries on every known part of this field, and general occurrence of
cassiterite on all parts of the property. Taking the property as a whole,
he estimates that there are 180 acres of alluvial ground, running 4 lbs.
per cubic yard, averaging two yards deep. In conclusion, Mr. Huddart says
this is an attractive property.... Importance is readily attached to the
fact that the property can be made an immediate producer.

_Juga Property._—This property is on a plateau 3,280 feet above the
sea-level, and Mr. Lush estimates that 200 acres will be highly payable.
He takes the average depth of ground as 9 feet, and this extending for
200 acres equals 2,904,000 cubic yards. The area is of exceedingly high
quality, and exceptionally free from impurities. In his report Mr. Lush
says: “Valuing the ground at 6 lbs. per cubic yard, I am not taking into
account only the high results obtained from some of the bottom wash, but
am reckoning it as a whole. I do this because working results may prove
that the wash does not extend over the whole 200 acres, but the gravel
does, and I feel confident will average what I state.”

_Sub-Juga._—This property, comprising an area of 6,720 acres, lies upon
the lower plateau, or plain, immediately below Juga. The natives have
done a great deal of work here, and their beds were extensively tried
by Mr. Lush, who got very rich prospects when panning. Some of the dish
concentrates went as high as 40 lbs. of tin oxide to the cubic yard,
and in no single instance did he get less than 3 lbs. He considers that
out of the 6,720 acres 400 are proved to be highly payable, but this
only includes the main lead, which runs right through the property for
6¼ miles, and does not include any of the runs coming in from east and
west. He takes the average depth of ground as 9 feet; this extending for
400 acres equals 5,808,000 cubic yards. Mr. Lush has recommended movable
plants for these properties. Transmission of electrical power to run
both the nozzle and the gravel pumps is, of course, the cheapest and
best method of working, but it will be some time, probably two years,
before the contemplated hydraulical scheme can be installed. Mr. Lush’s
recommendations have been accepted by the board, and two plants are
being constructed, and their cost when mounted and erected at the mine
will not exceed £10,000. In addition to the sluice boxes at present
on the property, there are now on the way a further sixty-nine sluice
boxes, with all exhausters complete, and these will enable sluicing and
calabashing to be carried on pending the arrival and erection of the
hydraulic plant.

Mr. Hooke has been appointed manager, with Mr. Grant as his assistant.
Besides sluicing, surveys have to be completed, dams constructed,
prospecting done, especially by means of boring, tools being supplied for
those parts where the water is too heavy for the pits to be sunk.

Mr. A. W. Hooke writes under date September 14, 1910, as follows:

“Attached hereto are my notes upon the leases of the company and the
dam site. In setting forth this general report several difficulties
have faced the writer—the absence of any systematic sampling record—the
flooded condition of the existing holes, and the short time in which to
cover the ground.

“At the same time also an effort had to be made to organise the labour
and increase the output under existing circumstances. I give the
following summary to show how the output has increased in the last four
weeks. From August 15 to September 10 the production stands thus:

    Week ending. Calabashers.   Crude      Purchased at
                               Tin Won.

    August 20      52 men      768 lbs.    ¾d. per lb.
      ”    27     102  ”     3,319  ”      ¾d.   ”
    Sept.   3     127  ”     3,327  ”      ¾d.   ”
      ”    10     133  ”     4,925  ”      ½d.   ”

“Some of this ore is being won on Juga, but by far the greater part comes
from Nafuta. It contains much iron impurity, and a streaming box has
already been made for its re-treatment at Juga. It will be understood
that the natives bring their weekly winnings from Nafuta to Juga on
Sundays, when it is weighed and purchased from them. The first three lots
shown above were purchased approximately at ¾d. per lb., and the last one
at ½d. The condition of the tin, &c., is a big factor in guiding one as
to the price, but as time goes on I hope to instruct the native into the
way of streaming his tin and bringing it to a better quality. If I can do
this, and keep the price down, it means a big advantage to us.

“Labour at 6d. per day is most satisfactory (9d. is the ruling rate
elsewhere except at Dubbo). This week my whole gang struck work and
demanded an increase from 6d. to 9d. I flatly refused, and to time of
writing have almost as many new men as I require. Some of the old hands
have since returned to work. I have despatched a headman to Gingim and
Polchi, who will doubtless secure all that I require.

“At Nafuta sampling shafts are being sunk at the rate of about nine per
week. These cannot be quite bottomed on account of the water in the wash,
but as the rain eases off they can be completed and sampled.

“_General._—The three leases are all properties upon which hydraulic
sluicing can be carried out satisfactorily, and the wash and overburden
in each case is ideal material for gravel pumping. I am quite pleased
with the general condition of things, but am anxious to have my sampling
completed, so that I may form some estimate of yardage and the average

SEPTEMBER 14, 1910.

_Juga Property._—This lease stands at the highest elevation of the
three, and practically forms the divide between South Juga and Nafuta.
Its watershed is large, and the greater portion of this goes north-east
through the Nafuta gorge to the flats. The lease embraces an area of
1,440 acres and compasses the flats adjacent to two streams coming from
the South, which unite and continue north-east, passing into the Nafuta
gorge as the Juga River.

The maximum depth of the ground is only about 12 feet, and much of
it is amenable to ground sluicing, though it could be handled more
advantageously by gravel pumps. This latter scheme is eventually the
policy to adopt, as thereby most of the material can be stacked after
treatment, and any chance of silting-up be avoided.

The former (ground sluicing) will be a temporary expedient—I say
temporary advisedly, because the detritus from such operations will
eventually find its way to the area for the dam site above the Nafuta
gorge. It will be readily understood that the shape of the property is
irregular in order to most economically take in the desired area.

The rocky surroundings naturally bring down their storm waters rapidly,
and this will always act as a deterrent in ground sluicing and be a point
in favour of power plants.

The lease carries a sparse supply of timber, but will justify the
installation of a steam plant of such dimensions as that already under
construction. As time wears on, however, an alternative power must have

The contour of the country does not lend itself to the construction of
earthwork headraces, &c., being too rocky; service water, will therefore
have to be carried in a pipe service.

I am forwarding a sketch plan showing the two streams and their
confluence under the name of the Juga. Pits as shown have been sunk and
a sampling done. The samples (Mr. Robinson informs me) were taken by a
native headman, and run very erratically from 17 lbs. to nil per cubic
yard. Robinson says that some of the holes at that time had been flooded,
and is of opinion that all the bottom wash in some instances was not
included in the samples taken.

At the present time all the pits are more or less flooded and silted, but
I will re-sample the whole of these and advise results at the earliest
possible moment.

The two dams shown in the sketch have been carried away by floods. Higher
up the river at “A,” a much better site exists, which will give more
pressure and command more ground. I propose to place one here as soon as
I can.

The tracts shown on the drawing will give some idea of the direction in
which the other leases lie.

Viewed in conjunction with the plans, the directors will have a more
concise idea of their relative positions.

_Nafuta or Sub-Juga._—Of the exclusive area held here some 1,850 acres
have been embodied in the mining lease just issued. It embraces what
appears to be the pick of the Nafuta flats and encloses a maximum of
alluvial drift with a minimum of rock, and at the same time adheres to
the water-course. The Nafuta gorge terminates quite abruptly, and opens
in an expansive plain lying some 400 feet below. The lease commences
at the foot of the gorge, and runs along the river in a north-easterly
direction. Its width embraces the deepest of the flats, though there is
still some ground at the south-west corner of the exclusive area that
warrants attention. I should say from a cursory examination that the
amount of workable ground is in excess of that of the other leases,
though no attempt can be made to quote tonnage until many more pits have
been sunk. It is from this area that most of our present tin is being
won. The tin contains much impurity, such as iron, and the natives find
a difficulty in separating it by calabashing.

The average depth, judging by the present trial pits, is 12 feet. The
wash is clear and medium sized, and the overburden is ideal material for
removal where viewed in the old paddocks.

I see no difficulties in it as a gravel sluicing proposition, once
provision is made for power. The lease carries no timber, and is a power
consideration from the beginning.

Of tin value I can quote last week’s winning of 4,000 odd lbs. of crude
tin by 120 men with calabashes, and this too in the face of many weather

A site has been set aside for a native village, and already people are
congregating and erecting their grass huts.

_South Juga._—This lease, as its name implies, lies south of Juga. It
covers 855 acres, and is approximately 4 miles long by 2,000 yards wide.
It is traversed for its entire length by the track which leaves the
Toro-Bauchi road and comes on to Juga. The lease is narrow—it lies in
a long gully, and appears bound by a succession of rocky bars. These
no doubt may be acting as excellent natural tin savers, but they will
make work very irregular. Of the tin value here I cannot speak with any
definiteness. I have not traversed the ground in detail, and as no pits
have been sunk upon it, I have no samples to guide me. It will have my
attention so soon as I can get one lease into a regular producing stage.

_Nafuta Dam Site._—In proceeding from Juga to Nafuta one traverses the
basin of this proposed dam. As a site its position would be hard to beat.
It covers some 356 acres, which narrows down to a steep rocky neck,
through which the waters debouch on to the Nafuta flat. The sides of the
gorge rise in an abrupt slope, and are composed of granite. It forms an
ideal situation for a retaining wall which, if reared 100 feet, would
throw back 326 million cubic feet of water. This quantity of water would
develop approximately 550 horse-power for 370 days of 12 hours, using
1,220,000 cubic feet per day, and allowing 525,000 cubic feet for daily
evaporation and soakage losses.

At present the dam area is enclosed in the Nafuta _exclusive area_,
which expires at Christmas. I propose therefore to take it up as an
agricultural lease, which I believe can be secured at annual rental of
1s. per acre.

The dam is a necessity for the operation of Nafuta, though, of course
once established, it could generate high tension electricity for
transmission to Juga and South Juga, and operate them as well.

A masonry retaining wall could, I think, be most cheaply built, as the
stone exists on the site. It would be the installation of a quarrying
plant of say half-dozen rock drills and channelling machines, also a
small aerial line up the bed of the dam for handling the stone, and a
“flying fox” gear across the gorge for handling all the stone in the
retaining wall.

In some places at the lower end the water is lost to sight 30 feet or
more beneath the huge granite boulders that lie in the gorge.


    _Capital Authorised._—£9000. Issued and fully paid, £6607.

    _Directors._—Mr. S. R. Bastard (Chairman), Mr. C. G. Lush, Mr.
    Walter Wethered.

    _Secretary._—Mr. Newman M. Ogle.

    _Registered Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, London,

This syndicate owns the following properties in the Bauchi Province:—

_Rein._—An exclusive licence to prospect an area of 4½ square miles near
the towns of Rein and Forum.

_South Bukeru._—An exclusive licence to prospect an area of 3 square
miles south of Bukeru, and sold to the company of that name.

_Shen._—A mining licence to work an area of 24 acres on the left bank of
the Shen stream.

The Rein property is situated on the south-eastern side of the Bauchi
Tin Fields, between the pagan towns of Forum and Rein. The area encloses
about six miles of a stream flowing in the northerly direction from Rein
to Forum, where it junctions with a system of rivers on which the Ribon,
Bisichi, Doss, and other properties are situated.

The area is three-quarters of a mile wide by six miles long, an extent
of 4½ square miles, practically the whole of which is tin-bearing
alluvial. The alluvial is composed of a sandy material of an extremely
free nature, and the bottom is the usual coarse grey granite. The latter
outcrops in very few places, and carries from about a yard to four yards
of alluvial ground. Although the bottom could be reached in only a few
places in the stream bed, good prospects of black tin were obtained in
nearly all samples panned, and from the alluvial flats, as exposed by the
banks of the stream, the results ran from about 3 to 5 lbs. of tin per
cubic yard. The panning concentrates contained 10 to 15 per cent. of
titaniferous iron sand (which was allowed for), but this mineral presents
no difficulties, and can be easily eliminated by the ordinary dressing

The width of the property (three-quarters of a mile) does not include the
whole of the large alluvial flats that occur on either side of the river,
but having secured the river and so much of the adjacent ground, these
flats are protected, and, if necessary, may be taken up when the land for
mining purposes is selected.

Of the area staked, certainly more than two-thirds carries alluvial
ground of the thickness given above. Except in the bed of the stream,
rich patches are not expected, but a fairly uniform value throughout.

_Water._—There is a continuous flow of water for sluicing purposes all
the year round.

_Grades._—Cannot be determined without survey, but at the lower (Forum)
end of the property there is sufficient fall to allow the tailings to be
inexpensively dealt with.

_Costs._—Will compare favourably with other mines in the district, _i.e._
with ground of moderate value the costs would amount to between £10 and
£15 per ton of black tin, and present transport charges £27 10s. per ton

Final tests of the flats are capable of being cheaply and quickly carried
out by means of trial pits; boring is unnecessary. The probability is
that the workable ground will prove to be of too large an area to be
included in one mining lease, and that it will be necessary to split the
present area into two or more properties.

_Shen Property._—This property is situated on the left bank of the Shen
stream, on which it has been pegged out for some distance with an average
width of about two chains. The Shen property adjoins the concession
acquired by the Bisichi Tin Company (Nigeria), Ltd.

_South Bukeru._—This property, comprising an area of three square miles,
is situated about four miles south of Bukeru. It is situated on the top
of the Bukeru watershed, a basin heavily watered with small streams
running through the whole area, which is stated to be alluvial, and all
the ground is tin-bearing from the top to the bottom of the pits, which
have been sunk to a depth of about fifteen feet. Pump or boring plant
will be necessary to thoroughly test the property. This property has been
sold to the South Bukeru (Nigeria) Tin Co., Ltd.


    _Capital._—£100,000 in 100,000 shares of £1 each; 34,782
    issued; a further 25,000 are under option at 25s. per share
    until December 31, 1910.

    _Directors._—Oliver Wethered (Chairman), H. C. Godfray, R. J.
    Hoffmann, H. J. Moir, C. V. Thomas.

    _Secretary._—George Kerr, A.C.I.S.

    _Offices._—Capel House, 54 New Broad Street, E.C.

This company owns four areas aggregating 14 square miles in Nigeria,
and in addition to these has large holdings of shares in the leading
companies operating in this field, including:

    Champion Gold Reefs of West Africa, Ltd.
    Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines, Ltd.
    Juga Tin and Power Company, Ltd.
    Anglo-Continental Mines, Ltd.
    Northern Nigeria (Bauchi) Tin Mines, Ltd.

Another of the company’s assets to which considerable importance is
attached is the interest in the Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power Company,
whose property comprises what is known as the Juga area, situated on a
plateau 3,280 feet above sea-level, amounting to 1,600 acres, and the
Sub-Juga area which, as its name implies, is situated upon the lower
plateau immediately below Juga, amounting to 6,720 acres. A further
property, known as the South Juga, has also been acquired. From August
15 to September 10 the quantity of crude tin produced by the Juga
Company was 12,339 lbs., but Mr. C. G. Lush, the consulting engineer,
states that, as in the case of the Naraguta property, the bed of the
river, in which the richest deposits of tin are contained, is exposed for
calabashing in the dry season, which is now beginning, so that a much
larger output of tin may be confidently expected in the near future. New
plant is now being supplied capable of dressing twelve tons of tin oxide
per day.

The Anglo-Continental Mines Company is largely interested in what are
undoubtedly the best gold mines in the Tarkwa and Prestea, districts
of West Africa, but it has also a substantial slice of the Nigerian
“cake.” It has already had one profitable “deal” in the successful
flotation of the Northern Nigeria (Bauchi) Tin Mines, Ltd.—a company
holding prospecting licences over a compact block of 50 square miles in
the Bauchi Province, and mining licences over three blocks of about 12½
acres each. Portions of the property have been worked sufficiently by the
Niger Company to prove their exceptional value as tin-bearing areas. Mr.
C. G. Lush, reporting in February last, stated: “From surface pannings
I should estimate the over-burden, or rather stanniferous gravelly
deposit overlying the wash, to go 2 lbs. per cubic yard.... Provided
sufficient power is obtained, there is room here for at least four big
plants capable of treating 10,000 cubic yards of gravel each per week.
40,000 yards at 2 lbs. equals 80,000 lbs. of tin oxide, equal to 35 tons
per week, which, at £80, means £2,800; less cost of treatment at 6d.
per yard £1,000, carriage on 35 tons of tin (at £15) £525, Government
royalty at 10 per cent. £127, leaving a net weekly profit of £1,148.” The
Anglo-Continental Mines Company has a large interest in this company, and
is looking for big dividends therefrom in the not very distant future.
But this is not by any means the full extent of its interest in Northern
Nigeria, for it has acquired an adjoining area of 50 square miles, which
are stated to afford equally satisfactory prospects.

Apart from the indirect interest the Nigerian Tin Corporation has in the
Northern Nigeria (Bauchi) Tin Mines, through the Anglo-Continental Mines
Company already referred to, it has a large holding on its own account.

The original intention, when the Nigerian Tin Corporation was formed, was
that it should confine itself entirely to taking participation in deals
and promotions, but feeling persuaded that this is the most important
virgin tin field the world has yet seen, the directors decided to extend
the scope of the corporation’s operations, and, as already stated, four
areas have been acquired of eight, three, two, and one square miles

Mr. H. O. Crighton, late manager of the Pusing Lama Mine, in the Straits
Settlements, has been appointed the company’s manager in Northern Nigeria
in January last, and has already taken up three areas on behalf of this


    _Capital._—£200,000 in £1 shares, of which 169,000 are issued
    and fully paid, including 100,000 given in part payment of the

    _Directors._—Sir Robert A. Hampson, J.P. (Chairman), Mr. Hugh
    C. Godfray, Mr. George T. Harris, Mr. Oliver Wethered, and Mr.
    Hetherington White.

    _Secretary._—Mr. E. Price.

    _Offices._—19 St. Swithin’s Lane, E.C.

This company has exclusive prospecting rights over an area of 50 square
miles in the Naraguta district of Northern Nigeria, together with mining
licences over a further area of 12½ acres situated at the head-waters of
a small river.

The manager of this company in Nigeria is Mr. Means, who has done a
considerable amount of prospecting on the property. This large property
of 50 square miles was originally secured by the Anglo-Continental
Company. It is believed there are several large areas of alluvial tin on
the property, which has not yet been properly prospected.

With regard to the smaller concession of 12½ acres, Mr. Lush confirmed
the statement that the alluvial tin at this point was exceptionally rich,
averaging as much as 12 lbs. per cubic yard.

In his report on this property dated February 21, 1910, Mr. Lush said:

“From surface pannings I should estimate the overburden, or rather
stanniferous gravelly deposit overlying the wash, to go 2 lbs. per cubic
yard. It would be interesting to see the values and thickness of the
bottom wash. Provided sufficient power is obtained, there is room here
for at least four big plants capable of treating 10,000 cubic yards of
gravel each per week: 40,000 yards at 2 lbs. equals 80,000 lbs. of tin
oxide, equal to 35 tons per week.

“I look for a fair depth of payable ground, everything points to its
being so, but only boring can decide this.

“Life of property would largely depend on the depth of the deposit and
the number of plants erected, but presuming the deposit is 15 feet deep,
and you instal four plants capable of putting through 10,000 yards weekly
each, it would take fully eight years to work out this 500 acres of the

“I understand that the total area of land taken over by you from the
Niger Bauchi Syndicate is 50 square miles, or 32,000 acres. In this
report I am only dealing with the southern and south-western part of your
holding, some 20 square miles, as I did not visit the northern portion. I
was, however, credibly informed by one of the Government mining officials
that on the northern block of 30 square miles there are also stanniferous
deposits, and in addition a very promising tin lode, a continuation of
the one that has been opened up by the Niger Company on your eastern
boundary. The actual value and life of only the area I have reported
upon would, in my opinion, quite justify your proceeding with vigorous
development work at once. The probable values of the remaining 30 square
miles may possibly turn out equal to the southern; there is no reason why
they should not, as the whole of the property is within a rich alluvial
and lode tin district that has hardly as yet been scratched.”

On June 15 the company’s representative in Nigeria cabled: “Active
sluicing operations will be commenced as soon as sufficient water
is available. Meantime 6 tons of tin have been produced by means of

A complete sluicing plant has been shipped, and pending its arrival
washing by means of calabashes is being continued.

At the first statutory meeting, Mr. Lush said, since delivering his

“I see by a cablegram from Mr. Means that he has found good tin on other
areas. There are about 4 square miles of about 2,600 acres that have been
proved to carry tin since I left there.”



The N’Gell River, which is one of the sources of the Kaduna, rises in the
pagan town of N’Gell on the highest watershed of the country.

Black oxide of tin is found in large quantities in the bed of this river
where it is not deeply covered with gravel, and in the various streams
flowing into it, especially those coming in from the south. The ore
undoubtedly has a very local origin, it is derived largely from the
denudation of the small tin-bearing quartz veins in pegmatite granite on
the sources of the tributaries known as Nos. 1 and 2 streams, and lode
matter containing massive crystals of tin is also breaking down in the
neighbourhood of Nos. 4 and 5 streams. All these it will be noted are on
the south side of the river.

For the purpose of discussing these tin deposits as a mining proposition,
the river may be conveniently divided into three portions:

    A. The headwaters of the N’Gell River (sections 49 and 50 on
    plan) with Nos. 1, 2, and 3 streams.

    B. The portion of the N’Gell River flowing through the Niger
    Company’s area for a distance of 2½ miles with the tributaries
    known as Nos. 4, 5, and 6 streams, and

    C. The portion of the N’Gell River flowing for a distance of
    six miles through section 46 and 36 to 40 on the plan.


This portion is actually on the apex of the watershed. The streams
which fall rapidly to the valley below on the west are crossed by
numerous bars of granite and quartz reefs, which act as natural riffles,
and have served to concentrate the ore in high values, but relatively
small quantities of alluvial in the beds and banks of the streams. Good
alluvial also occurs in patches amongst the granite hills away from the

The streams get a fairly regular supply of water from springs and the
drainage of the many veins, but they are also subject to scouring floods
caused by heavy but entirely local rains. The floods are breaking down
the alluvial with great rapidity, and large quantities of ore must be
washed down to the valley below every year.

During three months of somewhat irregular work last year we recovered
30 tons of black tin from Nos. 1 and 2 streams. Part of this was won by
sluicing the alluvial banks, of which 2,736 cubic yards, worth 10 to 11
lbs. of black tin per yard, were worked. Operations were commenced from
the boundary, the ground was worked fairly, and although superficially
it only represents some 300 square yards, it gives a fair idea of the
value of the bank deposits. The values, of course, would not apply to
the alluvial apart from the streams, nor to that on No. 3 stream,
where there is far less grade and more alluvial, but, taken as a whole,
the proposition is decidedly the richest yet found in Nigeria. Until
further prospecting has been done and a detailed survey carried out,
it is impossible to give any accurate estimate of the payable alluvial
available on this portion; as a hand-work proposition it is not of great
extent (as will be gathered from my report to the Niger Company last
December, a copy of which I attach), but as an area systematically worked
with the aid of machinery, it is undoubtedly a property which should
produce a large tonnage of tin over a period of many years.

The above-mentioned report also clearly sets forth the difficulties in
the way of systematic mining, if it is to be regarded as a separate
concern. I have carefully considered the methods suggested by Mr. Lush in
his report. The first we have already tried. The second is impracticable,
because we have no higher level at which we could conserve water for
hydraulicing the whole of the alluvial deposits, and the third and fourth
can only be considered in conjunction with one or both of the other
portions of the N’Gell River.

A modification of the second suggestion might prove satisfactory as
a temporary measure. It would be possible to conserve in a reservoir
constructed near the head of one of the streams sufficient water
to sluice by gravity—I do not think there would be pressure for
hydraulicing—the alluvial in and near the main river and part of that
about the three streams. The ground higher up the streams could not be
worked by this means.


This portion of the river flows through the Niger Company’s area, as
shown on the plan attached. The river, after leaving the town of N’Gell,
falls into a fine open valley within which is an apparently deep basin
filled in with loose gravels heavily charged with water.

Four important streams numbered 3, 4, 5, and 6, enter the river from the
south, three of them having falls in the position marked on the plan.

In addition to the alluvial being washed down the main stream, this basin
must also be enriched by the tin-bearing wash in the tributaries, which
also show good prospects.

The basin covers an area of roughly 300 acres, not including the bank
deposits on the streams or the higher level flats. As would be expected
from the nature of the ground, the top gravels do not carry payable
values, but it seems to me almost impossible for the bottom to be other
than rich when it is remembered that tin will not travel far without easy
outlet and good grades, and that for a long period tin-bearing dirt has
been emptying itself into this basin from so many channels. We have been
unable to reach bottom in ordinary trial pits owing to heavy water and
the running nature of the alluvial, and it will now have to be tested by

Even if it proves only a low-grade show, it is obviously a big mine, and
one that must be worked by dredging or pumping methods. Possibly the
three falls above mentioned would give sufficient power, in which case
the problem of working the “A” deposits would be solved at the same time.
Otherwise it would be necessary to acquire the Kwall Falls, and generate
electric power there.


I am not so familiar with this portion of the river, but, generally
speaking, it is of a similar character to “B,” and the same remarks
apply, but with this important exception, that it is down stream and
therefore farther away from the source of the tin. I am not in a position
to say whether it is fed by other tin-bearing streams or rocks further to
the west.

As your Chairman very reasonably suggested, there may be an obstruction
in the shape of rising bedrock or bars about Section 46, in which case
this portion may prove of little value. This can only be disclosed by
continuing the boring operations, and I would here emphasise Mr. Lush’s
opinion that the greatest care should be exercised in taking samples from
holes in these loose gravels where boring has a tendency to concentrate
the heavier mineral at the bottom.


As some difficulty is anticipated in holding the areas as they now stand
after this year, I suggest that they be dealt with as follows:—

    (A) The streams and alluvial deposits on this portion are
    spread over some six square miles of country, so that my
    previous suggestion that the whole should be taken up in one
    rectangular mining area is not feasible. A mining area should
    be acquired over Sections 49 and 50 as under:—

    Commencing at the N’Gell Beacon, thence 2 miles due west,
    thence 1 mile due north, thence 2 miles due east, and thence 1
    mile due south to the starting point, enclosing an area of 2
    square miles.

    Mining licences over Nos. 1, 2, and 3 streams should be renewed.

The above four mining areas will not include all the alluvial mentioned
in this report as existing on this portion (A), but if the three streams
are held, the alluvial lying between them will be safe from others, who
would have no water for working it. This is only intended to meet the
case temporarily, and until further surveys have been made and the Mining
Laws revised.

    (B) Negotiations should be entered into with the Niger Company
    to take over this part of the river, or with a view to an
    amalgamation of interests.

    A mining licence should then be obtained to commence at a
    beacon 10,343 feet due west of the N’Gell beacon, thence 2½
    miles due west, thence 1 mile due south, thence 2½ miles due
    east, thence 1 mile due north to the starting point, enclosing
    an area of 2½ square miles.

    (C) I recommend that an exclusive prospecting licence be
    applied for, identical with Sections 36 to 40, enclosing an
    area of five square miles. If a prospecting licence is not
    allowed in any form, the expense of holding this piece of
    land under mining licences must be borne until prospecting is

    There remains only the river flowing through Sections 46 and
    35. A rectangular prospecting area (or, if refused, a mining
    area) ½ mile wide, east and west, by about 1¼ miles long,
    north and south, will be sufficient to hold this while its
    examination is going on.

With regard to staff and the work for the immediate future, a good
surveyor and assistant must be sent out whose chief duty, apart from the
demarcation of boundaries, would be the determination of grades in the
rivers, measurement of water, survey of falls, and the preparation of
sections showing the alluvial beds as disclosed by the pits and bores.
An experienced man to carry out the boring operations should also be
provided, and the whole work placed in charge of a capable hydraulic
mining engineer.


It is above all things desirable to aim at working the whole of the
deposits about this river as one large power proposition, deriving the
power either from falls on the property or from Kwall. Should it be
found impossible to do this (from failure to secure the land and falls
required), then it will have to be proved whether the deposits on the
six square miles of “A” portion justify the expense of harnessing falls
and conveying power to the heads of the streams. If not, as much of the
alluvial as possible must be worked out by the same system of sluicing
as was employed last year, but on an increased scale, and with a more
elaborate method of dealing with the water supply.

I am of opinion that it will take a year with a competent staff to prove
the six miles of land referred to in “A” portion.

                                           (_Signed_) H. W. LAWS, M.I.M.M.

_3rd September, 1910._


                                                    _28th December, 1909._


DEAR SIR,—I beg to hand you herewith Summary of tin returns for the
months of November and December.

_Tin Recovery._—Work ceased on the 14th instant owing to Mr. Carpenter’s
time being completed, and his desire to return to England; otherwise
sluicing on No. 1 stream could have continued to the end of the year.
Sluicing on No. 2 stream was stopped early in November owing to want of

The black tin recovered for November amounted to 12 tons and 2 lbs.,
and from December 1st to 14th, 4 tons 14 cwts. 3 qrs. 12 lbs., making a
total of 30 tons 0 cwts. 1 qr. 3 lbs. for the three months that mining
operations have been carried on, as shown on the summary.

The ground sluiced at No. 1 stream measures approximately 2,736 cubic
yards, worth 10 to 11 lbs. of black tin per cubic yard.

In arriving at these figures, the tin taken from the actual river bed,
where it was impossible to measure the ground sluiced, is excluded, and
this value will be found to be a fair average for the alluvial bank
deposits on the N’Gell areas.

I estimate there is sufficient of this to last for six years on the two
areas we have taken up, but this does not include some fairly extensive
deposits between the three N’Gell streams and outside our small mining
leases, which we have recently found to exist. We have not attempted
to develop these higher deposits, but wherever tried they carry good
values, and if by careful selection we added them to the existing areas,
the proposition would become an important one as far as quantity is
concerned. The difficulty lies in economical working. The present method,
although profitable, is unsatisfactory, at any rate from an engineering
point of view; my experience of the last three months has proved that
sluicing in a small way can only proceed between seasons—in the dry
season only hand-work can be done, and at the height of the rains the
sluices cannot be fixed low enough to receive the sluicing water. It
is essentially an elevating proposition, but without power, fuel, or
water, we are helpless. I therefore recommend you, should an opportunity
occur, to give careful consideration to any amalgamation scheme which our
neighbours on the N’Gell River might think desirable after they become
familiar with their property, especially if they decide to work on a
large scale.

Should no opportunity of the kind occur, I advise you to take the best
out of the three streams and their alluvial banks by our present cheap
sluicing methods and handwork during the next six years or so. A good
engineer and an assistant would be required to supervise, but the former
would only be required at certain seasons and not permanently on the
property. I am preparing a list of plant required to work economically on
these lines on the three streams.

_Export._—The tin won was all first grade, assaying 72 per cent. to 73
per cent. 644 bags, weighing net 19 tons 9 cwts. 3 qrs. 7 lbs., were
despatched in November, and 350 bags, weighing net 10 tons 10 cwts. 1 qr.
24 lbs., were despatched this month, making a total of 30 tons 0 cwts. 1
qr. 3 lbs.

_General._—The plant has been properly laid up and protected from the
weather for the dry season, and a watchman has been placed in charge.

                                I am, &c.,

                                                    (_Signed_) H. W. LAWS.

Since the preparation of the foregoing particulars a report has been
received from the company’s manager giving the first detailed particulars
of the prospecting as follows:—

“_Prospecting._—With regard to this important subject I expect to have a
little more to say when I have a general map ready to forward to you. The
shaft in Section 26 which you asked about in your letter of 26th July was
not got down to bedrock on account of water, and there were no results
to report. In prospecting the streams of the central and northern part
of the 40-mile area, we found tin in many places in various quantities,
and irregularly distributed. Apparently the best stream is that one
which runs through Section 28; while prospecting there we calabashed
out five tons very easily from the bed of the stream, which tin we have
in stock and shall report it to the Government as soon as the mining
lease is applied for. The prospecting by numerous pits shows that the
ground is too irregular in values outside the bed of the stream to make
satisfactory estimates until some sluicing is done, which will be a
relatively easy matter when we have the mining lease. There is another
stream about three miles further north which I think will warrant taking
up, but perhaps not quite so good as that in Section 28.

“In prospecting other streams of the northern part of the 40-mile area we
generally found from a trace of tin to say a pound or so per yard with
limited yardage, and none of them offer much encouragement to the company
for mining purposes.

“A part of the N’Gell River, in Sections 49 to 50, I think is suitable
for taking up as a mining lease. The tin, however, appears to be mostly
confined to the river bed, and therefore it is more suitable for
calabashing than for sluicing purposes. Also the parts of streams Nos. 1
and 2, which are in the prospecting area, should be included in the areas
applied for.”

The manager further states, in regard to the drilling operations which
are being carried out on the more remote and westerly portion of
the property, that the results hitherto obtained have not been very
encouraging, but that it is too early to arrive at a definite conclusion
in regard to final results.

Cable advice has been received of the recovery of ten tons of tin during
the month of October. The manager adds that the water is falling rapidly;
this should permit of calabashing on an extended scale. The value of the
tin already won by intermittent working should realise nearly £4,000, a
sum in excess of the outlay in respect of the surveying and prospecting
on which the small staff has been principally occupied.


    _Capital._—£60,000 in 240,000 shares of 5s. each.

    _Directors._—Assheton Leaver (Chairman), Cyril D’Arcy Leaver,
    James Ramsay Parsons, Franklin Stokes Saunders, Lewis Norman

    _Secretary._—Henry Thomas Miller.

    _Offices._—St. Bartholomew House, 58 West Smithfield, E.C.

This company owns two alluvial tin properties of about one square mile
each, and when the company was formed they had a further option for an
area of about 1,920 acres, which option has since been exercised, and the
property referred to in it floated as a subsidiary company called the Jos
Tin Area (Nigeria) Limited.

For the purpose of identification the two properties owned by the company
were described as Jos No. 2 and the Fusa property.

Mr. Malcolm has been appointed manager of the properties, and on behalf
of the company has applied for and secured permission to take up a
further area on the Fefan River.

Mr. S. W. Carpenter, who was in the employ of the Niger Company for
five years, has been appointed engineer. Mr. A. Higgins, who has also
joined this company, was formerly in the Public Works Department of
Nigeria, and has been in the country for the past ten years. He will make
his headquarters at Lokoja, in which place the company has contracted
to acquire a site and buildings to be used for trading, with a steam
launch and two barges on the river. In connection with this trading and
transport work, the company have acquired properties in Nigeria belonging
to the firm of Messrs. Siegler & Co., and their place in Lokoja occupies
the best river site there.

This company promoted its first subsidiary company in May 1910, and was
called the Jos Tin Area (Nigeria) Limited. The property was a producing


    _Capital._—£200,000 in 400,000 10s. shares, of which 300,000
    are issued and fully paid.

    _Directors._—Messrs. W. F. Turner (Chairman), Edmund Davis, J.
    Schaar, and H. White.

    _Secretary._—Mr. A. W. Berry.

    _Offices._—22 Austin Friars, E.C.

This company, in addition to having interests in various West African and
South African concerns, is interested in the Nigerian Tin Fields, and
in addition to holding share interest in various companies, they have a
prospecting right over an area of 50 square miles in the Bauchi district
to the west of the Naraguta area, and to the north and adjoining the area
of the Northern Nigeria (Bauchi) Tin Mines, Limited.


    _Capital._—£110,000 in 440,000 shares of 5s. each.

    _Directors._—Assheton Leaver (Chairman), C. D’Arcy Leaver, H.
    T. Miller, J. R. Parsons, F. S. Saunders, A. T. Schmidt, L. N.

    _Offices._—58 West Smithfield, E.C.

The company acquired from the Tin Areas of Nigeria Limited, an area of
1,920 acres which were originally held by the Niger Company. Mr. Charles
Scott has been engaged as mine manager, and is now on the property, from
which about 20 tons of black tin were won during May, June, and July.

At the statutory meeting held on 22nd August, the chairman said:

“I may say that I have had the pleasure on two or three occasions of
meeting Mr. H. W. Laws, who was the chief mining engineer of the Niger
Company in Northern Nigeria, and is now their consulting engineer here.
He had for some time the direction of the work on this particular mine.
In the course of friendly conversations with him, he told me that he
was of opinion that our company should get back its capital, together
with interest commensurate with the risk run in all mining enterprises.
He also told me that he considered the mine could go on producing
indefinitely anything up to 200 tons of tin per annum, without any
capital expenditure, but he added that he thought that would be a very
wrong policy to pursue, and that the right thing to do was to have, as
we intend having, a thorough survey made of the property, and then come
to a conclusion as to the best method of working it. I think that it
is very satisfactory to hear this from Mr. Laws, because it points to
the fact that we have really got a sound property, and one which, if
properly managed, will prove to be a sound speculative investment. It is
a property which must be regarded as a low-grade proposition. Although,
of course, it is more fascinating to have a property which may be called
a very rich one, yet a large low-grade property is really far more
satisfactory from the shareholders’ point of view than a property which
is simply rich in patches, because with a large low-grade proposition it
is a case of “cut and come again” and as often as you like. There is
always something to go away with. Mr. Lush, in a report which he gave us
at the time of the flotation of this mine, estimated that we could reckon
upon having 500 acres containing 2 lbs. of tin per cubic yard, and if
that estimate is realised—and I have no reason to anticipate that it will
not be realised—and the profits are made that he foreshadowed might be
made, you have a very handsome property, and one containing apparently
something over half a million sterling worth of tin.”


    _Capital._—£200,000 in £1 shares.

    _Directors._—The Earl of Wharncliffe, Sir William Wallace,
    K.C.M.G., William Scott Coutts, Samuel Watkin Carlton, James

    _Secretary._—Stanley Aldous.

    _Offices._—51 and 52 Fenchurch Street, E.C.

This company was formed to acquire and work mining rights over a property
known as the Bisichi Valley Tin Area, comprising an area of three square
miles in extent, situated in the Bauchi Tin Fields. It is located about
12 miles south-east of Jos, at the head-waters of the river Gongola, on
the main transport route from Keffi to Naraguta.

Mr. Laws, the general mining manager of the Niger Company, in his report,

“One of the most pleasing features of this property is its constant
supply of water for sluicing and power purposes, and the ample head of
water given by the three falls for hydraulicing.”

In the Bisichi Valley there is a large alluvial deposit of light sandy
material which is quite free from clay, and is extremely friable, and
consequently capable of cheap and rapid concentration.

Black oxide of tin occurs abundantly in the river beds and adjacent
alluvial flats, and is of very good quality, there being practically no
iron or other impurity associated with it. The tin-bearing alluvial is
all on the surface, and varies in depth from a few inches to some 20 feet
in the vicinity of the river.

Systematic tests of the alluvial by trial pits were commenced this year,
and up to the present the great proportion of the alluvial of the river
Bisichi has been tested.

The tested ground averages 4 yards in depth, and contains approximately
2,120,000 cubic yards of payable alluvial wash. The latter varies in
value from traces to 129 lbs. of black tin per cubic yard, the average
value being 7.27 lbs. of black tin per cubic yard. The total contents
of the tested portion therefore amounts to 6,800 tons, exclusive of the
river bed deposits, which the Niger Company’s engineers estimate to
contain about 1,000 tons.

The nature of the river-bed wash does not lend itself to accurate
sampling, but Mr. Laws, judging by actual returns from similar deposits
on this field, considers this estimate of 1,000 tons a moderate one, and
states that it may be taken that some 7,800 tons of black tin (containing
over 70 per cent. of pure metal) have been developed to date. Taking
the costs as estimated by Mr. Laws at £45 per ton, the above tonnage
contained in the area already proved, shows an available profit of over

Payable tin-bearing alluvial exists on other portions of the Bisichi
Valley area, but as it has not yet been measured or tested, no exact
estimate can be made of quantities and values. The ground already tested
represents about one-tenth of the total area; but the very high values
and quantities so far disclosed cannot be taken to apply to the whole
area, as it is natural that the course of the main stream should carry
better values and deeper ground than the remainder of the land where the
alluvial would be more patchy and shallower. It will be seen, however,
that the estimated working costs per ton have been placed by Mr. Laws at
a figure which will permit of lower grade ground being worked than that
already referred to.

Mr. Laws advises the immediate erection of an hydraulicing plant capable
of dealing efficiently with wash dirt sufficient to produce 800 tons
of black tin annually, an ample head of water being available for this
purpose throughout the year.

He also states that it would be quite possible to commence work on the
property immediately by ground sluicing; but he is strongly of opinion
that this policy would be unwise, as the disturbance of the ground might
tend to interfere with the economical working on a large scale such as is

Provided no unforeseen difficulties arise, Mr. Laws is of opinion that
the whole of the plant would be in operation within nine months.

If Mr. Laws’ advice is taken, he estimates that working cost would amount
to about £10 per ton on ore of the value already found, but, as stated
above, to allow for working a larger quantity of lower grade ground,
working costs should be placed at £15 per ton of ore. The price of the
ore in the market at Liverpool may be taken at £90 per ton, which, after
deducting £15 for working costs, and £30 per ton for transport and
contingencies, would leave a margin of profit of £45 per ton of ore.
Although it is proposed in the earlier stages of development to equip the
mine with plant capable of producing 800 tons annually, any increase on
this rate of working will depend on surveys determining the head of water


    _Capital._—£100,200 in £1 shares, of which 100,000 are ordinary
    shares and 200 founders’ shares; all are issued and fully paid.

    _Directors._—Rt. Hon. Lord Harris (Chairman), Edmund Davis,
    Friedrich Eckstein, H. Strakosah, R. G. Fricker (Managing

    _Secretaries._—The Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa,

    _Offices._—8 Old Jewry, E.C.

This company, which is managed by the Consolidated Goldfields of South
Africa, Limited, has secured an interest in a tin business in Nigeria.
The company have sent out Mr. Balfour, who has had experience in tin
dredging in the Straits Settlements. The tin property which is here
referred to was floated in conjunction with the Anglo-Continental Mines,
Limited, and was called the Northern Nigerian (Bauchi) Tin Mines,


    _Capital._—£10,000 in £1 shares; 8,500 are issued and fully
    paid, the balance are under option at par till 31st March, 1911.

    _Directors._—Charles E. Pearson (Chairman), C. L. W. Wallace,
    H. Kemble, G. F. Jones.

    _Secretary._—J. H. Dormer.

    _Offices._—21 Great Winchester Street, E.C.

The company originally held a prospecting mining licence over an area of
ten square miles, situated in the Benue River district, Northern Nigeria.

Mr. Harry Kemble, accompanied by an experienced engineer, left for
Nigeria early this year. The following circular was issued to the
shareholders on 29th August 1910:

“I beg to inform you that Mr. Kemble, writing from Naraguta, on 21st
July, reports as follows:—

“‘Please inform my brother-directors I have acquired four square miles of
very rich tin area, as stated in my cable of the 19th inst. It is mainly
in the streams, and will be almost entirely recovered by calabash washing
(_i.e._ natives washing the alluvial in calabashes).’”

In a cable from Mr. Kemble, dated 8th August, he states that he has
acquired a further six square miles, also rich, and on 21st August he
cabled that he has acquired “another square mile extremely rich.”

With regard to the exact locality of these areas, Mr. Kemble says: “Mr.
Knight will have plans, report, &c., ready for sending home as soon as

The following was issued to shareholders on 15th September 1910:

“Referring to my circular of 29th August, in which I informed you that
Mr. H. Kemble reported having secured in all eleven square miles of very
rich tin area, in a letter just received from Mr. Kemble, dated 3rd
August, he states that as a test they have washed 3,000 lbs. of tin in
five days’ work. With reference to seven square miles which Mr. Kemble
has secured for the company, he says:

“‘(1) Property on which camp is built lies nearly half-way between Bauchi
Town and Naraguta. It is two miles long by half-mile wide, taking in
the Ademi River in its length. There are other smaller streams on the
property running into the Ademi, and also containing tin. One square
mile. (2) Property on the river known locally as the Kogin Zungur, one
day’s march due south of Bauchi Town, and commencing quarter-mile
south-west of the town of Zungur, is six miles long and one wide. Mr.
Knight reports it rich in tin. Six square miles. It is impossible for Mr.
Knight to make detailed plans yet, as all his time must be devoted to
getting hold of further concessions.’”


    _Capital._—£100,000 in 400,000 shares of 5s. each; present
    issue 240,000 shares.

    _Directors._—Mr. P. G. Hamilton-Carvill, J.P. (Director of
    the Van Ryn Gold Mining Estates, Ltd.), Mr. T. F. Dalglish
    (Director of the Taquah and Abosso Gold Mining Cos.), Mr. James
    A. Duncan (Director of New African Co., Ltd.), Mr. Leama R.
    Davis (Director of Millar’s Karri and Jarrah Co., Ltd.), and
    Mr. George Ochs (Director of Abosso Gold Mining Co.).

    _Secretary._—Mr. H. J. Smith.

    _Offices._—34 Clement’s Lane, E.C.

This company has secured an area of 5¼ miles next to Naraguta, the
alluvial area comprising about 785 acres. Mr. H. W. Laws reporting on
these 785 acres, says:

“The bed of the stream is extremely rich in tin, in fact it is one of the
richest in the country.”

Mr. Laws also says that fifty natives with calabashes can earn 10 tons
of tin per month at a cost of less than £10 per ton, and that the extra
expense for transport, &c., to England, would not come to more than £30.
This would mean that fifty tributers, with the most primitive methods,
could earn 100 tons per annum, since it is stated that there is plenty of
water for sluicing purposes during eight months of the year. During the
remaining four dry months of the year there is ample water left in the
pools. In addition to the alluvial properties, the Gel Company has a half
share in a lode firm on a property covering 640 acres. Upon this lode
the Niger Company have already spent £10,000 in prospecting shafts with
satisfactory results. The lode formation is 20 feet wide on an average,
and an analysis of prospects gave 20 per cent. of tin.


    _Capital._—£125,000 in £1 shares, issued as fully paid in part
    payment of purchase money; 25,000 were offered at par, and are
    2s. paid, and the remaining 35,500 are held in reserve for
    future issue.

    _Directors._—Mr. Charles Vivian Thomas (Chairman of Tronoh
    Mines), Mr. Arthur Oliphant Burton, Mr. Louis A. Neel.

    _Secretary._—Mr. C. M. Champness, C.A.

    _Offices._—103 Cannon Street, E.C.

This company acquired their property through Mr. W. H. Champion, who has
also reported on the property. Most of the other companies which have
been formed up to this date, are working in the Bauchi Province, and as
the Akerri Company is proposing to work in a new district near Zungeru,
the present capital of the Colony, a copy of Mr. Champion’s report is
given in full:

“Having been appointed by you to prospect and report on your tin
properties in Northern Nigeria, to which place I proceeded in March, I
have now much pleasure in submitting to you the following particulars:

“_Situation._—Your property is situate one day’s journey in a
south-westerly direction from Zungeru, the present capital of the Colony,
and one and a half day’s journey north-east of Jebba, which is an
important railway centre.

“There is one important point as regards its position, which places it
far ahead of any property of any company at present working in this
Colony. That is, you have as boundaries, on the north the Lagos Railway
(Northern Extension), on the west the Kara River, and on the east the
Kaduna River.

“It is a granite country, and although in the Naraguta district reefs
have been proved to exist, large alluvial deposits, which yield
cassiterite (tin oxide), are of chief importance.

“_Mining._—For a couple of years the natives have been working in the
rivers adjoining, and also on your property, treating the ore in their
usual primitive way by means of ‘washing’ with wooden pans or calabashes.

“Under my supervision a large number of bore-holes were put down, varying
in depth from 10 feet to 35 feet. I can form no idea as to the depths of
the tin-bearing soil, as on the western boundary I have reached 35 feet
in depth without getting to the end, on the eastern boundary about 30
feet in depth. You have over the whole of your area alluvial deposits
existing on a very large scale. These deposits yield cassiterite (tin
oxide) containing on an average 62 per cent. metallic tin, which proves
the alluvial to be as rich or even richer than you find in any other part
of the world.

“I estimate the yield at 7 lbs. per cubic yard—equal to, say, 5 s. per
cubic yard, with tin oxide at £85 per ton. The cost of production would
be approximately 6d. per cubic yard.

“The extent of the property is great, the natural facilities for mining
are favourable, and the output of tin will be simply proportionate to the
number of men employed. Assuming that a minimum of only 250 natives be
employed, they should produce 500 tons of metallic tin per annum. Taking
the price of tin oxide at £85 per ton, there would be a profit of some
£36,000 per annum.

“The mining rights are over 3,200 acres, or five square miles, granted by
the Northern Nigerian Government, and are subject to an annual rent of
5s. per acre.

“There is also a 10 per cent. royalty on the net profits derived from
production, but I can assure you that there is every prospect of a
reduction taking place in the near future.

“_Labour._—This is undoubtedly one of the most important questions with
which mining companies will have to deal at a very near date. This I
foresaw, and am now pleased to say that arrangements have been made with
the Zereki, or Chief of the Village, close by, to provide you with not
less than 300 natives at any time or date, the same are required.

“_Transport._—This is another important question.

“At the present moment the railway has not been completed, but I assure
you that it will be before the end of the present year. They are now
laying it at the rate of one mile per day, and are only some forty miles
from your property when I left on 14th May.

“In this matter you have a very great advantage over those companies who
are exploiting the Bauchi district, for, to quote the words of their
expert, the cost of carriage from their tin fields to Liverpool is some
£27 per ton. The cost to you will not exceed £12 per ton, so you will
have on every ton arriving in Liverpool a clear profit of £15 more than
they get. This is a large margin, and when worked out on the small
production of 500 tons per annum (which I have previously mentioned),
means a sum of £7,500 over and above what they can get on the same

“_Water._—There is no need for me to dwell on this point, as the very
large rivers you have as boundaries will be more than ample supply for
all or any companies who will be operating here in the near future.

“_Climate._—Northern Nigeria is far different to any part of West Africa.
You are at an elevation of some 500 feet. The nights are quite cool, and
any man who takes ordinary care of himself and lives well ought to have
good health. It is, in my opinion, by far and away the healthiest part of
West Africa, and I say this after sixteen years spent in different parts
of it.

“In conclusion, the results obtained prove conclusively that there is
immense alluvial wealth which can be cheaply won, and I believe in this
property you have one which will prove an astonishing success.

“I should recommend you to at once commence operations on a large scale.

“A large working capital is unnecessary; and I consider that £25,000 will
be more than ample for all requirements.”


This company, which has been dealing for some time in South African
business, has recently acquired an interest in a Nigerian tin property
comprising an area of 640 acres, containing a lode which is claimed to
be the mother lode of the district. Arrangements are now being made to
prove the lode at depth. In addition this company have also acquired an
alluvial property adjoining, which runs along the bed of a stream for a
distance of about 5¼ miles, and extends to a width of 200 yards on each
bank. The property has as its northern neighbour the Naraguta Company,
with the Jos Tin Company on the east, and the Bauchi Tin Syndicate on the
west. This company appears to be working in conjunction with the Gel Tin
Lode and Alluvial Company, which company is probably a subsidiary company
issued by it.


    _Capital._—£50,000, divided into 50,000 ordinary shares of £1
    each, of which 20,000 are for working capital.

    _Directors._—Segar R. Bastard (Chairman, Champion Gold Reefs of
    West Africa, Ltd., and Director of Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power
    Co., Ltd.), Wm. F. Jackson (1-2 Great Winchester Street, E.C.,
    and Stock Exchange, E.C.), John Waddington, J.P. (Director,
    Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines, Ltd.).

    _Consulting Engineer._—Charles G. Lush, M.E.

    _Secretary._—H. Tuffrey.

    _Offices._—Blomfield House, 85 London Wall, E.C.

This company has been formed to acquire the exclusive rights to prospect
for minerals, mineral oils, and precious stones over an area of 3 square
miles, situated about 4 miles south of Bukeru, in the well-known Bauchi
Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria.

The property is situated on the top of the Bukeru Watershed, a basin
heavily watered with small streams running through the whole area, which
is stated to be alluvial, and all the ground is tin-bearing from the top
to the bottom of the pits, which have been sunk to a depth of about 15
feet. Mr. Lush, the consulting engineer to the principal Nigerian tin
mining companies, who thinks well of the property, has consented to act
as consulting engineer for this company.

A party, consisting of four engineers with boring plant and stores, has
already sailed for Nigeria to take possession of and work this property,
as well as two other properties belonging to the Gongola Syndicate,
Limited, and arrangements have been made for giving to this company the
benefit of this organisation, on payment of a proportion of the charges
incurred and to be incurred in connection therewith. There will be set
aside £20,000 of the capital for working capital, of which 10,000 shares
will be subscribed for immediately.

The purchase consideration is 30,000 fully-paid shares to be allotted to
the Wadu Syndicate or its nominees, and the right to subscribe at par for
the unissued capital of the company.

It may be mentioned that it is estimated that a profit of at least £45
per ton of ore will be obtained, taking the actual price at £90 per ton
and deducting £15 for the cost of working and £30 for transport, &c.,
which latter item will shortly be considerably reduced.


    _Capital._—£200,000 in 200,000 shares of £1 each, of which
    50,000 are set aside for working capital.

    _Directors._—Mr. Edward Hooper (Chairman), Mr. Sidney J.
    Messenger, Mr. Herbert Moir, Mr. James Wickett (Director of the
    Malay Tin Mines), and Mr. H. W. Pelham Clinton.

    _Secretary._—Mr. George Kerr, A.C.I.S.

    _Offices._—Capel House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company has acquired a most extensive property—nine miles in
extent—and holds it under an exclusive prospecting licence from the
Northern Nigerian Government. So far the prospectus has only been
privately issued. The licence carries with it the right to select areas
for mining purposes for periods of twenty-one years, at an annual rental
of 5s. per acre, and a royalty on the mineral output. The property is
situated on the head-waters of the river Gongola, the river flowing
through the area being locally known as the Ribon. It is about 20 miles
south-east of Naraguta, and within easy reach of the main transport
route. There is a constant and unlimited supply of water, and a large
quantity of timber suitable for fuel. The labour is plentiful, cheap,
and suitable for alluvial mining. The costs are put approximately at
£20 per ton of black tin, of a minimum of 70 per cent. Mr. H. W. Laws,
M.I.M.M., the chief mining engineer of the Niger Company, says: “I
consider the area has excellent prospects of proving very large and
profitable, and that in selecting land for mining purposes it will
probably be necessary to acquire two, and perhaps three, separate leases,
owing to its unusually large extent.” An engineer of wide experience and
an assistant has left London for the property, and Mr. Walter Wethered,
who is paying his third visit to the Nigerian tin field, is to attend
to the Company’s interests on the spot. The intention is that the
Ribon Company shall become one of the parent kind, because it is quite
impossible that, unaided, it can develop so large a sett.


    _Capital._—£76,000, divided into 270,000 ordinary shares of 5s.
    each, and 170 deferred shares of 1s. each.

    _Directors._—S. R. Bastard, Chairman of Champion Gold Reefs
    of West Africa, Ltd., Lucky Chance Mines, Ltd., Tin Fields of
    Northern Nigeria, Ltd., South Bukeru (Nigeria) Tin Co., Ltd.,
    Director of Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power Co., Ltd. (Chairman).

    C. G. Lush, M.E., Director of Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria,
    Ltd., and Goss Moor, Ltd., Consulting Engineer to South Bukeru
    (Nigeria) Tin Co., Ltd., and Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin Mines, Ltd.

    Julius L. F. Vogel, M.I.E.E., M.I.M.M.

    John Waddington, J.P., Director of Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin
    Mines, Ltd., Champion Gold Reefs of West Africa, Ltd., South
    Bukeru (Nigeria) Tin Co., Ltd., and Great Boulder Proprietary
    Gold Mines, Ltd.

    _Offices._—Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company has acquired an exclusive prospecting licence over about
1,440 acres of alluvial tin-bearing ground, situated at Forum on the
Rein River, in the Province of Bauchi, which is at present the richest
known tin district in Northern Nigeria. From this district alone over
one thousand tons of tin have already been won. The property extends
for a distance of about three miles along the river. Hand-washing by
calabashes and simple sluice-boxes, using a stream of water, have been
employed, and this method will be adopted by this company for the present.


By comparison with the results obtained in the district it is estimated
that, when the property is opened out, an output of 50 tons a month or
600 tons a year of “Black Tin” should be obtained, and the following
results may be anticipated on the basis of the report:—

    Sale of 600 tons of “Black Tin” at £90 per ton
      (the present price being over £100 per ton)         £54,000
    Cost of production (maximum estimate) at £15 per ton   £9,000
    Freight under present conditions at £29 10s. per ton   17,700
    Administration, rent, royalties, &c., about             4,300
                                                          -------   31,000
              Estimated nett annual profit                         £23,000

By about March the new freight conditions should be in force, which
would increase the estimated nett profit to about £29,000 per annum.

_Life and Tonnage._—Assuming Mr. Wethered’s figures that more than
two-thirds of the area carries 3 to 5 lbs. per cubic yard for a depth of
from 1 to 4 yards, the following is an estimate of the tonnage of tin and
the life of the property:—

    1,000 acres 2 yards deep at 3 lbs. per cubic yard should yield
    about 13,000 tons of Black Tin over about 20 years, which at
    £90 per ton represents a profit (taking into account reduced
    freight) in excess of £500,000.

_Management._—An arrangement has been made with the Lucky Chance Mines
Limited, for the superintendence of the company’s interests, and for
organising the work under a suitable manager.

The following report by Mr. Walter Wethered, one of the pioneers of the
Northern Nigeria Tin Fields, was made on the original concession, which
comprised an area of six miles along the river, of which this company
have acquired one half.

“This property is situated on the south-eastern side of the Bauchi tin
fields, between the pagan towns of Forum and Rein.

“The area encloses about six miles of a stream flowing in a northerly
direction from Rein to Forum, where it junctions with the system of
rivers on which the Ribon, Bisichi, Doss, and other properties are

“The area is three-quarters of a mile wide by six miles long, an extent
of four and a half square miles, practically the whole of which is
tin-bearing alluvial. The alluvium is composed of a sandy material of an
extremely free nature, and the bottom is the usual coarse grey granite.
The latter outcrops in very few places, and carries from about a yard to
four yards of alluvial ground. Although the bottom could be reached in
only a few places in the stream bed, good prospects of black tin were
obtained in nearly all samples panned, and from the alluvial flats, as
exposed by the banks of the stream, the results ran from about 3 to 5
lbs. of tin per cubic yard. The panning concentrates contained 10 to 15
per cent. of titaniferous iron sand (which was allowed for), but this
mineral presents no difficulty, and can be easily eliminated by the
ordinary dressing operations.

“The width of the property (three-quarters of a mile) does not include
the whole of the large alluvial flats that occur on either side of the
river, but having secured the river and so much of the adjacent ground,
these flats are protected, and, if necessary, may be taken up when the
land for mining purposes is selected.

“Of the area staked, certainly more than two-thirds carries alluvial
ground of the thickness given above. Except in the bed of the stream, I
would not expect rich patches, but a fairly uniform value throughout.

_Water._—There is a continuous flow of water for sluicing purposes all
the year round.

_Grades._—Cannot be determined without survey, but at the lower (Forum)
end of the property there is sufficient fall to allow the tailings to be
inexpensively dealt with.

_Costs._—Will compare favourably with other mines in the district, _i.e._
with ground of moderate value the costs would amount to between £10 and
£15 per ton of black tin, and present transport charges £27 10s. per ton

“Final tests of the flats are capable of being cheaply and quickly
carried out by means of trial pits; boring is unnecessary. The
probability is that the workable ground will prove to be of too large an
area to be included in one mining lease, and that it will be necessary to
split the present area into two or more properties.”

New Mining Regulations for Northern Nigeria

[NOTE.—_The Proclamation as enacted in the Protectorate differs from this
copy in the addition of a clause suspending—as regards licences to mine
issued under the previous Proclamation—the operation of Section 26 and
Regulation 23 (relating to royalties) until 1st January 1911, to which
date the provisions of the “Minerals Proclamation, 1902,” with regard to
duty on profits, are kept in force._]


A Proclamation regulating the right to search for minerals and also to
dig for, mine, and work minerals, and for other purposes relating thereto.

Be it enacted by the Governor of Northern Nigeria as follows:—

[Sidenote: Short Title.]

1. This Proclamation may be cited as “The Minerals Proclamation, 1910.”

[Sidenote: Interpretation.]

2. In this Proclamation, unless the context otherwise requires:—

[Sidenote: Person.]

“Person” includes a corporation.

[Sidenote: Holder.]

“Holder” of a prospecting right or exclusive licence to prospect means
the person to whom such right or licence was granted in the first
instance, but in the case of an exclusive licence to prospect includes a
person in whom such licence or a part of the rights thereunder has become
vested by transfer, assignment, or otherwise.

[Sidenote: Lessee.]

“Lessee” of a mining lease includes all persons having any right or
interest in or under a mining lease, whether by transfer, assignment, or

[Sidenote: Treasurer.]

“Treasurer” includes any officer appointed by the Governor to perform any
act or duty or to exercise any authority which by this Proclamation may
be done by, or is imposed upon, the Treasurer.

[Sidenote: Government Inspector of Mines.]

“Government Inspector of Mines” includes any officer appointed by the
Governor to perform any act or duty or to exercise any act or authority
which by this Proclamation may be done by, or is imposed upon, or may be
exercised by, the Government Inspector of Mines.


“Court” means the Supreme Court or any Provincial Court.

[Sidenote: Minerals.]

“Minerals” means and includes the following as classed hereunder (_a_),
(_b_), (_c_), and (_d_):—

[Sidenote: Metalliferous Minerals.]

(_a_) Metalliferous minerals, including antimony, arsenic, bismuth,
copper, cobalt, chromium, cadmium, gold, iron, iridium, lead, manganese,
mercury, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silver, tin, tungsten, uranium,
zinc, and all others of a similar nature to any of them, and all ores or
combinations of any of them with each other or with any other substance,
excepting only those that occur in the form of precious stones.

[Sidenote: Carbonaceous Minerals.]

(_b_) Carbonaceous minerals, including anthracite, asphalt, brown coal,
bitumen and its compounds, coal, graphite, lignite, and all substances of
a like nature to any of them, or combinations of any of them with each
other or with any other substance.

[Sidenote: Earthy Minerals.]

(_c_) Earthy minerals, including asbestos, barytes, clays, gypsum,
infusorial earth, sandstone, marble, mica, phosphates, potash, rock salt,
soda, sulphur, steatite, slate, talc, and all other substances of a like
nature to any of them.

[Sidenote: Precious Stones.]

(_d_) Precious stones, including amber, amethyst, beryl, cat’s eye,
chrysolite, diamond, emerald, garnet, opal, ruby, sapphire, turquoise,
and all substances of a similar nature to any of them.

[Sidenote: Saving as to quarrying, &c.]

3. Nothing in this Proclamation shall prevent any person from quarrying
stone for building purposes, or any native of the Protectorate from
mining for iron, salt, soda, or potash, except in any area over which a
mining lease has been granted.

[Sidenote: No person to prospect without a prospecting right, or
exclusive licence.]

4.—(1) It shall not be lawful for any person to prospect for minerals
without having first obtained a prospecting right or an exclusive licence
to prospect in the prescribed form.

(2) An exclusive licence to prospect shall not be granted to any
applicant who has not, either by himself or his duly authorised agents,
examined the area over which an exclusive licence to prospect is applied

(3) It shall be in the discretion of the Governor for good cause to
refuse an application for a prospecting right or an exclusive licence to

[Sidenote: Prospecting right.]

5. A prospecting right shall entitle the holder to prospect for any
minerals in those parts of the Protectorate which are not included in
any exclusive licence to prospect, and which the Governor has not by
Government Notice in the Gazette declared to be closed to prospectors.

[Sidenote: Prospectors employed by corporations.]

In the case of a company or corporation employing prospecting engineers
or prospectors, each prospecting engineer or prospector shall be
required to take out an individual prospecting right.

[Sidenote: Exclusive licence to prospect.]

6. An exclusive licence to prospect shall entitle the holder thereof, and
his duly authorised agents, to the sole right of prospecting for minerals
within an area not less than one square mile and not more than sixteen
square miles in extent, and for a period of one year from the date
thereof, subject to renewal in accordance with the prescribed regulations
for further terms of one year each, but so as not to exceed a period of
three years in the whole.

[Sidenote: Right to enter upon land to prospect.]

7. A prospecting right and an exclusive licence to prospect shall,
subject to the terms thereof and to the prescribed regulations, entitle
the holder thereof to enter upon any land and prospect for minerals, and
any person interfering with or obstructing such holder in the exercise of
any rights hereby conferred upon him shall be guilty of an offence and
shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £25 or to imprisonment for a
term not exceeding three months.

[Sidenote: Settlement of disputes.]

8. All disputes between holders of exclusive licences to prospect in
respect of the exercise of the rights granted by such licences shall be
submitted through the Government Inspector of Mines to the Governor for
his decision, which shall be final and conclusive between the parties:
Provided always that the Governor may in his discretion refer any
particular matter in dispute to a court for its decision.

[Sidenote: Penalty for prospecting without a right or licence.]

9. Any person prospecting without a prospecting right or licence to
prospect shall be guilty of an offence and shall on conviction before a
court be liable to a penalty not exceeding £50 or to imprisonment for a
term not exceeding six months.

[Sidenote: Transfer of rights and licences.]

10. A prospecting right shall not be transferable, but an exclusive
licence to prospect or any portion of the rights granted under such
licence may be transferred with the consent in writing of the Governor,
signified by endorsement thereon.

[Sidenote: Revocation of licences.]

11. In case of any breach by the holder of a prospecting right or
exclusive licence to prospect or by any attorney, agent, or employee of
such holder, of any of the provisions of this Proclamation or of any rule
or regulation made thereunder, the Governor may summarily revoke the
said right or licence and thereupon all privileges and rights conferred
thereby or enjoyed thereunder shall as from the date of such revocation
cease: Provided always that the fact of such revocation shall not in any
way affect the liability of such holder, attorney, agent, or employee,
in respect of the breach of any provision of this Proclamation or of any
such rule or regulation committed by him before such revocation.

[Sidenote: Surrender of licence.]

12. An exclusive licence to prospect or any portion of the rights granted
under such licence may be surrendered at any time after three months’
notice in writing has been given of the intention to surrender: Provided
that such surrender shall not affect any liability incurred by the holder
before such surrender shall have taken effect.

[Sidenote: No grant except to holder of prospecting right or exclusive

13.—(1) It shall not be lawful for the Governor to grant a mining
lease to any person other than the holder of a prospecting right or an
exclusive licence to prospect, nor to any person who cannot show to his
satisfaction that he has, either himself or by his duly authorised agent,
carried out _bonâ fide_ prospecting operations on the area applied for.

[Sidenote: Right of exclusive licence holder.]

(2) The holder of an exclusive licence to prospect who has fulfilled
all the conditions attached thereto shall be entitled to the grant of
a mining lease in respect of any portion of the area covered by such
licence subject to the conditions relating to the grant of such leases.

[Sidenote: Applicant must show sufficient working capital.]

14. The Governor may require an applicant for a mining lease to show to
his satisfaction that he possesses or commands sufficient working capital
to ensure the proper development and working of the mine; and may require
any reports on the matter made by competent engineers to be submitted for
his information. In the event of such applicant failing to satisfy the
Governor as aforesaid, the Governor may refuse the application, but the
applicant may renew his application at any time.

[Sidenote: Giving false information as to above matters an offence.]

15. Any applicant for a mining lease wilfully or recklessly giving false
information as to any of the matters in respect of which information is
or may be required to be given under this Proclamation shall be guilty of
an offence, and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding £50
or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months.

[Sidenote: Duration of lease.]

16.—(1) A mining lease may be granted for any term not exceeding 21 years.

[Sidenote: Renewal.]

(2) If at the expiration of the term originally granted the lessee or his
assigns shall be carrying on work in a normal and business-like manner
under the lease, and the lease shall not at that time be liable to be
declared void under any of the provisions of this Proclamation, and the
lessee or his assigns shall have given to the Government six months’
notice in that behalf, then the lessee or his assigns shall be entitled
to obtain a renewal of the lease for a further term not exceeding 21
years, upon the conditions which are then generally applicable to new
mining leases.

[Sidenote: Different kinds of mining leases.]

17. Mining leases shall be of the following kinds, viz.:—

    (1) Lode mining leases, the unit of area being one claim of
    80,000 square feet, rectangular, and of such dimensions that
    the width shall not be less than one-half the length. No
    greater area than 30 claims shall be included in one lease. The
    rent payable under such lease shall be at the rate of £4 per
    claim per annum.

    (2) Alluvial mining leases, which shall not exceed 800 acres in
    area and shall have a minimum width throughout of 400 yards.
    The rent payable under such lease shall be at the rate of five
    shillings per acre per annum.

    (3) Stream mining leases, which shall not be granted in
    cases where an alluvial mining lease is applicable, shall be
    confined to the bed of a stream and shall not exceed one mile
    in length. The rent payable under such lease shall be at the
    rate of twenty shillings per annum for each 100 yards or part

    (4) Iron mining leases.

    (5) Carbonaceous minerals leases.

    (6) Earthy minerals and precious stones leases.

    (7) Dredging leases.

        Leases of the kind (4), (5), (6), and (7) shall be
        granted subject to regulations to be made by the
        Governor under section 34 of this Proclamation.

    (8) Water power leases, which shall be the subject of special
    agreements with the Governor; and such agreements shall make
    provision _inter alia_:

        (_a_) As to the rate to be charged to consumers for
        the supply of power, such rate to be specified in
        each agreement, and not increased without the consent
        in writing of the Governor;

        (_b_) As to the compensation to be paid by the
        beneficiaries thereunder in respect of interference
        with pre-existing individual rights of any kind

        (_c_) To ensure, under penalty of revocation, the
        adequate development of the available power; and

        (_d_) To ensure the supply of power on equitable
        terms to all consumers.

    Provided that (1) no such agreement shall be concluded until
    at least three months after reasonable advertisement of the
    application for the lease; and (2) the Governor shall at
    all times have the power to determine any such agreement,
    subject to reasonable notice and to the payment of adequate
    compensation in respect of expenditure incurred.

[Sidenote: Governor may order survey, at cost of applicant.]

18. The Governor may in any case where he shall deem it necessary, before
granting a mining lease, require that the boundaries of the land affected
shall be surveyed by a surveyor approved by the Governor, and the cost of
such survey shall be paid by the person applying for the lease.

[Sidenote: Overlapping areas.]

19. In the event of any areas the subject of mining leases or exclusive
licences to prospect being found to overlap, the ground in dispute shall
be considered as within the area first granted, and no claim, whether
for compensation or otherwise, shall be allowed in respect thereof to the
lessee or licensee of the area subsequently granted.

[Sidenote: Registration.]

20. Every mining lease and every instrument by or under which the rights
or any portion thereof granted by such lease shall be transferred or
assigned shall be registered as an instrument affecting land under the
provisions of the law for the time being in force with regard to the
registration of such instruments.

[Sidenote: Penalty for mining without a lease.]

21. Any person digging for, mining, or working any mineral without a
mining lease shall be guilty of an offence, and shall be liable upon
conviction thereof to a penalty not exceeding £500 or to imprisonment for
a term not exceeding twelve months.

[Sidenote: Use of water.]

22. The lessee of a mining lease shall be entitled to the use of all
water within the area of his lease, but he shall not, without the consent
in writing of the Government Inspector of Mines, treat any river or other
flowing water or stream in such a manner as to prevent its return to its
natural channel before it leaves the said area.

[Sidenote: Proviso as to existing rights.]

Provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed to affect or
prejudice the existing rights of any person to the reasonable use of the
water flowing in a natural bed or channel through, or along the margin
of, land occupied by him, or naturally deposited within such land.

[Sidenote: Penalty for improper use of water.]

23. Any person diverting any river, flowing water, or stream without
consent as aforesaid, or diverting water in such a manner as to render
it unavailable for use by another person legally entitled to the use
thereof, shall be guilty of an offence, and shall be liable to a penalty
not exceeding £25, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three

[Sidenote: Provisions as to surface rights.]

24.—(1) A mining lease shall not of itself confer any rights in or
over the surface of the area included in the lease, but if the lessee
shall apply to the Governor for a right of occupancy over the whole or
any portion of the area included in his lease, and shall show to the
satisfaction of the Governor that the exclusive use and enjoyment of
the said area or portion thereof is necessary to the full and effective
exercise of the rights conferred by the lease, the Governor shall grant
a right of occupancy over such area or portion thereof, subject to the
provisions of the law for the time being in force with regard to such
rights, and to such reservations as he shall think fit to make in respect
of any railway, tramway, public road, building, burial-ground, or land
appropriated to any public purpose, or land in the legal occupation of
any other person.

(2) A right of occupancy granted as aforesaid shall run concurrently with
the mining lease, and shall be renewable on application with each renewal
of the mining lease, and no rent shall be payable thereunder over and
above the rent payable under the mining lease; but compensation shall be
payable in respect of any disturbance of native rights.

(3) In the event of any application being received from a third party
for any rights in or over the surface of an area included in a mining
lease, the Governor shall give notice thereof to the lessee, and if the
latter shall within six months of the date of such notice show to the
satisfaction of the Governor that the application cannot be granted
without loss or damage to him in respect of the rights conferred by the
said mining lease, the Governor shall assess reasonable compensation
to be paid by the applicant to the lessee as a condition precedent to
the grant of the application. If, however, the lessee shall fail to
satisfy the Governor as aforesaid, the Governor may thereupon grant the
application and no action shall lie in respect of any loss or damage that
may ensue in respect thereof.

[Sidenote: Compensation for damage.]

25. Compensation shall be made to the legal occupier by the holder of a
prospecting right or exclusive licence to prospect, and by the lessee
of a mining lease other than the holder of a right of occupancy, for
all damage done by himself, his agents, or employees, to the surface
of any land upon, or under which prospecting or mining operations are
being carried on, or to any house or building upon any such land, and
the amount of such compensation shall be decided by the Resident of the
province in which such land is situated: Provided that if either party is
dissatisfied with the decision of such Resident he may within fourteen
days appeal to the Governor, who may either decide the matter, in which
case such decision shall be final, or refer it to a court for decision.

[Sidenote: Royalty to be paid according to regulations.]

26. There shall be paid by all holders of mining leases a royalty to the
Government on all ores, minerals, and metals won, which royalty shall be
at such rate as may be laid down in the regulations made under section
34, and may be collected in the form of an export duty or in such manner
and subject to such conditions as may be laid down in such regulations.

[Sidenote: Disputes between holders of mining rights as to mining

27. If the holder of any right acquired under this Proclamation shall
consider himself injuriously affected by the mining or prospecting
operations of another, he shall report the matter in writing to the
Government Inspector of Mines. The Government Inspector of Mines shall
forward a copy of the report to all persons concerned, and after due
consideration shall give his decision thereon.

Any person may appeal from the decision of the Government Inspector of
Mines to the Governor, after first notifying the Government Inspector
of Mines of his intention to do so, and stating the grounds of his
dissatisfaction. The Government Inspector of Mines shall at once report
the matter to the Governor, who may either decide the matter himself, in
which case his decision shall be final, or refer it to a court, which,
upon such reference, shall decide the matter in dispute as though it came
before it in the ordinary course of law.

[Sidenote: Interference with railways, public lands, &c., forbidden.]

28. No person entitled or claiming to be entitled to any rights under a
prospecting right or an exclusive licence to prospect or under a mining
lease shall, in the exercise of any such rights, without the consent in
writing of the Governor, disturb or interfere with any railway, tramway,
public road or building, burial ground or land appropriated by law to
any public purpose, and any person guilty of any such disturbance or
interference shall be liable on conviction before a court to a penalty
not exceeding £100, and in addition may be ordered by the court to pay
the costs of making good any damage caused by him.

[Sidenote: Forfeiture for breach of regulations, &c.]

29. If there shall be a breach on the part of the lessee of a mining
lease of any condition or provision of this Proclamation or of any
regulation made thereunder, or of any of the terms of his lease, and
if the lessee shall not make good such breach within three months from
receiving notice in writing from the Governor so to do, or if the lessee
shall wholly discontinue operations under the lease during a continuous
period of six months without the consent in writing of the Governor, then
the lease may be determined by the Governor without prejudice to any
claim against the lessee which shall already have accrued. The decision
of the Governor determining the lease shall be sufficiently notified
to the lessee by its publication in the Gazette, and shall operate to
vest in the Government all the plant, buildings, and other property of
the lessee in connection with the land leased without any payment or
compensation to the lessee in respect thereof.

[Sidenote: Fraudulent deposit of metal, and fraudulent sampling.]

30. Any person who shall place or deposit, or be accessory to the placing
or depositing of, any metal, ore, or mineral in any spot or place for the
purpose of misleading any person as to the nature, quality, or quantity
of the mineral naturally occurring at such spot or place, or who shall
mingle or cause to be mingled with any sample of metal, mineral, or ore,
any valuable metal or any substance whatsoever which will increase the
value or in any way change the nature of the said metal, mineral, or ore,
with intention to defraud any person, shall be guilty of felony, and
shall be liable, on conviction, to a penalty not exceeding £500 or to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

[Sidenote: Accurate accounts and plans to be kept.]

31. There shall be kept at the principal office within the Protectorate
of the lessee of a mining lease or his attorney (1) accurate and regular
accounts containing full entries of all minerals raised or got under such
lease, together with all such particulars as may be necessary to form
an estimate of the quantity and value of such minerals; and (2) correct
plans and sections of all mines worked under the rights conferred by
his said lease, and of all the workings thereof, and of all veins or
lodes which shall have been discovered therein, upon which the extent,
position, and actual condition of the works shall at least once in every
half year be accurately delineated. The scale of plans and sections shall
be, for underground plans 1 in 500 and for surface plans 1 in 5000.

[Sidenote: Government officers prohibited from acquiring rights.]

32. No officer, whether civil or military, shall, while in the service of
the Government of the Protectorate, acquire or hold any right or interest
under any prospecting right, licence to prospect, or mining lease, and
any licence or lease purporting to confer any such right or interest on
any such officer shall be null and void.

[Sidenote: Right of entry to inspect.]

33. The Government Inspector of Mines may at any time enter and inspect
any land over which an exclusive licence to prospect or a mining lease
has been granted, for the purpose of ascertaining the condition thereof,
and may inspect and take copies of or extracts from any books or papers,
plans, &c., dealing with the operations of the licensee or lessee, and
required by this Proclamation to be kept.

[Sidenote: Power to make rules and regulations.]

34. The Governor shall have power to make rules and regulations for
carrying this proclamation into effect and in particular for all or any
of the following matters:—

    (_a_) The manner in which applications for prospecting rights,
    exclusive licences to prospect, and mining leases shall be
    made, the forms to be used, and the fees payable in respect

    (_b_) The information to be supplied by the applicants;

    (_c_) The shape of areas over which exclusive licences to
    prospect may be granted and the manner in which the same shall
    be surveyed and beaconed;

    (_d_) The manner in which the right of entry upon land shall be
    exercised; and the conditions on which shafts, pits, temporary
    buildings, and other works may be made or erected for the
    purpose of prospecting;

    (_e_) The amount of work to be done under an exclusive licence
    to prospect;

    (_f_) The construction of roads, tramways, and railways;

    (_g_) The construction and erection of houses, machinery, and
    other works to be used for mining purposes;

    (_h_) The fencing off or rendering secure of any of the works
    constructed, erected, or made for prospecting or mining

    (_i_) The grazing of cattle and other animals, and the
    cutting down and use of timber for the purpose of carrying on
    prospecting operations;

    (_k_) For securing the safety of persons employed in mines and
    for the carrying on of mining operations in a safe, proper, and
    effectual manner;

    (_l_) The reference of disputes to a court for decision;

    (_m_) The transfer and assignment of rights under licences and

    (_n_) The amount of royalty payable to the Government and the
    form and manner in which such royalty shall be collected and
    paid; and

    (_o_) The grant of leases of the kinds numbered (3), (4), (5),
    and (6) in Section 17;

and may attach to the breach of any such rule or regulation a penalty not
exceeding £50 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months for
each such breach.

Until further or other provision be made under this section, the rules
and regulations set forth in the schedule hereto shall be and remain in

[Sidenote: Mining for oil not included in provisions of Proclamation.]

35. Nothing in this Proclamation shall be construed to refer to or to
sanction the prospecting or mining for mineral oil of any kind.

[Sidenote: Saving for existing rights.]

36. Nothing in this Proclamation shall be construed to affect any rights
existing at the date of its commencement.



[Sidenote: Application for prospecting right.]

1.—(1) Any person desiring to obtain a prospecting right shall apply
in writing for the same to the Governor through the Secretary to the
Administration, and in making such application shall give the following

    (_a_) The name, nationality, and description of the applicant,
    and an address in the Protectorate at which notices, &c., may
    be served;

    (_b_) The parts of the Protectorate in which the applicant
    desires to travel; and

    (_c_) A copy of the memorandum and articles of association of
    any syndicate or corporation on behalf of which the applicant
    is applying as aforesaid.

(2) The applicant shall show, if required by the Governor to do so,
that he possesses sufficient money or credit to enable him to pay all
reasonable travelling and prospecting expenses likely to be incurred in
the exercise of the rights conferred by a prospecting right.

[Sidenote: Form.]

2. A prospecting right shall be in Form I. of the Appendix hereto.

[Sidenote: Prospecting right, fee to be paid, and duration.]

3. The fee to be paid for a prospecting right shall be £5, and its
duration shall be for one year from the granting of the right.

[Sidenote: Application for exclusive licence to prospect.]

4. Any person desiring to obtain an exclusive licence to prospect
may apply in writing to the Governor through the Secretary to the
Administration, and in making such application shall give the following

    (_a_) The name, nationality, and description of the applicant,
    and if representing a corporation or company the like
    information with regard to the directors thereof, and the
    amount of cash, working capital, and nominal capital of such
    corporation or company, and an address in the Protectorate at
    which notices, &c., may be served;

    (_b_) Copies of the memorandum and articles of association
    of any corporation, syndicate, or company represented by the

    (_c_) The class, or combination of classes, of minerals for
    which the applicant desires to prospect; and

    (_d_) The boundaries, area, and situation of the ground over
    which an exclusive licence is desired: Provided that

        (1) The boundaries shall be defined in such a manner
        as to be a sufficient guide to others desiring
        to locate contiguous areas, and shall have been
        demarcated to the satisfaction of the Inspector of

        (2) A sketch plan shall be furnished on the scale of
        1:25,000, showing the topography and main drainage in
        such a manner as will illustrate the position of the
        boundaries and enable them to be identified upon the
        ground; and

        (3) No statement of latitude and longitude shall be
        considered as defining an exclusive prospecting area.

[Sidenote: Applications to be in duplicate and to be filed.]

5. Applications under the preceding regulation shall be submitted in
duplicate, and one copy shall be filed in the office of the Secretary to
the Administration (or at such other place as the Governor may appoint);
and the file shall be open to inspection at all reasonable times.

[Sidenote: Shape of area of exclusive licence to prospect.]

6. The shape of an area over which an exclusive licence to prospect
may be granted shall be such that the average width, as determined by
dividing the area by the greatest length, is not less than one-third of
the greatest length.

[Sidenote: Form.]

7. An exclusive licence to prospect shall be in Form II. of the Appendix

[Sidenote: Fee to be paid.]

8. The fee to be paid for an exclusive licence to prospect shall be £5
per square mile or part of a square mile per annum.

[Sidenote: Obligation of exclusive licences.]

9.—(1) The holder of an exclusive licence to prospect shall, under
penalty of revocation of such licence under the provisions of section
11 of the Proclamation, during the whole of the period for which such
licence is granted, either by himself or his agents, carry on _bonâ fide_
prospecting operations.

[Sidenote: Renewal.]

(2) The Governor may refuse to renew any exclusive licence if satisfied
that _bonâ fide_ prospecting operations have not been carried on.

[Sidenote: Rights of prospector.]

10. The holder of a prospecting right or an exclusive licence to prospect
may in respect of the land subject to his right or licence exercise the
following rights for the purpose of prospecting:—

    (_a_) Enter upon the said land unless the Governor shall by
    Government notice declare any part thereof to be closed to

    (_b_) Erect temporary buildings or set up camp thereon;

    (_c_) Use any water thereon or divert any watercourse; provided
    that no stream of a greater width from bank to bank than 20
    feet shall be diverted without the consent in writing of the
    Government Inspector of Mines;

    (_d_) Sink shafts or wells, or dig trenches; and

    (_e_) Cut timber for any purpose essential to the work of
    carrying on prospecting operations in an efficient manner.

[Sidenote: Licences and authorities to be shown to Government Inspector
of Mines.]

11. A prospecting right, an exclusive licence to prospect, and any
licence granted under the provisions of the Proclamation or of these
regulations, and a written authority given by the holder of an exclusive
licence to any person to prospect upon his area, shall be produced to
the Government Inspector of Mines demanding to inspect the same, and any
person who shall fail to produce such licence, right, or authority when
demanded as aforesaid shall be guilty of an offence and be liable to a
penalty not exceeding £25.

[Sidenote: Application for mining lease.]

12. An application for a mining lease shall be made through the Secretary
to the Administration and shall contain the following particulars and

    (_a_) The name, nationality, and description of the applicant,
    and if a syndicate or corporation the like information with
    regard to the members or directors thereof, and the amount
    of the nominal and subscribed capital of such syndicate or
    corporation, and an address in the Protectorate at which
    notices, &c., may be served;

    (_b_) A map on a scale of 1:5000 showing the boundaries,
    extent, and situation of the area in which it is desired to
    mine, and containing sufficient topographical information to
    enable the position of the area to be easily located;

    (_c_) The length of term desired;

    (_d_) Whether it is desired to dig for, mine, and work all
    minerals and precious stones, or some one or more and which of
    them; and

    (_e_) A copy of the memorandum and articles of association of
    any syndicate or corporation applying as aforesaid.

[Sidenote: Form of lease and assignment thereof.]

13. A mining lease shall be in the Form III., and an assignment thereof
in the Form IV. set forth in the Appendix hereto, or as near thereto as
circumstances admit.

[Sidenote: Boundaries.]

14. All mining areas shall be bounded by straight lines and vertical
planes from the surface boundary lines downwards to an unlimited depth
from the surface.

[Sidenote: Permanent beacons to be erected.]

13. Within a period not exceeding twelve months from the date of the
commencement of a mining lease there shall be erected by the lessee
beacons of a permanent character:—

    (_a_) In the case of a lode mining lease, at the corners of
    each claim; and

    (_b_) In the case of an alluvial lease, at each angular point
    of the polygon formed by the boundary lines, and at such other
    points as may be necessary to secure that no two consecutive
    beacons shall be more than 2000 feet apart: Provided that where
    for any reason it may be impracticable to comply strictly
    with these provisions, the Government Inspector of Mines may
    authorise the placing of beacons at such other points as may in
    his opinion most conveniently define the boundaries of the area.

[Sidenote: Beacons to be kept in good repair.]

16. A lessee of a mining lease shall keep his beacons and boundary
marks in good condition and repair so that they shall be at all times a
reasonable guide for persons desirous of marking out contiguous areas.

[Sidenote: Commencement of working.]

17. The lessee of a mining lease shall within twelve months of date of
granting of such lease, or within such further time as the Governor by
writing under his hand may grant, commence mining operations upon the
lands subject to his said lease.

[Sidenote: Mines to be effectually worked.]

18. The lessee of a mining lease will at all times during the continuance
thereof, except during the first twelve months, and unless prevented by
any disturbances, or by unavoidable accident, effectually and vigorously
work and develop and carry on mining operations on the land subject to
the said lease.

[Sidenote: Conditions of adequate working.]

19. No mine shall be considered to be effectually or properly worked
within the meaning of the preceding regulation unless it can be shown
that an expenditure per annum has been incurred in respect of working on
the ground of at least £2 per acre in the case of an alluvial, and £100
per claim in the case of a lode mining, lease.

[Sidenote: Concentrated working.]

Provided that in the case of contiguous leases held by the same person
or corporation, the Governor may, on cause being shown, allow any two
or more of the said leases to be regarded as one for the purpose of
calculating the expenditure required by this regulation.

[Sidenote: Deposit of tailings and waste matter.]

20. In any case where tailings or any other products whatever from the
operations of mining or metallurgy are being discharged, or about to
be discharged, in such a manner as to hinder or injuriously affect any
other person in the execution of his legal mining rights, or the future
development of mining, it shall be lawful for the Government Inspector of
Mines to order the disposal of such products or tailings in some other
manner not detrimental to present or future mining.

[Sidenote: Explosives.]

21. It shall not be lawful for any person to construct underground any
magazine for the storage of explosives, or to erect a magazine for such
purpose upon the surface of the ground without previously having obtained
permission in writing from the Government Inspector of Mines. Any such
magazine shall be erected subject to the following conditions:—

    (_a_) It shall be constructed at a distance of at least
    100 yards from any occupied building, public road, bridge,
    aqueduct, or railway, or structure that might sustain damage
    in the event of an explosion;

    (_b_) The walls shall be of suitable and substantial

    (_c_) The roof shall be as light as possible, but fire-proof;

    (_d_) It shall be provided with a reliable lightning conductor,
    which shall have its lower end attached to a metal plate at
    least four square feet in area which shall be buried at least
    three feet in the ground, and the point at which the conductor
    enters the ground, and the ground in which it is buried, shall
    be as far as possible kept damp;

    (_e_) It shall have no windows;

    (_f_) The door shall be provided with a stout lock and be kept
    fastened when not in use;

    (_g_) The ground within a radius of sixty yards shall be kept
    clear of bushes and grass.

[Sidenote: Monthly reports to Government.]

22. On or before the 8th of each month, or as soon after as circumstances
will permit, every manager or person in charge of mining operations
shall lodge with the Government Inspector of Mines a written statement
setting forth:—

    (1) The name and designation of the property;

    (2) The name of the owners of the mine;

    (3) The nature of the mine;

    (4) The output of mineral in the preceding month;

    (5) A statement of working costs;

    (6) The number of employees and labourers in the preceding
    month, and the total amount of wages paid to the labourers and
    the total amount of salaries of Europeans that are a charge on
    the mine, including those on leave;

    (7) The particulars of any deaths or accidents that may have
    occurred during the preceding month; and

    (8) Any further particulars that may be required by the
    Government Inspector of Mines for the purpose of compiling

[Sidenote: Royalty.]

23.—(1) There shall be payable to the Government by all lessees of mining
leases a royalty of £5 per centum upon the value of all metal won.

[Sidenote: Form of collection.]

(2) If such metal or any ore containing metal be exported from the
Protectorate, such royalty shall be collected in the form of an export
duty payable upon exportation at any customs station in the Protectorate.

[Sidenote: Value, how computed.]

(3) The value of such metal shall be deemed to be the actual market price
of the metal in the London market on the 1st day of January, April, July,
or October next preceding the exportation.

[Sidenote: Tin ore.]

(4) The value of tin ore shall be deemed to be at the rate of 70 per
centum of the value of metallic tin computed as aforesaid.

[Sidenote: Penalties.]

24. Any person wilfully committing a breach of these regulations or
refusing to obey an order lawfully given under any of the provisions
thereof shall in addition to any liability to forfeiture provided by the
Proclamation be liable to a penalty not exceeding £50, or in default to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months.





Licence, subject to the provisions of the said Proclamation and of the
rules and regulations made thereunder, is hereby granted for twelve
months from the date hereof to E. F. [_here insert name, address, and
description of licensee]_ to prospect for minerals [_or as the case may
be_] in such parts of the Protectorate as may not from time to time be
closed to prospectors by Government Notice in the Gazette.

This ____ day of ____ 19____





The exclusive right, subject to the provisions of the said Proclamation,
and of the rules and regulations made thereunder, for one year from the
____ day of ____ is hereby granted to A. B. [_here insert name, address,
and description of licensee_] to prospect for minerals [_or as the case
may be_] within the following limits [_here insert boundaries of area_]
as the same are delineated on the map attached hereto and coloured.

This ____ day of ____ 19____





[_Insert nature of lease._ See s. 17.]

This lease is granted to ____ of ____ for mining purposes upon or under
[_here describe area with boundaries_] as the same is delineated on the
map attached hereto for the period of ____ years from the date hereof
according to the true intent and meaning of the said Proclamation and
subject to the provisions of the said Proclamation or of any Proclamation
amending, altering, or repealing the same, and to all such rules and
regulations as may from time to time be made under such Proclamation or

Dated this ____ day of ____ 19 ____





Whereas under the provisions of the above-mentioned Proclamation a lease
for mining purposes upon or under [_here describe area with boundaries,
&c., as in original lease_] was on the ____day of ____ 19____, granted
to ____ of ____ for a term of ____ years from the date thereof, and
duly registered in Vol. ____ page ____ of the register of instruments
affecting land. Now these presents witness that in consideration of the
sum of ____ the said ____ [_lessee_] doth hereby assign to ____of ____
all his right title and interest in and under the said lease as from the
____ day of ____ for the remainder of the term thereof.

In witness, &c.



[Illustration: 3 LAGOS]

[Illustration: 4 LAGOS. AMONGST THE PALMS]



[Illustration: 7 LAGOS]


[Illustration: 9 STEAM TRAM, MARINA, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 10 LAGOS]


[Illustration: 12 PART OF MARINA, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 13 THE MARINA, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 14 CLUB-HOUSE, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 15 POST OFFICE, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 16 GOVERNMENT HOUSE, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 17 PUBLIC WASH “HOUSES,” LAGOS]


[Illustration: 19 RAILWAY, IDDO]


[Illustration: 21 FRUIT MARKET, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 22 CORNER OF MARKET, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 23 IDDO STATION, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 24 RAILWAY ENGINE, IDDO]

[Illustration: 25 FULANI SHEEP, LAGOS]

[Illustration: 26 BULLOCK CART]


[Illustration: 28 “SIR ALFRED” DRY DOCK, FORCADOS]






[Illustration: 34 BURUTU MARKET]


[Illustration: 36 PALM OIL STORES, BURUTU]

[Illustration: 37 HOSPITAL, BURUTU]





[Illustration: 42 JAKRIE WOMAN, BURUTU]









[Illustration: 51 THE “SPIDER” AT ITU]




[Illustration: 55 LOWER NIGER]

[Illustration: 56 LOWER NIGER]




[Illustration: 60 IDAH, RIVER NIGER]







[Illustration: 67 “BOYS” WHO WORK THE CARGO]



[Illustration: 70 PRODUCE STORES, LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 71 LOKOJA MARKET]

[Illustration: 72 LOKOJA MARKET]

[Illustration: 73 LOKOJA MARKET]

[Illustration: 74 LOKOJA MARKET]

[Illustration: 75 YAMS ON THE BEACH, LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 76 AT THE RIVER-SIDE, LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 77 LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 78 LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 79 MARINE BUNGALOW, LOKOJA]


[Illustration: 81 CANTEEN AT LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 82 BANK, LOKOJA]


[Illustration: 84 DEVIL MAN, LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 85 LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 86 LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 87 CAMP ROAD, LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 88 CAMP ROAD, LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 89 BARRACKS, LOKOJA]


[Illustration: 91 MEAT-MARKET. LOKOJA]





[Illustration: 96 LOKOJA]

[Illustration: 97 BRIDGE OF SIGHS, LOKOJA]



[Illustration: 100 BARBERS, LOKOJA MARKET]

[Illustration: 101 NATIVE BARBER]


[Illustration: 103 CHILDREN AT PLAY, LOKOJA]


[Illustration: 105 WASHING UP, RIVER NIGER]

[Illustration: 106 A QUARREL, LOKOJA MARKET]





[Illustration: 111 S.W. “NDONI” (CARGO BOAT) ON THE RIVER NIGER]



[Illustration: 114 HAUSA CANOE]


[Illustration: 116 NUPE TOWN OF EGGA ON THE NIGER]

[Illustration: 117 EGGA, NORTHERN NIGERIA]



[Illustration: 120 UNLOADING SALT, JEBBA]

[Illustration: 121 LOADING STEAMER, JEBBA]

[Illustration: 122 THE “S.S. SCARBOROUGH” AT JEBBA]





B.C.G.A. have a ginnery here]


[Illustration: 128 ON THE BENUE RIVER]

[Illustration: 129 CAMPING ON BENUE RIVER]

[Illustration: 130 MARKET AT LAMUGO, NEAR KEFFI]


[Illustration: 132 MAKING LAMA MATS]

[Illustration: 133 MAKING STOOLS]

[Illustration: 134 GRINDING GUINEA CORN]

[Illustration: 135 JUKUMS AT ABINSI]

[Illustration: 136 THE EMIR OF KANO

(Now a prisoner in Lokoja. Was the cause of the Kano rising in 1907)]


[Illustration: 138 CATTLE, NEAR NAFADA]

[Illustration: 139 CAMELS AT NAFADA]


[Illustration: 141 CHIEF OF KANAM]

[Illustration: 142 HEAD MEN IN VOM]


[Illustration: 144 CHIEF OF WASE]

[Illustration: 145 CAMPS IN HOS]

[Illustration: 146 HAUSA LOOM]

[Illustration: 147 SECOND CHIEF AT IBI]

[Illustration: 148 WASE ROCK]

[Illustration: 149 AMO MEN]

[Illustration: 150 HAUSA GIRL]

[Illustration: 151 KABBA BOY]

[Illustration: 152 HAUSA WOMAN]

[Illustration: 153 HAUSA BOY]


[Illustration: 155 VIEW ON THE RIVER NIGER]


[Illustration: 157 SIR WILLIAM WALLACE, K.C.M.G]

[Illustration: 158 MR. S. R. BASTARD

(Chairman Champion Gold Reefs of West Africa, Ltd., and other important
Nigerian Companies)]



[Illustration: 161 NARAGUTA CAMP]


[Illustration: 163 SURVEYING PARTY AT JUGA]




(We were fighting them a year before)]




[Illustration: 170 A CAMP. SURVEY CAMP AT JOS]




[Illustration: 174 NARAGUTA. MAKING DAM]



[Illustration: 177 NARAGUTA DAM]

[Illustration: 178 NARAGUTA]

[Illustration: 179 NARAGUTA]

[Illustration: 180 NARAGUTA]


[Illustration: 182 NARAGUTA]



[Illustration: 185 NARAGUTA. TWO SLUICE-BOXES]

[Illustration: 186 NARAGUTA]

[Illustration: 187 NARAGUTA]

[Illustration: 188 NARAGUTA CAMP]







[Illustration: 195 DELIMI RIVER]



[Illustration: 198 NARAGUTA]

[Illustration: 199 A CAMP]


[Illustration: 201 TIN WASHING]








The Juga River runs down the centre and passes to the Nafuta Flats]

[Illustration: 209 NAFUTA GORGE

The river at this point is lost to sight thirty feet below the big
boulders in the middle of the ravine]

[Illustration: 210 PROPOSED DAM SITE, JUGA]


[Illustration: 212 MR. C. G. LUSH’S CAMP AT JUGA]




[Illustration: 216 JUGA CAMP: PAY-DAY]

[Illustration: 217 RAFINSIROMA CAMP]



[Illustration: 220 A GROUP OF NATIVES]

[Illustration: 221 VIEW IN AMO]

[Illustration: 222 A VIEW IN VOM]

[Illustration: 223 MR. G. W. CHRISTIAN

A Nigerian Trader]


[Illustration: 225 BARO RAILWAY YARD]









[Illustration: 234 MR. H. W. LAWS

Engineer to the Niger Company]

[Illustration: 235 MAP OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA]

[Illustration: 236 MAP OF NORTHERN NIGERIA]








Belonging to the Lucky Chance Mines, Limited]


Belonging to the Lucky Chance Mines, Limited]


Belonging to the Lucky Chance Mines, Limited]


Belonging to the Lucky Chance Mines, Limited]


Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria, Limited]

[Illustration: 248 DOSS OR DILA TIN PROPERTY

Tin Fields of Northern Nigeria, Limited]



[Illustration: 251 REIN ALLUVIAL TIN AREA

Rein River (Nigeria), Tin Mining Co.]

[Illustration: 252 FARUM ALLUVIAL TIN AREA]

[Illustration: 253 SHEN ALLUVIAL TIN AREA]


[Illustration: 255 JUGA DISTRICT]

[Illustration: 256 GEL TIN LODE AND ALLUVIAL CO. LTD.]





Gold and Tin Centrifugal Pump Sluicing Plants.


_Complete Equipments supplied by the_




       *       *       *       *       *

Cable Address—“Pass Bristol.”

Codes—Lieber’s & A.B.C.




Buyers of Tin Ores and Residues.

_Please send Samples or Analyses._

       *       *       *       *       *



=_West African Merchants_,=



Chief Branches in Southern and Northern Nigeria at =Lagos, Warri,
Onitsha, Lokoja, Baro, Ibi,= &c. &c.


=Canteen Lists supplied upon application.=

_Large Assortment of Goods of all kinds suitable for European as well as
Native Trade kept in Stock._


By our River Steamers we undertake the carrying up and down River
of goods of every description as well as Tin Ore, and all kinds of
Produce, attending to the necessary receiving, storing, and transhipping
work connected therewith at reasonable rates of freight and charges.
Passengers also carried.

       *       *       *       *       *



are Buyers of


for their own Smelting Works at



for the


       *       *       *       *       *

SIEGFRIED PELS, HAMBURG, 26/28, Neuerwall.


is open to buy


_Correspondence and Consignments Solicited._

Telegraphic Address:—“SIEGPELS, HAMBURG.”

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: MARSHALL, SONS & CO., LTD.,



    Portable Engines for all kinds of Fuel.
    Long Stroke Engines (Condensing and Non-condensing).
    Quick Speed Horizontal Engines.
    Vertical Engines.
    Special Engines and Boilers for Oil Well Drilling.
    Britannia Boilers for Colonial use.

_Works cover 33 acres, employing over 4800 men._

Over 140,000 Engines, Boilers, &c., made and supplied.

_Catalogues free on application._]

       *       *       *       *       *

Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power Company, Ltd.

=CAPITAL £275,000.=

Divided into 275,000 Shares of £1 each.


    RT. HON. SIR J. WEST RIDGEWAY (_Chairman_).




Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *


=CAPITAL £75,000.=

Divided into 300,000 Shares of 5s. each.


    S. R. BASTARD (_Chairman_).
    F. N. BEST.




Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Rein River (Nigeria) Tin Mining Company, Limited.

=CAPITAL £76,000.=

Divided into 270,000 Ordinary Shares of 5s. each, and 170,000 Deferred
Shares of 1s. each.


    S. R. BASTARD (_Chairman_).
    C. G. LUSH, M.E.
    JULIUS L. F. VOGEL, M.I.E.E., M.I.M.M.

Consulting Engineer.

    C. G. LUSH, M.E.


Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Champion Gold Reefs of West Africa, Limited.

=CAPITAL £50,000.=

Divided into 200,000 Shares of 5s. each.


    S. R. BASTARD (_Chairman_).
    F. N. BEST.




Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *


=CAPITAL £175,000.=

Divided into 175,000 Shares of £1 each.


    F. A. BEST.
    H. C. GODFRAY.

_Consulting Engineer._

    C. G. LUSH.




Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *


=CAPITAL £100,000.=

Divided into 100,000 Shares of £1 each.


    S. R. BASTARD.
    F. N. BEST.

_Consulting Engineer._

    C. G. LUSH.




Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Cable Addresses_: “IVORY,” Liverpool; “CHRISTIAN,” Onitsha; “CHRISTIAN,”
Forcados; “CHRISTIAN,” Lokoja.


_African Merchants_,



Shippers of High-class Provisions, Cottons, Clothing, Silks, Hardware,
Spirits, Salt, and all kinds of Goods suitable for the West African

Our Principal having had Twenty-four Years’ personal experience in
various parts of West Africa, we have the knowledge of the Special Goods
required for the various ports. We are prepared to Execute Indents by
return for all classes of goods when accompanied by remittances either in
Produce, Cash, or approved Bills of Exchange.

Produce Sold on Commission. Absolute satisfaction assured. All Produce
held covered under our Marine Policies. Proceeds of Sale dealt with
according to instructions.

Travellers to the Tin Mines desiring Provisions or Kit, should call at
our Forcados, Onitsha, Idah, and Lokoja Depots.

_Camp Equipments, Chop Boxes, &c., may also be obtained from our
Liverpool Headquarters._


       *       *       *       *       *


_has been established for the purpose of dealing in Alluvial Tin
Properties in Northern Nigeria_.


_in addition to being in a position to acquire and work properties
itself has been requested by several prominent financiers and Companies
to acquire properties on their behalf. Owners and Concessionaires are
invited to communicate with_



Telegraphic Address—“SPINIFEX, LONDON.”

       *       *       *       *       *



Published and Sold by EDWARD STANFORD


    London Atlas Map of West Africa, showing the British
    Possessions. Scale 94 miles to an inch. In sheet, =3s.=;
    mounted to fold in case, =5s.=

=SOUTHERN NIGERIA—Central and Eastern Provinces.=

    Compiled under the authority of H. E. Sir WALTER EGERTON,
    K.C.M.G., by Captain W. H. BEVERLEY, Intelligence Officer,
    Southern Nigeria. Showing roads, native paths, provincial
    and district headquarters, courts and rest-houses, customs,
    factories, postal and telegraph offices, mission stations, &c.
    Scale, 1:500,000 (8 miles to an inch). Two sheets, size 56 by
    34 inches. Prices: Coloured sheets, =20s.=; mounted to fold in
    case, =30s.=

    Enlarged edition of the above map, in black only. Scale,
    1:253,440 (4 miles to an inch). Ten sheets, each 30 by 22
    inches, =2s.= each.


    Compiled in the Geographical Section, General Staff. Scale,
    1:1,000,000 (16 miles to an inch). In one sheet, =3s.=; or
    mounted to fold in case, =6s. 6d.=

    An edition of this map can also be supplied with Districts and
    District headquarters clearly indicated in red.


    Compiled by the Geographical Section, General Staff. Scale,
    1:2,000,000 (32 miles to an inch). In one sheet, =2s.=; mounted
    to fold in case, =4s. 6d.=


    Compiled in the Geographical Section, General Staff.
    Provincial, district, and tribal names in colour. Scale,
    1:2,000,000 (32 miles to an inch). In one sheet, =3s.=; mounted
    to fold in case, =5s. 6d.=

    An edition of this map orographically coloured can also be
    supplied at the same prices.

=NORTHERN NIGERIA, Political Map of.=

    Compiled at Intelligence Office, Zungeru. Scale, 1:2,000,000
    (about 32 miles to an inch). In one sheet, =2s. 6d.=; mounted
    to fold in case, =4s. 6d.=


    Compiled in the Geographical Section, General Staff. Scale
    1:1,000,000 (16 miles to an inch). In 2 sheets, mounted to fold
    in cloth case, =8s. 6d.=


    1:125,000 (2 miles to 1 inch). Published under the direction of
    Major F. G. GUGGISBERG, R.E., F.R.G.S., Director of Surveys,
    Gold Coast. Complete in 34 sheets, each 22 by 30 inches, =2s.=
    each; complete set, mounted in cases, =130s.= The particular
    district required should be specified. Index on application.

_Stanford’s Catalogue of Maps, Atlases, and Books, New Edition (1910),
gratis on application_

                         LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD
                      12, 13, & 14, LONG ACRE, W.C.
                   Cartographer to His Majesty the King



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